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" When 'all the lesser tumults, and lesser men of our age, 
shall have passed away into the darkness oj oblivion, 
history will still inscribe one mighty era with the majestic 
name of Napoleon." LOCKHART (in Lang's " Life and 
Letters of J. G. Lockhart," 1897, vol. i. 170). 











Printed by BALLANTTNE, HANSON tS* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 


I HAVE no apology to offer for the subject of this book, in view 
of Lord Rosebery's testimony that, until recently, we knew 
nothing about Napoleon, and even now " prefer to drink at any 
other source than the original." 

" Study of Napoleon's utterances, apart from any attempt to 
discover the secret of his prodigious exploits, cannot be con- 
sidered as lost time." It is then absolutely necessary that we 
should, in the words of an eminent but unsympathetic divine, 
know something of the "domestic side of the monster," first 
hand from his own correspondence, confirmed or corrected by 
contemporaries. There is no master mind that we can less afford 
to be ignorant of. To know more of the doings of Pericles and 
Aspasia, of the two Caesars and the Serpent of old Nile, of Mary 
Stuart and Rizzio, of the Green Faction and the Blue, of Orsini 
and Colonna, than of the Bonapartes and Beauharnais, is worthy 
of a student of folklore rather than of history. 

Napoleon was not only a King of Kings, he was a King of 
Words and of Facts, which " are the sons of heaven, while words 
are the daughters of earth," and whose progeny, the Genii of the 
Code, still dominates Christendom. 1 In the hurly-burly of the 
French War, on the chilling morrow of its balance-sheet, in the 
Janus alliance of the Second Empire, we could not get rid of the 
nightmare of the Great Shadow. Most modern works on the 
Napoleonic period (Lord Rosebery's " Last Phase " being a 
brilliant exception) seem to be (i) too long, (2) too little con- 
fined to contemporary sources. The first fault, especially if 
merely discursive enthusiasm, is excusable, the latter pernicious, 

1 See infra. Napoleon's Heritage, p. xxiv., Introduction. 


for, as Dr. Johnson says of Robertson, "You are sure he does 
not know the people whom he paints, so you cannot suppose 
a likeness. Characters should never be given by a historian 
unless he knew the people whom he describes, or copies from those 
who knew him" 

Now, if ever, we must fix and crystallise the life-work of 
Napoleon for posterity, for " when an opinion has once become 
popular, very few are willing to oppose it. Idleness is more 
willing to credit than inquire . . . and he that writes merely 
for sale is tempted to court purchasers by flattering the preju- 
dices of the public." x We have accumulated practically all the 
evidence, and are not yet so remote from the aspirations and 
springs of action of a century ago as to be out of touch with 
them. The Vaccination and Education questions are still before 
us ; so is the cure of croup and the composition of electricity. 
We have special reasons for sympathy with the first failures of 
Fulton, and can appreciate Napoleon's primitive but effective 
expedients for modern telegraphy and transport, which were as 
far in advance of his era as his nephew's ignorance of railway 
warfare in 1870 was behind it. We must admire The Man 2 
who found within the fields of France the command of the 
Tropics, and who needed nothing but time to prosper Corsican 
cotton and Solingen steel. The man's words and deeds are still 
vigorous and alive ; in another generation many of them will be 
dead as Marley " dead as a door-nail." Let us then each to his 
task, and each try, as best he may, to weigh in honest scales the 
modern Hannibal "our last great man," 3 "the mightiest genius 
of two thousand years." 4 

H. F. HALL. 

1 Dr. Johnson (Gentleman's Magazine, 1760), in defence of Mary Stuart. 

2 L'Homme, so spoken of during the Empire, outside military circles. 
5 Carlyle. 4 Napier. 


Difficulties of translation Napoleon as lexicographer and bookworm Historic 
value of his Bulletins A few aspects of Napoleon's character " Approfon- 
dissez ! " The need of a Creator The influence of sea power England's 
future rival Napoleon as average adjuster His use of Freemasonry Of the 
Catholics and of the Jews His neglect of women in politics Josephine a 
failure His incessant work, "which knew no rest save change of occupa- 
tion " His attachment to early friendships The Bonaparte family His 
influence on literary men Conversations with Wieland and Miiller Verdict 
of a British tar The character of Josephine Sources of the Letters The 
Tennant Collection The Didot Collection Archibald Constable and Sir 
Walter Scott Correspondence of Napoleon I. Report of the Commission 
Contemporary sources The Diary Napoleon's heritage. 

NAPOLEON is by no means an easy writer to translate adequately. 
He had always a terse, concise mode of speaking, and this, with 
the constant habit of dictating, became accentuated. Whenever 
he could use a short, compact word he did so. The greatest temp- 
tation has been to render his very modern ideas by modern collo- 
quialisms. Occasionally, where Murray's Dictionary proves that 
the word was in vogue a century ago, we have used a some- 
what rarer word than Napoleon's equivalent, as e.g. "coolth," 
in Letter No. 6, Series B (pendant le frais\ in order to preserve 
as far as possible the brevity and crispness of the original. 
Napoleon's vocabulary was not specially wide, but always 
exact. In expletive it was extensive and peculiar. Judging 
his brother by himself, he did not consider Lucien sufficient of 
a purist in French literature to write epics ; and the same 
remark would have been partly true of the Emperor, who, 


however, was always at considerable pains to verity any word of 
which he did not know the exact meaning. 1 His own appetite 
for literature was enormous, especially during the year's garrison 
life he spent at Valence, where he read and re-read the contents 
of a bouquiniste' s shop, and, what is more, remembered them, so 
much so that, nearly a quarter of a century later, he was able to 
correct the dates of ecclesiastical experts at Erfurt. Whatever 
he says or whatever he writes, one always finds a specific gravity 
of stark, staring facts altogether abnormal. For generations it 
was the fashion to consider " as false as a bulletin " peculiar to 
Napoleon's despatches ; but the publication of Napoleon's corre- 
spondence, by order of Napoleon III., has changed all that. In 
the first place, as to dates. Not only have Haydn, Woodward 
and Gates, and the Encyclopaedia Britannica made mistakes during 
this period, but even the Biographie Universelle (usually so careful) 
is not immaculate. Secondly, with regard to the descriptions of 
the battles. We have never found one that in accuracy and 
truthfulness would not compare to conspicuous advantage with 
some of those with which we were only too familiar in December 
1899. Napoleon was sometimes 1200 miles away from home; 
he had to gauge the effect of his bulletins from one end to the 
other of the largest effective empire that the world has ever seen, 
and, like Dr. Johnson in Fleet Street reporting Parliamentary 
debates (but with a hundred times more reason), he was deter- 
mined not to let the other dogs have the best of it. The notes 
on the battles of Eylau (Series H) and Essling (Series L), the two 
most conspicuous examples of where it was necessary to colour 

1 Sometimes he is perhaps more to be trusted than the leading lexicographer, 
as for example when, the day after Wagram, he writes his Minister of War that 
the coup dejarnac will come from the English in Spain. Now, when the Jarnac 
in question was slain in fair fight by La Chateignerie by a blow au jarrel, it was 
an unexpected blow, but not surely, as Littre tells us, manauvre perfide, dtlc-yale. 
Nothing was too disloyal for perfidious Albion, but for 30,000 English to out- 
manoeuvre three marshals and 100,000 French veterans would be, and was, the 
unexpected which happened at Talavera three weeks later. 


the bulletins, will show what is meant. Carlyle was the first to 
point out that his despatches are as instinct with genius as his 
conquests his very words have "Austerlitz battles" in them. 
The reference to "General Danube," in 1809, as the best general 
the Austrians had, was one of those flashes of inspiration which 
military writers, from Napoleon to Lord Wolseley, have shown 
to be a determining factor in every doubtful fray. 

" Approfondissez go to the bottom of things," wrote Lord 
Chesterfield ; and this might have been the life-motto of the 
Emperor. But to adopt this fundamental common-sense with 
regard to the character of Napoleon is almost impossible ; it is, to 
use the metaphor of Lord Rosebery, like trying to span a moun- 
tain with a tape. We can but indicate a few leading features. 
In the first place, he had, like the great Stagirite, an eye at once 
telescopic and microscopic. Beyond the mtcanique clleste, be- 
yond the nebulous reign of chaos and old night, his ken pierced 
the primal truth the need of a Creator : " not every one can be 
an atheist who wishes it." No man saw deeper into the causes 
of things. The influence of sea power on history, to take one 
example, was never absent from his thoughts. Slowly and labori- 
ously he built and rebuilt his fleets, only to fall into the hands of his 
" Punic " rival. Beaten at sea, he has but two weapons left against 
England to " conquer her by land," or to stir up a maritime 
rival who will sooner or later avenge him. We have the Emperor 
Alexander's testimony from the merchants of Manchester, Bir- 
mingham, and Liverpool how nearly his Continental System had 
ruined us. The rival raised up beyond the western waves by the 
astute sale of Louisiana is still growing. In less than a decade 
Napoleon had afirst crumb of comfort (when such crumbswere rare) 
in hearing of the victories of the Constitution over British frigates. 

As for his microscopic eye, we know of nothing like it in all 
history. In focussing the facets, we seem to shadow out the 
main secret of his success his ceaseless survey of all sorts and 


conditions of knowledge. " Never despise local information," he 
wrote Murat, who was at Naples, little anticipating the extremes 
of good and evil fortune which awaited him there. Another 
characteristic one in which he surpassed alike the theory of 
Macchiavelli and the practice of the Medici was his use of la 
bascule, with himself as equilibrist or average adjuster, as the only 
safe principle of government. Opinions on the whole l lean to 
the idea that, up to the First Consulate, Napoleon was an active 
Freemason, at a time when politics were permitted, and when the 
Grand Orient, having initiated Voltaire almost on his deathbed, 
and having been submerged by the Terror, was beginning to 
show new life. In any case, we have in O'Meara the Emperor's 
statement (and this is rather against the theory of Napoleon 
being more than his brother Joseph, a mere patron of the craft) 
that he encouraged the brotherhood. Cambaceres had more 
Masonic degrees than probably any man before or since, and no 
man was so long and so consistently trusted by Napoleon, with 
one short and significant exception. Then there was the gen- 
darmerie (TeUte, then the ordinary police, the myrmidons of 
Fouche of Nantes in fact, if we take Lord Rosebery literally, 
Napoleon had " half-a-dozen police agencies of his own." There 
was also Talleyrand and, during the Concordats, the whole priest- 
craft of Christendom as enlisting sergeants and spies extraordinary 
for the Emperor. Finally, when he wishes to attack Russia, he 
convokes a Sanhedrim at Paris, and wins the active sympathies of 
Israel. " He was his own War Office, his own Foreign Office, his 
own Admiralty." 2 His weak spot was his neglect of woman as 
a political factor ; this department he left to Josephine, who was a 
failure. She gained popularity, but no converts. The Faubourg 
St. Germain mistrusted a woman whose chief friend was the wife 
of Thermidorian Tallien Notre Dame de Septembre. In vain 

1 Findel's History of Framasonty. 

2 Lord Rosebery. 


Napoleon raged and stormed about the Tallien friendship, till his 
final mandate in 1806 ; and then it was too late. 

Another characteristic, very marked in these Home Letters, 
is the desire not to give his wife anxiety. His ailments and his 
difficulties are always minimised. 

Perhaps no man ever worked so hard physically and mentally 
as Napoleon from 1796 to 1814. Lord Rosebery reminds us that 
" he would post from Poland to Paris, summon a council at once, 
and preside over it with his usual vigour and acuteness." And 
his councils were no joke ; they would last eight or ten hours. 
Once, at two o'clock in the morning, the councillors were all 
worn-out ; the Minister of Marine was fast asleep. Napoleon 
still urged them to further deliberation : " Come, gentlemen, pull 
yourselves together ; it is only two o'clock, we must earn the 
money that the nation gives us." The Commission who first 
sifted the Correspondence may well speak of the ceaseless workings 
of that mind, which knew no rest save change of occupation, and of 
" that universal intelligence from which nothing escaped." The 
chief fault in Napoleon as a statesman was intrinsically a virtue, 
viz., his good nature. There was, as Sir Walter Scott has said, 
" gentleness and even softness in his character. It was his 
common and expressive phrase that the heart of a politician 
should be in his head ; but his feelings sometimes surprised him 
in a gentler mood." 

To be a relation of his own or his wife's, to have been a 
friend in his time of stress, was to have a claim on Napoleon's 
support which no subsequent treachery to himself could efface. 
From the days of his new power political power, first the Con- 
sulate and then the Empire he lavished gifts and favours even 
on the most undeserving of his early comrades. Fouche, Talleyrand, 
Bernadotte were forgiven once, twice, and again, to his own final 
ruin. Like Medea, one of whose other exploits he had evoked in 
a bulletin, he could say but to his honour and not to his shame 


" Si possem, sanior essem. 

Sed trahit invitam nova vis ; aliudque Cupido, , 

Mens aliud suadet. Video meliora, proboque 
Deteriora sequor." 

Treachery and peculation against the State was different, as 
Moreau, Bourrienne, and even Massena and Murat discovered. 

As for his family, they were a flabby and somewhat sensual 
lot, with the exception of Lucien, who was sufficiently capable 
to be hopelessly impracticable. He was, however, infinitely more 
competent than the effeminate Joseph and the melancholy Louis, 
and seems to have had more command of parliamentary oratory 
than Napoleon himself. 

Napoleon's influence on literary men may be gauged by what 
Wieland l and Mtiller 2 reported of their interview with him at 
Erfurt. That with Wieland took place at the ball which followed 
the entertainment on the field of Jena. " I was presented," he 
says, " by the Duchess of Weimar, with the usual ceremonies ; 
he then paid me some compliments in an affable tone, and looked 
steadfastly at me. Few men have appeared to me to possess, in 
the same degree, the art of reading at the first glance the thoughts 
of other men. He saw, in an instant, that notwithstanding my 
celebrity I was simple in my manners and void of pretension ; 
and, as he seemed desirous of making a favourable impression on 
me, he assumed the tone most likely to attain his end. I have 
never beheld any one more calm, more simple, more mild, or less 
ostentatious in appearance ; nothing about him indicated the feel- 
ing of power in a great monarch ; he spoke to me as an old 
acquaintance would speak to an equal ; and what was more 
extraordinary on his part, he conversed with me exclusively for 
an hour and a half, to the great surprise of the whole assembly." 

1 This versatile writer, the author of Oberon, the translator of Lucian and 
Shakespeare, and the founder of psychological romance in Germany, was then in 
his seventy-fifth year. 

2 The historian (1755-1809), " the Thucydides of Switzerland." 


Wieland has related part of their conversation, which is, as it 
could not fail to be, highly interesting. They touched on a 
variety of subjects ; among others, the ancients. Napoleon de- 
clared his preference of the Romans to the Greeks. " The eternal 
squabbles of their petty republics," he said, " were not calculated 
to give birth to anything grand ; whereas the Romans were 
always occupied with great things, and it was owing to this they 
raised up the Colossus which bestrode the world." This prefer- 
ence was characteristic ; the following is anomalous : " He pre- 
ferred Ossian to Homer."" " He was fond only of serious poetry," 
continues Wieland ; " the pathetic and vigorous writers ; and, 
above all, the tragic poets. He appeared to have no relish for 
anything gay ; and in spite of the prepossessing amenity of his 
manners, an observation struck me often, he seemed to be of 
bronze. Nevertheless, he had put me so much at my ease that 
I ventured to ask how it was that the public worship he had 
restored in France was not more philosophical and in harmony 
with the spirit of the times ? ' My dear Wieland,' he replied, 
* religion is not meant for philosophers ; they have no faith either 
in me or my priests. As to those who do believe, it would be 
difficult to give them or to leave them too much of the marvel- 
lous. If I had to frame a religion for philosophers, it would be 
just the reverse of that of the credulous part of mankind.' " l 

Milller, the celebrated Swiss historian, who had a private 
interview with Napoleon at this period, has left a still fuller 
account of the impression he received. " The Emperor 2 began 
to speak," says Miiller, " of the history of Switzerland, told me 
that I ought to complete it, that even the more recent times had 
their interest. He proceeded from the Swiss to the old Greek 
constitutions and history ; to the theory of constitutions ; to the 
complete diversity of those of Asia, and the causes of this diver- 
sity in the climate, polygamy, &c.; the opposite characters of the 

1 Home's History of Napoleon ( 1 841). 2 Ibid. 


Arabian and the Tartar races ; the peculiar value of European 
culture, and the progress of freedom since the sixteenth century ; 
how everything was linked together, and in the inscrutable guid- 
ance of an invisible hand ; how he himself had become great 
through his enemies ; the great confederation of nations, the idea 
of which Henry IV. had ; the foundation of all religion, and its 
necessity ; that man could not bear clear truth, and required to 
be kept in order ; admitting the possibility, however, of a more 
happy condition if the numerous feuds ceased, which were occa- 
sioned by too complicated constitutions (such as the German), 
and the intolerable burden suffered by states from excessive 
armies." These opinions clearly mark the guiding motives of 
Napoleon's attempts to enforce upon different nations uniformity 
of institutions and customs. " I opposed him occasionally," says 
Mttller, " and he entered into discussion. Quite impartially and 
truly, as before God, I must say that the variety of his knowledge, 
the acuteness of his observations, the solidity of his understanding 
(not dazzling wit), his grand and comprehensive views, filled me 
with astonishment, and his manner of speaking to me, with love 
for him. By his genius and his disinterested goodness, he has 
also conquered me." Slowly but surely they are conquering the 
world. Of his goodness we have the well-weighed verdict of 
Lord Acton, that it was " the most splendid that has appeared on 
earth." Of his goodness, we may at least concur in the opinion 
of the old British tar at Elba, quoted by Sir Walter, and evidently 
his own view, that " Boney was a d d good fellow after all." 

With regard to the character of Josephine opinions still differ 
about every quality but one. Like the friend of Goldsmith's 

mad dog 

" A kind and gentle heart she had 
To comfort friends and foes :" 

either her brother Mason Cambace'res, or her brother Catholic 
and unbrotherly brother-in-law Lucien. 


From early days she had learnt " how to flirt and how to fib." 
Morality was at a low ebb during the French Revolution, when 
women often saved their necks at the expense of their bodies, and 
there is unfortunately no doubt that Josephine was no exception. 
It is certain, however, from his first letters to Josephine, that 
Napoleon knew nothing of this at the time of his honeymoon 
(solus) in Italy. Gradually, but very unwillingly, his eyes were 
opened, and by the time he had reached Egypt he felt himself 
absolved from the absolute faithfulness he had hitherto preserved 
towards his wife. On his return Josephine becomes once more 
his consort, and even his friend never again his only love. Jose- 
phine's main characteristic henceforward is to make everybody 
happy and comfortable in spite of Napoleon's grumblings at her 
reckless prodigality ; never to say No ! (except to her husband's 
accusations) suits her Creole disposition best, especially as it costs 
her no active exertion, and the Emperor pays for all. And so, 
having been in turn Our Lady of Victories and Saint Mary the 
Egyptian, she becomes from her coronation to her death-day 
"The Mother of the Poor." 

THE SOURCES OF THE LETTERS. These may be divided into 
three parts (ist) the Early Love-Letters of 1796; (2nd) the 
Collection published by Didot Freres in 1833 ; and (3rd) the 
few scattered Letters gathered from various outside sources. 

(ist) With regard to the Early Love-Letters of 1796, these 
are found most complete in a work published by Longmans in 
1824, in two volumes, with the title, "A Tour through Parts of 
the Netherlands, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Savoy, and 
France, in the year 1821-2, by Charles Tennant, Esq.; also 
containing in an Appendix Fac-simile Copies of Eight Letters in 
the handwriting of Napoleon Bonaparte to his wife Josephine." 

The author introduces them with an interesting preface, 
which shows that then, as now, the interest in everything con- 
nected with Napoleon was unabated : 


" Long after this fleeting book shall have passed away, and 
with its author shall have been forgotten, these documents will 
remain ; for here, perhaps, is to be found the purest source of 
information which exists, touching the private character of 
Napoleon Bonaparte, known, probably, but to the few whose 
situations have enabled them to observe that extraordinary man 
in the undisguised relations of domestic life. Although much 
already has been said and written of him, yet the eagerness with 
which every little anecdote and incident of his life is sought for 
shows the interest which still attaches to his name, and these, no 
doubt, will be bequests which posterity will duly estimate. From 
these it will be the province of future historians to cull and select 
simple and authenticated facts, and from these only can be drawn 
a true picture of the man whose fame has already extended into 
every distant region of the habitable globe. 

"I will now proceed to relate the means by which I am 
enabled to introduce into this journal fac-simile copies of eight 
letters in the handwriting of Napoleon Bonaparte, the originals 
of which are in my possession. Had these been of a political 
nature, much as I should prize any relics of such a man, yet they 
would not have appeared in a book from which I have studiously 
excluded all controversial topics, and more especially those of a 
political character. Neither should I have ventured upon their 
publication if there were a possibility that by so doing I might 
wound the feelings of any human being. Death has closed the 
cares of the individuals connected with these letters. Like the 
memorials of Alexander the Great or of Charlemagne, they are 
the property of the possessor, and through him of the public ; 
but not like ancient documents, dependent upon legendary 
evidence for their identity and truth. 

"These have passed to me through two hands only, since 
they came into possession of the Empress Josephine, to whom 


they are written by their illustrious author. One of the indi- 
viduals here alluded to, and from whom I received these letters, 
is a Polish nobleman, who attached himself and his fortunes to 
Bonaparte, whose confidence he enjoyed in several important 
diplomatic negotiations." 

This book and these letters were known to Sir Walter Scott, 
who made use of some of them in his History of Napoleon. M. 
Aubenas, in his Histoire de rimperatrice Josephine, published in 
1857, which has been lavishly made use of in a recent work on 
the same subject, seems to have known, at any rate, four of these 
letters, which were communicated to him by M. le Baron Feuillet 
de Conches. Monsieur Aubenas seems never to have seen the 
Tennant Collection, of which these undoubtedly form part, but 
as Baron Feuillet de Conches was an expert in deciphering 
Bonaparte's extraordinary caligraphy, these letters are very useful 
for reference in helping us to translate some phrases which had 
been given up as illegible by Mr. Tennant and Sir Walter Scott. 

(2nd) The Collection Didot. This enormously valuable col- 
lection forms by far the greater part of the Letters that we 
possess of Napoleon to his wife. They are undoubtedly authentic, 
and have been utilised largely by Aubenas, St. Amand, Masson, 
and the Correspondance de Napoleon I. They were edited by 
Madame Salvage de Faverolles. As is well known, Sir Walter 
Scott was very anxious to obtain possession of these letters for 
his Life of Napoleon, and his visit to Paris was partly on this 
account. In Archibald Constable and his Literary Correspondents, 
edited in 1873 by his son, we find the following : 


"August 30, 1825. 

"I have had various conversations with Mr. Thomson on 
the subject of Napoleon's correspondence with Josephine. Mr. 
Thomson communicated with Count Flahault for me in the 



view of its being published, and whether the letters could not, in 
the meantime, be rendered accessible. The publication, it seems, 
under any circumstances, is by no means determined on, but 
should they be given, the price expected is five thousand guineas, 
which I should imagine greatly too much. I have an enumera- 
tion of the letters, from whence written, &c. I shall subjoin a 
copy of it." 

When they were finally published in 1833, they seem to have 
been stimulated into existence by publication of the Memorial de 
Saint-Helene, better known in England as Las Cases. Doubtless 
Hortense only allowed such letters to be published as would not 
injure the reputation of her mother or her relations. In the 
Preface it is stated : " We think that these letters will afford an 
interest as important as delightful. Everything that comes from 
Napoleon, and everything that appertains to him, will always 
excite the lively attention of contemporaries and posterity. If 
the lofty meditation of philosophy concerns itself only with the 
general influence of great men upon their own generation and 
future ones, a curiosity of another nature, and not less greedy, 
loves to penetrate into the inmost recesses of their soul, in order to 
elicit their most secret inclinations. It likes to learn what has 
been left of the man, amid the preoccupations of their projects 
and the elevation of their fortune. It requires to know in what 
manner their character has modified their genius, or has been 
subservient to it. 

" It is this curiosity that we hope to satisfy by the publication 
of these letters. They reveal the inmost thought of Napoleon, 
they will reflect his earliest impulses, they will show how the 
General, the Consul, and the Emperor felt and spoke, not in his 
discourses or his proclamations the official garb of his thought 
but in the free outpourings of the most passionate or the most 
tender affections. . . . This correspondence will prove, we 


strongly believe, that the conqueror was human, the master of 
the world a good husband, the great man in fact an excellent 
man. . . . We shall see in them how, up to the last moment, he 
lavished on his wife proofs of his tenderness. Without doubt the 
letters of the Emperor Napoleon are rarer and shorter than those 
of the First Consul, and the First Consul writes no longer like 
General Bonaparte, but everywhere the sentiment is fundamentally 
the same. 

u We make no reflection on the style of these letters, written in 
haste and in all the abandon of intimacy. We can easily perceive 
they were not destined to see the light. Nevertheless we publish 
them without changing anything in them." 

The Collection Didot contains 228 letters from Napoleon to 
Josephine, and 70 from Josephine to Hortense, and two from 
Josephine to Napoleon, which seem to be the only two in 
existence of Josephine to Napoleon whose authenticity is 

(3rd) The fugitive letters are collected from various sources, 
and their genuineness does not seem to be quite as well proved as 
those of the Tennant or Didot Series. We have generally taken 
the Correspondence of Napoleon I. as the touchstone of their 
merit to be inserted here, although one of them that republished 
from Las Cases (No. 85, Series G.) is manifestly mainly the 
work of that versatile author, who is utterly unreliable except 
when confirmed by others. As Lord Rosebery has well said, 
the book is " an arsenal of spurious documents." 

We have relegated to an Appendix those published by Madame 
Ducrest, as transparent forgeries, and have to acknowledge with 
thanks a letter from M. Masson on this subject which thoroughly 
confirms these views. There seems some reason to doubt No. I., 
Series E, but being in the Correspondence, I have translated it. 

The Correspondence of Napoleon I. is a splendid monument 
to the memory of Napoleon. It is alluded to throughout the Notes 


as The Correspondence, and it deserves special recognition here. Its 
compilation was decreed by Napoleon III. from Boulogne, on 
yth September 1854, and the first volume appeared in 1858, and 
the last in 1870. With the first volume is inserted the Report of 
the Commission to the Emperor, part of which we subjoin : 

" Report of the Commission to the Emperor. 

" SIRE, Augustus numbered Caesar among the gods, and dedi- 
cated to him a temple ; the temple has disappeared, the Commen- 
taries remain. Your Majesty, wishing to raise to the chief of 
your dynasty an imperishable monument, has ordered us to gather 
together and publish the political, military, and administrative 
correspondence of Napoleon I. It has realised that the most 
conspicuous (eclatanf) homage to render to this incomparable 
genius was to make him known in his entirety. No one is 
ignorant of his victories, of the laws with which he has endowed 
our country, the institutions that he has founded and which dwell 
immovable after so many revolutions ; his prosperity and his 
reverses are in every mouth ; history has recounted what he has 
done, but it has not always known his designs : it has not had 
the secret of so many admirable combinations that have been the 
spoil of fortune (que la fortune a dejoueei), and so many grand projects 
for the execution of which time alone was wanting. The traces 
of Napoleon's thoughts were scattered ; it was necessary to reunite 
them and to give them to the light. 

"Such is the task which your Majesty confided to us, and of 
which we were far from suspecting the extent. The thousands 
of letters which were received from all parts have allowed us to 
follow, in spite of a few regrettable lacuna, the thoughts of 
Napoleon day by day, and to assist, so to say, at the birth of his 
projects, at the ceaseless workings of his mind, which knew no 
other rest than change of occupation. But what is perhaps most 
surprising in the reading of a correspondence so varied, is the 


power of that universal intelligence from which nothing escaped, 
which in turn raised itself without an effort to the most sublime 
conceptions, and which descends with the same facility to the 
smallest details. . . . Nothing seems to him unworthy of his 
attention that has to do with the realisation of his designs ; and 
it is not sufficient for him to give the most precise orders, but he 
superintends himself the execution of them with an indefatigable 

u The letters of Napoleon can add nothing to his glory, but 
they better enable us to comprehend his prodigious destiny, the 
prestige that he exercised over his contemporaries 'le culte 
universel dont sa memoire est 1'objet, enfin, I'entrainement irr- 
sistible par lequel la France a replace sa dynastic au sommet de 
1'edifice qu'il avait construit.' 

"These letters also contain the most fruitful sources of in- 
formation ... for peoples as for governments ; for soldiers and 
for statesmen no less than for historians. Perhaps some persons, 
greedy of knowing the least details concerning the intimate life 
of great men, will regret that we have not reproduced those 
letters which, published elsewhere for the most part, have only 
dealt with family affairs and domestic relations. Collected 
together by us as well as the others, they have not found a place 
in the plan of which your Majesty has fixed for us the limits. 

" Let us haste to declare that, in conformity with the express 
intentions of your Majesty, we have scrupulously avoided, in the 
reproduction of the letters of the Emperor, any alteration, cur- 
tailment, or modification of the text. Sometimes, thinking of the 
legitimate sorrow which blame from so high a quarter may 
cause, we have regretted not to be able to soften the vigorous 
judgment of Napoleon on many of his contemporaries, but it was 
not our province to discuss them, still less to explain them ; but 
if, better informed or calmer, the Emperor has rendered justice to 
those of his servants that he had for a moment misunderstood, 


we have been glad to indicate that these severe words have been 
followed by reparation. 

" We have found it necessary to have the spelling of names 
of places and of persons frequently altered, but we have allowed 
to remain slight incorrectnesses of language which denote the 
impetuosity of composition, and which often could not be rectified 
without weakening the originality of an energetic style running 
right to its object, brief and precise as the words of command. 
Some concise notes necessary for clearing up obscure passages are 
the sole conditions which we have allowed ourselves. . . . 

"The Commission has decided in favour of chronological 
order throughout. It is, moreover, the only one which can 
reproduce faithfully the sequence of the Emperor's thoughts. It 
is also the best for putting in relief his universal aptitude and his 
marvellous fecundity. 

" Napoleon wrote little with his own hand ; nearly all the 
items of his correspondence were dictated to his secretaries, to his 
aides-de-camp and his chief of staff, or to his ministers. Thus 
the Commission has not hesitated to comprise in this collection a 
great number of items which, although bearing another signature, 
evidently emanate from Napoleon. . . . 

" By declaring that his public life dated from the siege of 
Toulon, Napoleon has himself determined the point of departure 
which the Commission should choose. It is from this immortal 
date that commences the present publication. 


"Paris, January 20, 1858." 

CONTEMPORARY SOURCES. It is a commonplace that the 
history of Napoleon has yet to be written. His contemporaries 
were stunned or overwhelmed by the whirlwind of his glory ; the 
next generation was blinded by meteoric fragments of his " sys- 
tem," which glowed with impotent heat as they fell through an 


alien atmosphere into oblivion. Such were the Bourriennes, the 
Jominis, the Talleyrands, and other traitors of that ilk. But 

" The tumult and the shouting dies ; 
The captains and the kings depart ; " 

and now, when all the lesser tumults and lesser men have passed 
away, each new century will, as Lockhart foretold, " inscribe one 
mighty era with the majestic name of Napoleon." And yet the 
writings of no contemporary can be ignored ; neither Alison 
nor Scott, certainly not Bignon, Montgaillard, Pelet, Mathieu 
Dumas, and Pasquier. Constant, Bausset, Meneval, Rovigo, and 
D'Abrantes are full of interest for their personal details, and 
D'Avrillon, Las Cases, Marmont, Marbot, and Lejeune only a 
degree less so. Jung's Memoirs of Lucien are invaluable, and those 
of Joseph and Louis Bonaparte useful. But the Correspondence is 
worth everything else, including Panckouke (1796-99), where, in 
spite of shocking arrangement, print, and paper, we get the replies 
as well as the letters. The Biographic Universelle Michaud is 
hostile, except the interesting footnotes of Begin. It must, how- 
ever, be read. The article in the Encyclopedia Britannica was the 
work of an avowed enemy of the Napoleonic system, the editor 
of the Life and Times of Stein. 

For the Diary, the Revue Chronologique de I'Histoire de France or 
Montgaillard (1823) has been heavily drawn upon, especially for 
the later years, but wherever practicable the dates have been 
verified from the Correspondence and bulletins of the day. On the 
whole, the records of respective losses in the battles are slightly 
favourable to the French, as their figures have been usually taken ; 
always, however, the maximum French loss and the minimum of 
the allies is recorded, when unverified from other sources. 

The late Professor Seeley, in his monograph, asserts that 
Napoleon, tried by his plan, is a failure that even before death 
his words and actions merited no monument, We must seek. 


however, for the mightiest heritage of Napoleon in his brain- 
children of the second generation, the Genii of the Code. 

The Code Napoleon claims to-day its two hundred million sub- 
jects. " The Law should be clean, precise, uniform ; to interpret 
is to corrupt it." So ruled the Emperor ; and now, a century 
later, Archbishop Temple (born in one distant island the year 
Napoleon died in another) bears testimony to the beneficent sway of 
Napoleon's Word-Empire. Criticising English legal phraseology, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury said, " The French Code is always 
welcome in every country where it has been introduced ; and 
where people have once got hold of it, they are unwilling to have 
it changed for any other, because it is a marvel of clearness" 
Surely if ever Style is the Man, it is Napoleon, otherwise the 
inspection of over seven million words, as marshalled forth in his 
Correspondence, would not only confuse but confound. As it is, 
its " hum of armies, gathering rank on rank," has left behind 
what Bacon calls a conflation of sound, from which, however, as 
from Kipling's steel-sinewed symphony, 

" The clanging chorus goes 
Law, Order, Duty and Restraint, Obedience, Discipline." 





Xo. of 


Pages of 
ing Notes. 




(No. 2, from St.^ 





( Nos. ) 
li, 3-8 f 

Amand, La \ 
Citoyenne Bo- | 


naparte } 





( Nos. ^ 

1 J " 14 f 

I 16-25 J 

fNo. 15, from^j 
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No. 3 

I, 2, 4 








(No. i, Corre-\ 





f Xos. 1 
|2, 3 ,4,6J 

spondence 1 
No. 5, Collection j 


of Baron Heath J 







(No. gA, from,. 

Mile. D'Avril- 





all but 

1 Ion V 


j No. 85, from Las I 

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316. APPENDIX (i). Reputed Poem by Napoleon. 

317. APPENDIX (2). Genealogy of the Bonaparte Family. 
317-321. APPENDIX (3). Spurious Letters of Napoleon to Josephine. 

1 Exclusive of two from Josephine to Napoleon. 



NAPOLEON Frontispiece 


EUGENE BEAUHARNAIS . . . Face page 121 

JOSEPHINE BEAUHARNAIS . . . Face page 198 
Circa 1795 (Photogravure) 


24, 1796 ...... Pages 202-3 





" Only those who knew Napoleon in the intercourse of private 
life can render justice to his character. For my own part, I know 
him, as it were, by heart ; and in proportion as time separates us, he 
appears to me like a beautiful dream. And would you believe that, 
in my recollections of Napoleon, that which seems to me to approach 
most nearly to ideal excellence is not the hero, filling the world with 
his gigantic fame, but the man, viewed in the relations of private 
life ? " Recollections of Cau/aincourt, Duke of Vicenza^ vol. i. 197. 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages i98-zn.) 


Bonaparte made Commander-in- Chief . . .198 

No. I. 7 A.M 198 

No. 2. Our good Ossian . . . . . .199 

No. 4. Chauvet is dead . . . . . . 1 99 

No. 5- Napoleon's suspicions . . . . .199 

The lovers of nineteen . . . . ZOO 

My brother 2OO 

No. 6. Unalterably good . . . . . .201 

If you tvant a place for any one . . . .201 
No. 7. A criticism by Aubenas . . . . .201 

June i$th . . . . . . 204 

Presentiment of ill . . . . . .210 

No. 8. The Treaty with Rome 210 

Fortune . . . . . . .211 


February 2$rJ. Bonaparte made Commander-in-Chief of the Army of 

No. I. 

Seven o'clock in the morning. 

My waking thoughts are all of thee. Your portrait and the 
remembrance of last night's delirium have robbed my senses of 
repose. Sweet and incomparable Josephine, what an extra- 
ordinary influence you have over my heart. Are you vexed ? 
do I see you sad ? are you ill at ease ? My soul is broken with 
grief, and there is no rest for your lover. But is there more for 
me when, delivering ourselves up to the deep feelings which master 
me, I breathe out upon your lips, upon your heart, a flame which 
burns me up ah, it was this past night I realised that your por- 
trait was not you. You start at noon ; I shall see you in three 
hours. Meanwhile, mw dolce amor, accept a thousand kisses, 1 
but give me none, for they fire my blood. N. B. 

A Madame Beauharnais. 

March 9//>. Bonaparte marries Josephine. 

March 1 1 th. Bonaparte leaves Paris to join his army. 

No. 2. 

Chanceaux Post House, 

March 14, 1796. 

I wrote you at Chatillon, and sent you a power of attorney to 
enable you to receive various sums of money in course of remit- 
tance to me. Every moment separates me further from you, my 
beloved, and every moment I have less energy to exist so 
far from you. You are the constant object of my thoughts ; I 

1 Un millicr de laise (sic). 


exhaust my imagination in thinking of what you are doing. If I 
see you unhappy, my heart is torn, and my grief grows greater. 
If you are gay and lively among your friends (male and female), 
I reproach you with having so soon forgotten the sorrowful sepa- 
ration three days ago ; thence you must be fickle, and hence- 
forward stirred by no deep emotions. So you see I am not easy 
to satisfy ; but, my dear, I have quite different sensations when I 
fear that your health may be affected, or that you have cause to be 
annoyed ; then I regret the haste with which I was separated from 
my darling. I feel, in fact, that your natural kindness of heart 
exists no longer for me, and it is only when I am quite sure you 
are not vexed that I am satisfied. If I were asked how I slept, I 
feel that before replying I should have to get a message to tell me 
that you had had a good night. The ailments, the passions of 
men influence me only when I imagine they may reach you, my 
dear. May my good genius, which has always preserved me in 
the midst of great dangers, surround you, enfold you, while I will 
face my fate unguarded. Ah ! be not gay, but a trifle melan- 
choly ; and especially may your soul be free from worries, as your 
body from illness : you know what our good Ossian says on this 
subject. Write me, dear, and at full length, and accept the thou- 
sand and one kisses of your most devoted and faithful friend. 

[This letter is translated from St. Amand's La Citoyenne 
Bonaparte, p. 3, 1892.] 

March 27$. Arrival at Nice and proclamation to the soldiers. 

No. 3. 

April yrd. He is at Mentone. 

Port Maurice, April yd. 

I have received all your letters, but none has affected me like 
the last. How can you think, my charmer, of writing me in 


such terms ? Do you believe that my position is not already 
painful enough without further increasing my regrets and sub- 
verting my reason. What eloquence, what feelings you portray ; 
they are of fire, they inflame my poor heart ! My unique Jose- 
phine, away from you there is no more joy away from thee the 
world is a wilderness, in which I stand alone, and without experi- 
encing the bliss of unburdening my soul. You have robbed me 
of more than my soul ; you are the one only thought of my life. 
When I am weary of the worries of my profession, when I mis- 
trust the issue, when men disgust me, when I am ready to curse 
my life, I put my hand on my heart where your portrait beats in 
unison. I look at it, and love is for me complete happiness ; and 
everything laughs for joy, except the time during which I find 
myself absent from my beloved. 

By what art have you learnt how to captivate all my facul- 
ties, to concentrate in yourself my spiritual existence it is 
witchery, dear love, which will end only with me. To live 
for Josephine, that is the history of my life. I am struggling 
to get near you, I am dying to be by your side ; fool that I am, 
I fail to realise how far off I am, that lands and provinces sepa- 
rate us. What an age it will be before you read these lines, the 
weak expressions of the fevered soul in which you reign. Ah, my 
winsome wife, I know not what fate awaits me, but if it keeps 
me much longer from you it will be unbearable my strength 
will not last out. There was a time in which I prided myself 
on my strength, and, sometimes, when casting my eyes on the 
ills which men might do me, on the fate that destiny might have in 
store for me, I have gazed steadfastly on the most incredible mis- 
fortunes without a wrinkle on my brow or a vestige of surprise : 
but to-day the thought that my Josephine might be ill ; and, 
above all, the cruel, the fatal thought that she might love me less, 
blights my soul, stops my blood, makes me wretched and dejected, 
without even leaving me the courage of fury and despair. I 
often used to say that men have no power over him who 


dies without regrets ; but, to-day, to die without your love, to 
die in uncertainty of that, is the torment of hell, it is a lifelike 
and terrifying figure of absolute annihilation I feel passion 
strangling me. My unique companion ! you whom Fate has 
destined to walk with me the painful path of life ! the day on 
which I no longer possess your heart will be that on which 
parched Nature will be for me without warmth and without 
vegetation. I stop, dear love ! my soul is sad, my body tired, 
my spirit dazed, men worry me I ought indeed to detest them ; 
they keep me from my beloved. 

I am at Port Maurice, near Oneille ; to-morrow I shall be 
at Albenga. The two armies are in motion. We are trying to 
deceive each other victory to the most skilful ! I am pretty 
well satisfied with Beaulieu ; he need be a much stronger man 
than his predecessor to alarm me much. I expect to give him 
a good drubbing. Don't be anxious ; love me as thine eyes, but 
that is not enough ; as thyself, more than thyself ; as thy 
thoughts, thy mind, thy sight, thy all. Dear love, forgive me, 
I am exhausted ; nature is weak for him who feels acutely, for 
him whom you inspire. N. B. 

Kind regards to Barras, Sussi, Madame Tallien ; compliments 
to Madame Chateau Renard ; to Eugene and Hortense best love. 
Adieu, adieu ! I lie down without thee, I shall sleep without 
thee ; I pray thee, let me sleep. Many times I shall clasp thee 
in my arms, but, but it is not thee. 

A la citoyenne Bonaparte chez la 
citoyenne Beauharnais^ 

Rue Chanterelne No. 6, Paris. 


No. 4. 

Albenga, April $th. 

It is an hour after midnight. They have just brought me a 
letter. It is a sad one, my mind is distressed it is the death of 
Chauvet. He was commissionaire ordinateur en chef of the army ; 
you have sometimes seen him at the house of Barras. My love, 
I feel the need of consolation. It is by writing to thee, to thee 
alone, the thought of whom can so influence my moral being, to 
whom I must pour out my troubles. What means the future ? 
what means the past ? what are we ourselves ? what magic fluid 
surrounds and hides from us the things that it behoves us most 
to know ? We are born, we live, we die in the midst of marvels ; 
is it astounding that priests, astrologers, charlatans have profited 
by this propensity, by this strange circumstance, to exploit our 
ideas, and direct them to their own advantage. Chauvet is dead. 
He was attached to me. He has rendered essential service to 
the fatherland. His last words were that he was starting to join 
me. Yes, I see his ghost ; it hovers everywhere, it whistles in 
the air. His soul is in the clouds, he will be propitious to my 
destiny. But, fool that I am, I shed tears for our friendship, and 
who shall tell me that I have not already to bewail the irrepar- 
able. Soul of my life, write me by every courier, else I shall not 
know how to exist. I am very busy here. Beaulieu is moving 
his army again. We are face to face. I am rather tired ; I am 
every day on horseback. Adieu, adieu, adieu ; I am going to 
dream of you. Sleep consoles me ; it places you by my side, I 
clasp you in my arms. But on waking, alas ! I find myself three 
hundred leagues from you. Remembrances to Barras, Tallien, and 
his wife. N. B. 

A la citoyenne Bonaparte chez la 
citoyenne Beauharnais^ 

Rue Chantereine No, 6, Paris. 


No. 5. 

Albenga^ April jth. 

I have received the letter that you break off, in order, you 
say, to go into the country ; and in spite of that you give me 
to understand that you are jealous of me, who am here, over- 
whelmed with business and fatigue. Ah, my dear, it is true I 
am wrong. In the spring the country is beautiful, and then the 
lover of nineteen will doubtless find means to spare an extra 
moment to write to him who, distant three hundred leagues 
from thee, lives, enjoys, exists only in thoughts of thee, who 
reads thy letters as one devours, after six hours' hunting, the 
meat he likes best. I am not satisfied with your last letter ; it 
is cold as friendship. I have not found that fire which kindles 
your looks, and which I have sometimes fancied I found there. 
But how infatuated I am. I found your previous letters weigh 
too heavily on my mind. The revolution which they produced 
there invaded my rest, and took my faculties captive. I desired 
more frigid letters, but they gave me the chill of death. Not to 
be loved by Josephine, the thought of finding her inconstant . . . 
but I am forging troubles there are so many real ones, there 
is no need to manufacture more ! You cannot have inspired a 
boundless love without sharing it, for a cultured mind and a soul 
like yours cannot requite complete surrender and devotion with 
the death-blow. 

I have received the letter from Madame Chateau Renard. 
I have written to the Minister. I will write to the former to- 
morrow, to whom you will make the usual compliments. Kind 
regards to Madame Tallien and Barras. 

You do not speak of your wretched indigestion I hate it. 
Adieu, till to-morrow, mio dolce amor. A remembrance from 
my unique wife, and a victory from Destiny these are my 
wishes : a unique remembrance entirely worthy of him who 
thinks of thee every moment. 


My brother is here ; he has learnt of my marriage with plea- 
sure. He longs to see you. I am trying to prevail on him to 
go to Paris his wife has just borne him a girl. He sends you 
a gift of a box of Genoa bonbons. You will receive oranges, 
perfumes, and orange-flower water, which I am sending. 

Junot and Murat present their respects to you. 

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, 

Rue Chantereine No. 6, (Address not in B.'s writing.) 

Chausste d'Antin, Paris. 

April loth. Campaign of ens (Napoleon's available troops about 

April llth. Colonel Rampon, with I2OO men, treats the attack of 
D' Argenteau, giving Napoleon time to come up. 

April \2th. Battle of Montenotte, A 'us tr tans defeated. Lose 3500 
men (2000 prisoners}, 5 guns, and 4 stand of colours. 

April l^th. Battle of Millesimo, Austrians and Sardinians defeated. 
Lose over 6000 prisoners, 2 generals, 4500 killed and wounded, 32 guns, 
and I 5 stand of colours. Lannes made Colonel on the battlefield. 

April I 5/^. Battle of D ego, the allies defeated and separated. 

April 22nd. Battle of Mondovi, Sardinians defeated. Lose 3000 
men, 8 guns, 10 stand of colours. 

No. 6. 

CarrUj April 2^th. 

To My Sweet Love. My brother will remit you this letter. 
I have for him the most lively affection. I trust he will obtain 
yours ; he merits it. Nature has endowed him with a gentle, 
even, and unalterably good disposition ; he is made up of good 
qualities. I am writing Barras to help him to the Consulate of 
some Italian port. He wishes to live with his little wife far 
from the great whirlwind, and from great events. I recommend 
him to you. I have received your letters of (April) the fifth 
and tenth. You have been several days without writing me. 


What are you doing then ? Yes, my kind, kind love, I am 
not jealous, but sometimes uneasy. Come soon. I warn you, if 
you tarry you will find me ill ; fatigue and your absence are too 
much for me at the same time. 

Your letters make up my daily pleasure, and my happy days 
are not often. Junot bears to Paris twenty-two flags. You ought 
to return with him, do you understand ? Be ready, if that isnot 
disagreeable to you. Should he not come, woe without remedy ; 
should he come back to me alone, grief without consolation, con- 
stant anxiety. My Beloved, he will see you, he will breathe on 
your temples; perhaps you will accord him the unique and priceless 
favour of kissing your cheek, and I, I shall be alone and very 
far away ; but you are about to come, are you not ? You will 
soon be beside me, on my breast, in my arms, over your mouth. 
Take wings, come quickly, but travel gently. The route is 
long, bad, fatiguing. If you should be overturned or be taken 
ill, if fatigue go gently, my beloved. 

I have received a letter from Hortense. She is entirely lovable. 
I am going to write to her. I love her much, and I will soon 
send her the perfumes that she wants. N. B. 

I know not if you want money, for you never speak to me 
of business. If you do, will you ask my brother for it he has 
2OO louis of mine ! If you want a place for any one you can 
send him ; I will give him one. Chateau Renard may come too. 

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c. 

April 28th. Armistice of Cherasco (submission of Sardinia to France) : 
peace signed May 1 5 th. 

May Jth. Bonaparte passed the Po at Placentia, and attacks Beaulieu, 
who has 40,000 Austrian*. 

May 8th. Austrians defeated at Fombio. Lose 2500 prisoners, guns, 
and 3 standards. Skirmish of Codogno death of General La Harpe. 


May gth. Capitulation of Parma by the Grand Duke, who pays 
ransom of 1. million francs, 1600 artillery horses, food, and 2O paintings. 

May loth. Passage of Bridge of Lodi, Austrians lose 2OOO men 
and 20 cannon. 

May lOfth. Bonaparte was requested to divide his command, and 
thereupon tendered his resignation. 

May I 5//. Bonaparte enters Milan. Lombardy pays ransom of 2O 
million francs ; and the Duke of Modena IO millions, and 2O pictures. 

May 24/^-25/^1. Revolt of Lombardy, and punishment of Pavia by the 

May 3 0/^-3 1 st. Bonaparte defeats Beaulieu at Borghetto, crosses 
the Mincio, and makes French cavalry Jight (a new feature for the Re- 
publican troops}. 

June ^rd. Occupies Verona, and secures the line of the Adige. 

June ^th. Battle of Altenkirchen (Franconia) won by Jourdan. 

June $th. Armistice with Naples. Their troops secede from the 
Austrian army. 

No. 7. 

Tortona, Noon^ June i$th. 

My life is a perpetual nightmare. A presentiment of ill 
oppresses me. I see you no longer. I have lost more than 
life, more than happiness, more than my rest. I am almost 
without hope. I hasten to send a courier to you. He will stay 
only four hours in Paris, and then bring me your reply. Write 
me ten pages. That alone can console me a little. You are ill, 
you love me, I have made you unhappy, you are in delicate 
health, and I do not see you ! that thought overwhelms me. I 
have done you so much wrong that I know not how to atone for 
it ; I accuse you of staying in Paris, and you were ill there. For- 
give me, my dear ; the love with which you have inspired me has 
bereft me of reason. I shall never find it again. It is an ill for 
which there is no cure. My presentiments are so ominous that I 
would confine myself to merely seeing you, to pressing you for 
two hours to my heart and then dying with you. Who looks 


after you ? I expect you have sent for Hortense. I love that 
sweet child a thousand times more when I think she can console 
you a little, though for me there is neither consolation nor repose, 
nor hope until the courier that I have sent comes back ; and 
until, in a long letter, you explain to me what is the nature of 
your illness, and to what extent it is serious ; if it be dangerous, I 
warn you, I start at once for Paris. My coming shall coincide 
with your illness. I have always been fortunate, never has my 
destiny resisted my will, and to-day I am hurt in what touches 
me solely (uniquement}. Josephine, how can you remain so long 
without writing to me ; your last laconic letter is dated May 22. 
Moreover, it is a distressing one for me, but I always keep it in my 
pocket ; your portrait and letters are perpetually before my eyes. 

I am nothing without you. I scarcely imagine how I existed 
without knowing you. Ah ! Josephine, had you known my 
heart would you have waited from May i8th to June 4th before 
starting ? Would you have given an ear to perfidious friends 
who are perhaps desirous of keeping you away from me ? I 
openly avow it to every one, I hate everybody who is near you. 
I expected you to set out on May 24th, and arrive on June 3rd. 

Josephine, if you love me, if you realise how everything 
depends on your health, take care of yourself. I dare not 
tell you not to undertake so long a journey, and that, too, in the 
hot weather. At least, if you are fit to make it, come by short 
stages ; write me at every sleeping-place, and despatch your 
letters in advance. 

All my thoughts are concentrated in thy boudoir, in thy bed, 
on thy heart. Thy illness ! that is what occupies me night and 
day. Without appetite, without sleep, without care for my 
friends, for glory, for fatherland, you, you alone the rest of the 
world exists no more for me than if it were annihilated. I prize 
honour since you prize it, I prize victory since it pleases you ; 
without that I should leave everything in order to fling myself at 
your feet. 


Sometimes I tell myself that I alarm myself unnecessarily ; 
that even now she is better, that she is starting, has started, is 
perhaps already at Lyons. Vain fancies ! you are in bed suffer- 
ing, more beautiful, more interesting, more lovable. You are 
pale and your eyes are more languishing, but when will you be 
cured ? If one of us ought to be ill it is I more robust, 
more courageous ; I should support illness more easily. Destiny 
is cruel, it strikes at me through you. 

What consoles me sometimes is to think that it is in the power 
of destiny to make you ill ; but it is in the power of no one to 
make me survive you. 

In your letter, dear, be sure to tell me that you are convinced 
that I love you more than it is possible to imagine ; that you are 
persuaded that all my moments are consecrated to you ; that to 
think of any other woman has never entered my head they are 
all in my eyes without grace, wit, or beauty ; that you, you alone, 
such as I see you, such as you are, can please me, and absorb all 
the faculties of my mind ; that you have traversed its whole 
extent ; that my heart has no recess into which you have not 
seen, no thoughts which are not subordinate to yours ; that my 
strength, my prowess, my spirit are all yours ; that my soul is in 
your body ; and that the day on which you change or cease to live 
will be my death-day ; that Nature, that Earth, is beautiful only 
because you dwell therein. If you do not believe all this, if your 
soul is not convinced, penetrated by it, you grieve me, you do not 
love me there is a magnetic fluid between people who love one 
another you know perfectly well that I could not brook a rival, 
much less offer you one. 1 To tear out his heart and to see him 
would be for me one and the same thing, and then if I were to 
carry my hands against your sacred person no, I should never 
dare to do it ; but I would quit a life in which the most virtuous 
of women had deceived me. 

1 So Tennant (fen offrir un) : but Baron Feuillet de Conches, an expert in 
Napoleonic graphology, renders the expression fen souffrir , 


But I am sure and proud of your love ; misfortunes are the 
trials which reveal to each mutually the whole force of our 
passion. A child as charming as its mamma will soon see the 
daylight, and will pass many years in your arms. Hapless me ! 
I would be happy with one day. A thousand kisses on your eyes, 
your lips, your tongue, your heart. Most charming of thy sex, 
what is thy power over me ? I am very sick of thy sickness ; I 
have still a burning fever ! Do not keep the courier more than 
six hours, and let him return at once to bring me the longed-for 
letter of my Beloved. 

Do you remember my dream, in which I was your boots, your 
dress, and in which I made you come bodily into my heart ? 
Why has not Nature arranged matters in this way ; she has much 
to do yet. N. B. 

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c. 

June 1 8th. Bonaparte enters Modena, and takes 50 cannon at 

June Itytb. Occupies Bologna, and takes 114 cannon. 

June 2^rd. Armistice 'with Rome. The Pope to pay 21 millions) 
IOO rare pictures, 200 MSS. t and to close his ports to the English. 

June 2jfth. Desaix, with part of Moreau's army, forces the passage 
of the Rhine. 

No. 8. 

Pistoia, Tuscany, June 26th. 

For a month I have only received from my dear love two 
letters of three lines each. Is she so busy, that writing to her 
dear love is not then needful for her, nor, consequently, thinking 


about him ? To live without thinking of Josephine would be 
death and annihilation to your husband. Your image gilds my 
fancies, and enlivens the black and sombre picture of melancholy 
and grief. A day perhaps may come in which I shall see you, 
for I doubt not you will be still at Paris, and verily on that day I 
will show you my pockets stuffed with letters that I have not 
sent you because they are too foolish (bete}. Yes, that's the 
word. Good heavens ! tell me, you who know so well how 
to make others love you without being in love yourself, do you 
know how to cure me of love ? ? ? I will give a good price for 
that remedy. 

You ought to have started on May 24th. Being good-natured, 
I waited till June ist, as if a pretty woman would give up her 
habits, her friends, both Madame Tallien and a dinner with 
Barras, and the acting of a new play, and Fortune ; yes, Fortune^ 
whom you love much more than your husband, for whom you 
have only a little of the esteem, and a share of that benevolence 
with which your heart abounds. Every day I count up your 
misdeeds. I lash myself to fury in order to love you no more. 
Bah, don^t I love you the more ? In fact, my peerless little mother, 
I will tell you my secret. Set me at defiance, stay at Paris, have 
lovers let everybody know it never write me a monosyllable ! 
then I shall love you ten times more for it ; and it is not folly, 
a delirious fever ! and I shall not get the better of it. Oh! would 
to heaven I could get better ! but don't tell me you are ill, don't 
try to justify yourself. Good heavens ! you are pardoned. I 
love you to distraction, and never will my poor heart cease to give 
all for love. If you did not love me, my fate would be indeed 
grotesque. You have not written me ; you are ill, you do not 
come. But you have passed Lyons ; you will be at Turin on the 
28th, at Milan on the 3Oth, where you will wait for me. You 
will be in Italy, and I shall be still far from you. Adieu, my 
well-beloved ; a kiss on thy mouth, another on thy heart. 

We have made peace with Rome who gives us money. 


To-morrow we shall be at Leghorn, and as soon as I can in your 
arms, at your feet, on your bosom. 

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c. 

June 2Jtt>. Leghorn occupied by Murat and Vaubois. 
June 2gtf>. Surrender of citadel of Milan ; 1600 prisoners and 150 
cannon taken. 



"Des 1796, lorsque, avec 30,000 hommes, il fait la conquete 
de 1'Italie, il est non-seulement grand general, mais profond 
politique." Des Idees Napoleonniennes. 

" Your Government has sent against me four armies without 
Generals, and this time a General without an army." Napoleon to 
the Austrian Plenipotentiaries, at Leoben. 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages zii-zz^.~) 


No. i. Sortie from Mantua . . . . . 21 1 

No. 2. Marmirolo . . . . . . . 21 1 

fortune . . . . . . . 212 

No. 3. The village of Virgil . . . . . 212 

No. 4. Achille 212 

No. 5. Will-o -the-Wisp 213 

No. 6. The needs of the army ..... 213-5 

No. 7. Brescia . . . . . . . 215 

No. 9. / hope <we shall get into Trent . . . . 216 

No. 12. One of these nights the doors will be burst open . 2 1 6-8 

No. 13. Corsica is ours . . . . . . 218 

No. 14. Verona . . . . . . . 219 

No. 15. Once more I breathe freely . . . . 220 

No. 18. r/k29/" 220 

No. 2O. General B rune . . . . . . 221 

No. 21. February ^rd . . . . . . 221 

No. 24. Perhaps I shall make peace with the Pope . . 222 

No. 25. The unlimited power you hold over me . . . 222 


No. i. 

July $th Archduke Charles defeated by Moreau at Radstadt. 
July 6th. Sortie from Mantua: Austrian! fairly successful. 


Roverbella, July 6, 1796. 

I have beaten the enemy. Kilmaine will send you the copy 
of the despatch. I am tired to death. Pray start at once for 
Verona. I need you, for I think that I am going to be very ill. 

I send you a thousand kisses. I am in bed. 


July gth. Bonaparte asks Kelle rmann for reinforcements. 
July i^th. Frankfort on the Main captured by Kleber. 
July l6th. Sortie from Mantua: Austrians defeated. 

No. 2. 
July 17 th. Attempted coup de main at Mantua: French unsuccessful. 


Marmirolo, July 17, 1796, 9 P.M. 

I got your letter, my beloved ; it has filled my heart with joy. 
I am grateful to you for the trouble you have taken to send me 
news ; your health should be better to-day I am sure you are 
cured. I urge you strongly to ride, which cannot fail to do you 

Ever since I left you, I have been sad. I am only happy 

when by your side. Ceaselessly I recall your kisses, your tears, 



your enchanting jealousy ; and the charms of the incomparable 
Josephine keep constantly alight a bright and burning flame in 
my heart and senses. When, free from every worry, from all 
business, shall I spend all my moments by your side, to have 
nothing to do but to love you, and to prove it to you ? I shall 
send your horse, but I am hoping that you will soon be able to 
rejoin me. I thought I loved you some days ago ; but, since I 
saw you, I feel that I love you even a thousand times more. 
Ever since I have known you, I worship you more every day ; 
which proves how false is the maxim of La Bruyere that " Love 
comes all at once." Everything in nature has a regular course, 
and different degrees of growth. Ah ! pray let me see some of 
your faults ; be less beautiful, less gracious, less tender, and, 
especially, less kind; above all never be jealous, never weep; 
your tears madden me, fire my blood. Be sure that it is no 
longer possible for me to have a thought except for you, or an 
idea of which you shall not be the judge. 

Have a good rest. Haste to get well. Come and join me, 
so that, at least, before dying, we could say " We were happy 
for so many days ! ! " 

Millions of kisses, and even to Fortune", in spite of his 
naughtiness. BONAPARTE. 

No. 3. 

July iStb. Trenches opened before Mantua. 

July iSth Stuttgard occupied by Saint-Cyr, who, like Kleber, is 
under Moreau. 

July \%th. Wurtzburg captured by Klein and Ney (acting under 


Marmirolo, July 1 8, 1796, 2 P.M. 

I passed the whole night under arms. I ought to have had 
Mantua by a plucky and fortunate coup j but the waters of the 


lake have suddenly fallen, so that the column I had shipped could 
not land. This evening I shall begin a new attempt, but one 
that will not give such satisfactory results. 

I got a letter from Eugene, which I send you. Please write 
for me to these charming children of yours, and send them some 
trinkets. Be sure to tell them that I love them as if they were 
my own. What is yours or mine is so mixed up in my heart, 
that there is no difference there. 

I am very anxious to know how you are, what you are doing ? 
I have been in the village of Virgil, on the banks of the lake, by 
the silvery light of the moon, and not a moment without dream- 
ing of Josephine. 

The enemy made a general sortie on June i6th; it has 
killed or wounded two hundred of our men, but lost five hundred 
of its own in a precipitous retreat. 

I am well. I am Josephine's entirely, and I have no pleasure 
or happiness except in her society. 

Three Neapolitan regiments have arrived at Brescia ; they have 
sundered themselves from the Austrian army, in consequence of 
the convention I have concluded with M. Pignatelli. 

I've lost my snuff-box ; please choose me another, rather flat- 
shaped, and write something pretty inside, with your own hair. 

A thousand kisses as burning as you are cold. Boundless 
love, and fidelity up to every proof. Before Joseph starts, I wish 
to speak to him. BONAPARTE. 

No. 4. 

Marmirolo, July 19, 1796. 

I have been without letters from you for two days. That is 
at least the thirtieth time to-day that I have made this observation 
to myself ; you are thinking this particularly wearisome ; yet you 


cannot doubt the tender and unique anxiety with which you 
inspire me. 

We attacked Mantua yesterday. We warmed it up from 
two batteries with red-hot shot and from mortars. All night 
long that wretched town has been on fire. The sight was 
horrible and majestic. We have secured several of the out- 
works ; we open the first parallel to-night. To-morrow I start 
for Castiglione with the Staff, and I reckon on sleeping there. I 
have received a courier from Paris. There were two letters for 
you ; I have read them. But though this action appears to me 
quite natural, and though you gave me permission to do so the 
other day, I fear you may be vexed, and that is a great trouble to 
me. I should have liked to have sealed them up again : fie ! that 
would have been atrocious. If I am to blame, I beg your for- 
giveness. I swear that it is not because I am jealous ; assuredly 
not. I have too high an opinion of my beloved for that. I 
should like you to give me full permission to read your letters, 
then there would be no longer either remorse or apprehension. 

Achille has just ridden post from Milan ; no letters from my 
beloved ! Adieu, my unique joy. When will you be able to 
rejoin me ? I shall have to fetch you myself from Milan. 

A thousand kisses as fiery as my soul, as chaste as yourself. 

I have summoned the courier ; he tells me that he crossed 
over to your house, and that you told him you had no commands. 
Fie ! naughty, undutiful, cruel, tyrannous, jolly little monster. 
You laugh at my threats, at my infatuation ; ah, you well know 
that if I could shut you up in my breast, I would put you in 
prison there ! 

Tell me you are cheerful, in good health, and very affec- 
tionate. BONAPARTE. 


No. 5. 

Castig!ione y July 21, 1796, 8 A.M. 

I am hoping that when I arrive to-night I shall get one of 
your letters. You know, my dear Josephine, the pleasure they 
give me ; and I am sure you have pleasure in writing them. I 

shall start to-night for Peschiera, for the mountains of , for 

Verona, and thence I shall go to Mantua, and perhaps to Milan, 
to receive a kiss, since you assure me they are not made of ice. 
I hope you will be perfectly well by then, and will be able to 
accompany me to headquarters, so that we may not part again. 
Are you not the soul of my life, and the quintessence of my 
heart's affections ? 

Your proteges are a little excitable ; they are like the will-o'- 
the-wisp. How glad I am to do something for them which will 
please you. They will go to Milan. A little patience is requisite 
in everything. 

Adieu, belle et bonne, quite unequalled, quite divine. A thou- 
sand loving kisses. BONAPARTE. 

No. 6. 

Castigtione, July 22, 1796. 

The needs of the army require my presence hereabouts ; it is 
impossible that I can leave it to come to Milan. Five or six 
days would be necessary, and during that time movements may 
occur whereby my presence here would be imperative. 

You assure me your health is good ; I beg you therefore to 
come to Brescia. Even now I am sending Murat to prepare 
apartments for you there in the town, as you desire. 


I think you will do well to spend the first night (July 24th) 
at Cassano, setting out very late from Milan ; and to arrive at 
Brescia on July 25th, where the most affectionate of lovers 
awaits you. I am disconsolate that you can believe, dear, that 
my heart can reveal itself to others as to you ; it belongs to you 
by right of conquest, and that conquest will be durable and for 
ever. I do not know why you speak of Madame T., with 
whom I do not concern myself in the slightest, nor with the 
women of Brescia. As to the letters which you are vexed at my 
opening, this shall be the last ; your letter had not come. 

Adieu, ma tendre amie, send me news often, come forthwith 
and join me, and be happy and at ease ; all goes well, and my 
heart is yours for life. 

Be sure to return to the Adjutant-General Miollis the box of 
medals that he writes me he has sent you. Men have such false 
tongues, and are so wicked, that it is necessary to have everything 
exactly on the square. 

Good health, love, and a prompt arrival at Brescia. 

I have at Milan a carriage suitable alike for town or country ; 
you can make use of it for the journey. Bring your plate with 
you, and some of the things you absolutely require. 

Travel by easy stages, and during the coolth, so as not to 
tire yourself. Troops only take three days coming to Brescia. 
Travelling post it is only a fourteen hours' journey. I request 
you to sleep on the 24th at Cassano ; I shall come to meet you 
on the 25th at latest. 

Adieu, my own Josephine. A thousand loving kisses. 


July -igth. Advance of Wurmser, by the Adige valley, on Mantua, and 
of Quesdonoivich on Brescia, who drives back Massena and Sauret. 

July $lst. Siege of Mantua raised. 

August $rd. Bonaparte victorious at Lonato. 

August $th. Augereau victorious at Castiglione, completing the Cam- 
paign of Five Days, in which io,OOO prisoners are taken. 


August 8/A. Verona occupied by Serrurter. 

August i$th. (Moreau arrives on the Danube) Wurmser retreats 
upon Trent) the capital of Italian Tyrol. 

August iSth. Alliance, offensive and defensive, between France and 

September $rcl. Jour dan routed by Archduke Charles at Wurtzburg. 

No. 7. 

Brescia, August 30, 1796. 

Arriving, my beloved, my first thought is to write to you. 
Your health, your sweet face and form have not been absent 
a moment from my thoughts the whole day. I shall be com- 
fortable only when I have got letters from you. I await them 
impatiently. You cannot possibly imagine my uneasiness. I 
left you vexed, annoyed, and not well. If the deepest and 
sincerest affection can make you happy, you ought to be. ... 
I am worked to death. 

Adieu, my kind Josephine : love me, keep well, and often, 
often think of me. BONAPARTE. 

No. 8. 

Brescia, August 31, 1796. 

I start at once for Verona. I had hoped to get a letter from 
you ; and I am terribly uneasy about you. You were rather 
ill when I left ; I beg you not to leave me in such uneasiness. 
You promised me to be more regular ; and, at the time, your 
tongue was in harmony with your heart. You, to whom 
nature has given a kind, genial, and wholly charming disposi- 
tion, how can you forget the man who loves you with so 


much fervour ? No letters from you for three days ; and yet 
I have written to you several times. To be parted is dreadful, 
the nights are long, stupid, and wearisome ; the day's work is 

This evening, alone with my thoughts, work and corre- 
spondence, with men and their stupid schemes, I have not even 
one letter from you which I might press to my heart. 

The Staff has gone ; I set off in an hour. To-night I get 
an express from Paris ; there was for you only the enclosed letter, 
which will please you. 

Think of me, live for me, be often with your well-beloved, 
and be sure that there is only one misfortune that he is afraid 
of that of being no longer loved by his Josephine. A thousand 
kisses, very sweet, very affectionate, very exclusive. 

Send M. Monclas at once to Verona ; I will find him a 
place. He must get there before September 4th. 


September 1st. Bonaparte leaves Verona and directs his troops on 
Trent. Wurmser, reinforced by 2O,OOO men, /eaves his right wing at 
Rover edo, and marches via the Brent a Gorge on Verona. 

No. 9. 

Ala, September 3, 1796. 

We are in the thick of the fight, my beloved ; we have 
driven in the enemy's outposts ; we have taken eight or ten of 
their horses with a like number of riders. My troops are good- 
humoured and in excellent spirits. I hope that we shall do great 
things, and get into Trent by the fifth. 

No letters from you, which really makes me uneasy ; yet 
they tell me you are well, and have even had an excursion to 
Lake Como. Every day I wait impatiently for the post which 


will bring me news of you you are well aware how I prize it. 
Far from you I cannot live, the happiness of my life is near my 
gentle Josephine. Think of me ! Write me often, very often : 
in absence it is the only remedy : it is cruel, but, I hope, will be 
only temporary. BONAPARTE. 

September ^th. Austrian right iving defeated at Roveredo. 

September $th. Bonaparte enters Trent, cutting off Wurmser from his 
base. Defeats Davidoivich on the Lavis and leaves Vaubois to contain this 
general 'while he follows Wurmser. 

September 6th. JVurmser continues his advance, his outposts occupy 
Vicenza and Montebello. 

September Jth. Combat of Primolano : Austrlans defeated. Austrian 
vanguard attack Verona, but are repulsed by General Kilmaine. 

September 8th. Battle of Bassano: Wurmser completely routed, and 
retires on Legnago. 

No. 10. 


Montebello^ Noon, September IO, 1796. 

My Dear, The enemy has lost 1 8,000 men prisoners ; the 
rest killed or wounded. Wurmser, with a column of 1 500 cavalry, 
and 500 infantry, has no resource but to throw himself into 

Never have we had successes so unvarying and so great. 
Italy, Friuli, the Tyrol, are assured to the Republic. The 
Emperor will have to create a second army : artillery, pontoons, 
baggage, everything is taken. 

In a few days we shall meet ; it is the sweetest reward for 
my labours and anxieties. 

A thousand fervent and very affectionate kisses. 


September llth. Skirmish at Cerea : Austrians successful. Bonaparte 
arrives alone, and is nearly captured. 


No. ii. 

Ronco, September 12, 1796, IO A.M. 

My dear Josephine, I have been here two days, badly lodged, 
badly fed, and very cross at being so far from you. 

Wurmser is hemmed in, he has with him 3000 cavalry and 
5000 infantry. He is at Porto-Legnago ; he is trying to get 
back into Mantua, but for him that has now become impossible. 
The moment this matter shall be finished I will be in your 

I embrace you a million times. BONAPARTE. 

September l^th. Wurmser, brushing aside the few French who oppose 
him, gains the suburbs of Mantua. 

September \^th. Massena attempts a surprise, but is repulsed. 

September I $th. JVurmser makes a sortie from St. Georges, but is driven 

September l6th. And at La Favorite, with like result. 

No. 12. 


Verona, September 17, 1796. 

My Dear, I write very often and you seldom. You are 
naughty, and undutiful ; very undutiful, as well as thoughtless. 
It is disloyal to deceive a poor husband, an affectionate lover. 
Ought he to lose his rights because he is far away, up to the 
neck in business, worries and anxiety. Without his Josephine, 
without the assurance of her love, what in the wide world 
remains for him. What will he do ? 


Yesterday we had a very sanguinary conflict ; the enemy 
has lost heavily, and been completely beaten. We have taken 
from him the suburbs of Mantua. 

Adieu, charming Josephine ; one of these nights the door 
will be burst open with a bang, as if by a jealous husband, and 
in a moment I shall be in your arms. 

A thousand affectionate kisses. BONAPARTE. 

October 2nd. (Moreau defeats Latour at Biberach, but then continues 
his retreat.) 

October Sth. Spain declares war against England. 
October loth. Peace 'with Naples signed. 

No. 13. 

Modena y October 17, 1796, 9 P.M. 

The day before yesterday I was out the whole day. Yester- 
day I kept my bed. Fever and a racking headache both pre- 
vented me writing to my beloved ; but I got your letters. I 
have pressed them to my heart and lips, and the grief of a 
hundred miles of separation has disappeared. At the present 
moment I can see you by my side, not capricious and out of 
humour, but gentle, affectionate, with that mellifluent kindness 
of which my Josephine is the sole proprietor. It was a dream, 
judge if it has cured my fever. Your letters are as cold as if you 
were fifty ; we might have been married fifteen years. One 
finds in them the friendship and feelings of that winter of life. 
Fie ! Josephine. It is very naughty, very unkind, very undutiful 
of you. What more can you do to make me indeed an object 
for compassion ? Love me no longer ? Eh, that is already 
accomplished ! Hate me ? Well, I prefer that ! Everything 


grows stale except ill-will ; but indifference, with its marble 
pulse, its rigid stare, its monotonous demeanour ! . . . 

A thousand thousand very heartfelt kisses. 

I am rather better. I start to-morrow. The English 
evacuate the Mediterranean. Corsica is ours. Good news for 
France, and for the army. BONAPARTE. 

October 2$th. (Moreau recrosses the Rhine.) 

November 1st. Advance of Marshal Alvinzi. Vaubois defeated by 
Davidovich on November $th, after tiuo days' Jight. 

November 6th. Napoleon successful, but Vaubois' defeat compels the 
French army to return to Verona. 

No. 14. 

Verona, November 9, 1796. 

My Dear, I have been at Verona since the day before 
yesterday. Although tired, I am very well, very busy ; and I 
love you passionately at all times. I am just off on horseback. 

I embrace you a thousand times. BONAPARTE. 

November \ 2th. Combat of Caldiero : Napoleon fails to turn the 
Austrian position, owing to heavy rains. His position desperate. 

November I $th. First battle of Arcola. French gain partial victory. 

November i6th and ijth. Second battle of Arcola. French completely 
victorious. " Lodi <was nothing to Arcola" (Bourrienne). 

November I'jth. Death of Czarina Catherine II. of Russia. 

November iSth. Napoleon victoriously re-enters Verona by the Venice 
gate, having left it, apparently in full retreat, on the night of the i ^th by the 
Milan gate. 


No. 15. 

From BOURRIENNE'S " LIFE OF NAPOLEON," vol. i. chap. 4. 

Verona ) November ityth, Noon. 

My Adored Josephine, Once more I breathe freely. Death 
is no longer before me, and glory and honour are once more 
re-established. The enemy is beaten at Arcola. To-morrow 
we will repair Vaubois' blunder of abandoning Rivoli. In a 
week Mantua will be ours, and then your husband will clasp 
you in his arms, and give you a thousand proofs of his ardent 
affection. I shall proceed to Milan as soon as I can ; I am rather 
tired. I have received letters from Eugene and Hortense 
charming young people. I will send them to you as soon as 
I find my belongings, which are at present somewhat dispersed. 

We have made five thousand prisoners, and killed at least six 
thousand of the enemy. Good-bye, my adored Josephine. Think 
of me often. If you cease to love your Achilles, if for him your 
heart grows cold, you will be very cruel, very unjust. But I 
am sure you will always remain my faithful mistress, as I shall 
ever remain your fond lover. Death alone can break the chain 
which sympathy, love, and sentiment have forged. Let me have 
news of your health. A thousand and a thousand kisses. 

No. 1 6. 

Verona^ November 23, 1796. 

I don't love you an atom ; on the contrary, I detest you. 
You are a good for nothing, very ungraceful, very tactless, very 
tatterdemalion. You never write to me ; you don't care for 
your husband ; you know the pleasure your letters give him, and 
you write him barely half-a-dozen lines, thrown off any how. 

How, then, do you spend the livelong day, madam ? What 


business of such importance robs you of the time to write to your 
very kind lover ? What inclination stifles and alienates love, the 
affectionate and unvarying love which you promised me ? Who 
may this paragon be, this new lover who engrosses all your time, 
is master of your days, and prevents you from concerning yourself 
about your husband ? Josephine, be vigilant ; one fine night the 
doors will be broken in, and I shall be before you. 

Truly, my dear, I am uneasy at getting no news from you. 
Write me four pages immediately, and some of those charming 
remarks which fill my heart with the pleasures of imagination. 

I hope that before long I shall clasp you in my arms, and 
cover you with a million kisses as burning as if under the equator. 


No. 17. 

Verona, November 24, 1796. 

I hope soon, darling, to be in your arms. I love you to 
distraction. I am writing to Paris by this courier. All goes 
well. Wurmser was beaten yesterday under Mantua. Your 
husband only needs Josephine's love to be happy. 


No. 1 8. 

Milan^ November 27, 1796, 3 P.M. 

I get to Milan ; I fling myself into your room ; I have left 
all in order to see you, to clasp you in my arms. . . . You were 
not there. You gad about the towns amid junketings ; you run 
farther from me when I am at hand ; you care no longer for 
your dear Napoleon. A passing fancy made you love him ; 
fickleness renders him indifferent to you. 

Used to perils, I know the remedy for weariness and the ills 
of life. The ill-luck that I now suffer is past all calculations ; I 
did right not to anticipate it. 


I shall be here till the evening of the 2Qth. Don't alter your 
plans ; have your fling of pleasure ; happiness was invented for 
you. The whole world is only too happy if it can please you, 
and only your husband is very, very unhappy. 

No. 19. 


Mi/an, November 28, 1796, 8 P.M. 

I have received the courier whom Berthier had hurried on to 
Genoa. You have not had time to write me, I feel it intuitively. 
Surrounded with pleasures and pastimes, you would be wrong 
to make the least sacrifice for me. Berthier has been good 
enough to show me the letter which you wrote him. My 
intention is that you should not make the least change in your 
plans, nor with respect to the pleasure parties in your honour ; 
I am of no consequence, either the happiness or the misery of a 
man whom you don't love is a matter of no moment. 

For my part, to love you only, to make you happy, to do 
nothing which may vex you, that is the object and goal of 
my life. 

Be happy, do not reproach me, do not concern yourself in the 
happiness of a man who lives only in your life, rejoices only in 
your pleasure and happiness. When I exacted from you a love 
like my own I was wrong ; why expect lace to weigh as heavy 
as gold ? When I sacrifice to you all my desires, all my thoughts, 
every moment of my life, I obey the sway which your charms, 
your disposition, and your whole personality have so effectively 
exerted over my unfortunate heart. I was wrong, since nature 
has not given me attractions with which to captivate you ; but 
what I do deserve from Josephine is her regard and esteem, for I 
love her frantically and uniquely. 

Farewell, beloved wife ; farewell, my Josephine. May fate 
concentrate in my breast all the griefs and troubles, but may it 



give Josephine happy and prosperous days. Who deserves them 
more ? When it shall be quite settled that she can love me no 
more, I will hide my profound grief, and will content myself with 
the power of being useful and serviceable to her. 

I reopen my letter to give you a kiss . . . Ah ! Josephine ! 
. . . Josephine ! BONAPARTE. 

December 2^th. French under Hoche sail for Ireland ; return " foiled 
by the elements." 

January *]th, 1797- Alvinzi begins his ne<w attack on Rivoli, 'while 
Provera tries to get to Mantua with I I,OOO men via Padua and Legnago. 
Alvinzi' s total forces 48,000, but only 28,000 at Rivoli against Bonaparte's 

January gth. Kehl (after 48 days' siege) surrenders to Archduke 

January lOth. Napoleon at Bologna advised of the advance, and 
hastens to make Verona, as before, the pivot of his movements. 

No. 2O. 
January 12th. Combat of St. Michel: Massena defeats Austrlans. 


Ferona^ January 12, 1797. 

Scarcely set out from Roverbella, I learnt that the enemy had 
appeared at Verona. Massena made some dispositions, which 
have been very successful. We have made six hundred prisoners, 
and have taken three pieces of cannon. General Brune got seven 
bullets in his clothes, without being touched by one of them 
this is what it is to be lucky. 

I give you a thousand kisses. I am very well. We have had 
only ten men killed, and a hundred wounded. 


January iyh. Joubert attacked ; retires from Corona on Rivoli in the 
morning, joined by Bonaparte at night. 

January i^h. Battle of Rivoli: Austrian centre defeated. Bonaparte 


at close of day hurries off with Massena s troops to overtake Provera, 
marching sixteen leagues during the night. Massena named next day enfant 
cheri de la victoire by Bonaparte, and later Due de Rivoli. 

January i$th. Joubert continues battle of Rivoli : complete defeat of 
Austnans. Provera, however, has reached St. Georges, outside Mantua. 

January i6th. Sortie of Wurmser at La Favorite repulsed. Provera, 
hurled back by Victor (named the Terrible on this day}, is surrounded by 
skilful manauvres of Bonaparte, and surrenders 'with 6000 men. In three 
days Bonaparte had taken 1 8,OOO prisoners and all Alvinzf s artillery. 
Colonel Graham gives Austrian losses at 14,000 to 15,000, exclusive of 
P rover a' s 6000. 

January 26th. Combat of Carpenedolo : Massena defeats the Austrians. 

February 2nd. Joubert occupies Laivis. Capitulation of Mantua, 
by Wurmser, 'with 13,000 men (ana 1 6000 in hospital}, but he, his staff", and 
200 cavalry allowed to return. Enormous capture of artillery, including 
siege-train abandoned by Bonaparte before the battle of Castiglione. Advance 
of Victor on Rome. 

No. 21. 


Fortiy February 3, 1797. 

I wrote you this morning. I start to-night. Our forces are 
at Rimini. This country is beginning to be tranquillised. My 
cold makes me always rather tired. 

I idolise you, and send you a thousand kisses. 

A thousand kind messages to my sister. 


February gth. Capture of Ancona. 

No. 22. 


Ancona, February IO, 1797. 

We have been at Ancona these two days. We took the 
citadel, after a slight fusillade, and by a coup de main. We made 
1 200 prisoners. I sent back the fifty officers to their homes. 


I am still at Ancona. I do not press you to come, because 
everything is not yet settled, but in a few days I am hoping that 
it will be. Besides, this country is still discontented, and every- 
body is nervous. 

I start to-morrow for the mountains. You don't write to me 
at all, yet you ought to let me have news of you every day. 

Please go out every day ; it will do you good. 

I send you a million kisses. I never was so sick of anything 
as of this vile war. 

Good-bye, my darling. Think of me ! BONAPARTE. 

No. 23. 

Ancona^ February 13, 1797. 

I get no news from you, and I feel sure that you no longer 
love me. I have sent you the papers, and various letters. I start 
immediately to cross the mountains. The moment that I know 
something definite, I will arrange for you to accompany me ; it 
is the dearest wish of my heart. 

A thousand and a thousand kisses. BONAPARTE. 

No. 24. 

February 16, 1797. 

You are melancholy, you are ill ; you no longer write to me, 
you want to go back to Paris. Is it possible that you no longer 
love your comrade ? The very thought makes me wretched. 
My darling, life is unbearable to me now that I am aware of 
your melancholy. 

I make haste to send you Moscati, so that he may look after 
you. My health is rather bad ; my cold gets no better. Please 


take care of yourself, love me as much as I love you, and write 
me every day. I am more uneasy than ever. 

I have told Moscati to escort you to Ancona, if you care to 
come there. I will write to you there, to let you know where 
I am. 

Perhaps I shall make peace with the Pope, then I shall 
soon be by your side ; it is my soul's most ardent wish. 

I send you a hundred kisses. Be sure that nothing equals my 
love, unless it be my uneasiness. Write to me every day your- 
self. Good-bye, dearest. BONAPARTE. 

No. 25. 

February ityth. Peace of Tolentino with the Pope, who has to pay for 
his equivocal attitude and broken treaty. 


TolentinO) February 19, 1797. 

Peace with Rome has just been signed. Bologna, Ferrara, 
Romagna, are ceded to the Republic. The Pope is to pay us 
thirty millions shortly, and various works of art. 

I start to-morrow morning for Ancona, and thence for 
Rimini, Ravenna, and Bologna. If your health permit, come 
to Rimini or Ravenna, but, I beseech you, take care of yourself. 

Not a word from you what on earth have I done ? To 
think only of you, to love only Josephine, to live only for my 
wife, to enjoy happiness only with my dear one does this 
deserve such harsh treatment from her ? My dear, I beg you, 
think often of me, and write me every day. 

You are ill, or else you do not love me ! Do you think, then, 
that I have a heart of stone ? and do my sufferings concern you 
so little ? You must know me very ill ! I cannot believe it ! 
You to whom nature has given intelligence, tenderness, and 


beauty, you who alone can rule my heart, you who doubtless 
know only too well the unlimited power you hold over me ! 

Write to me, think of me, and love me. Yours ever, for 

March l6th. Bonaparte defeats Archduke Charles on the Tagliamento. 

March 2$th. Bonaparte 'writes the Directory from Gontz that "up 
till now Prince Charles has manoeuvred 'worse than Beaulieu and Wurmser" 

March 2gtb. Klagenfurt taken by Massena. 

April 1st. Laybach by Bernadotte. 

April 1 7/A. Preliminaries of peace at Leoben signed by Bonaparte. 

April i8tf>. Hoche crosses the Rhine at Neuwied. 

April 2ist. Moreau at Kehl. 

April 2$rd. Armistice of two Rhine armies follows preliminaries of 

May i6th. Augereau enters Venice. 

June 28th. French capture Corfu, and 600 guns. 

July 8tb. Death of Edmund Burke, aged sixty-eight. 

July iSth. Talleyrand becomes French Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

September tfh. Day of 1 8th Fructidor at Paris. Coup d'Etat of 
Rewbell, Larevelliere-Lepeaux, and B arras, secretly aided by Bonaparte, who 
has sent them Augereau to command Paris. 

September i8/A. Death of Lazare Hoche, aged twenty-nine, probably 
poisoned by the Directory, "which has recalled Moreau, retired Bernadotte, 
and 'will soon launch Bonaparte on the seas, so that he may find failure and 
Bantry Bay at Aboukir (Montgaillard). 

September ^oth. National bankruptcy admitted in France, the sixth 
time in t<wo centuries. 

October 17 th. Treaty of Campo-Formio ; Bonaparte called thereupon by 
Talleyrand " General Pacificator." 

November i6th. Death of Frederick William II., King of Prussia, 
aged fifty -three ; succeeded by his son, Frederick William III., aged twenty- 

December 1st. Bonaparte Minister Plenipotentiary at Congress of 
Rastadt, and 

December $th. Arrives at Paris. 

December loth. Bonaparte presented to the Directory by Talleyrand. 

December 2'jth. Riots at Rome: Joseph Bonaparte (ambassador} 
insulted ; General Duphot (engaged to Joseph's sister-in-law, Desire e} 




^rd Outlaw. " By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar, 
This fellow were a king for our wild faction ! 
ist Out/aw. " We'll have him ; sirs, a word. 
Speed. " Master, be one of them, 

It is an honourable kind of thievery." 

The Two Gentlemen of Verona, 
Act iv., Scene i. 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 223-215.) 


Christmas Day, 1799 .223 

No. 3. Ivrea, May 29th ...... 224 

M.'s 224 

Cherries . . . . . . . .224 

No. 4. Milan , . . . . . . .224 


EVENTS OF 1798. 

NAPOLEONIC HISTORY. May 2Oth. Napoleon sails from Toulon for 

June llth. Takes Malta; sails for Egypt [June 2Oth). 

July 4/A. Captures Alexandria. 

July 21 st. Defeats Mamelukes at Battle of the Pyramids, and enters 
Cairo the following day. 

August 1st. French fleet destroyed by Nelson at the Battle of the Nile. 

October Jth. Desaix defeats M our ad Bey at Sedyman (Upper Egypt). 

GENERAL HISTORY. January ^th. Confiscation of all English 
merchandise in France. Commencement of Continental system. 

January $th. Directory fail to float a loan of 80 millions (francs), and 

January 2&th. Forthwith invade Switzerland, ostensibly to defend 
the Vaudois, under a sixteenth- century treaty, really to revolutionise the 
country, and seize upon the treasure of Berne. 

February i$th. Republic proclaimed at Rome. French occupy 
the Vatican, and 

February 2Oth. Drive Pope Pius VI. into exile to the convent of 

March $th. Capture of Berne by General Brune. 

April i$th. Bernadotte, ambassador, attacked at the French Em- 
bassy in Vienna. 

May igth. Fitzgerald, a leader in the Irish rebellion, arrested. 

August 22nd. General Humbert and 1 100 French troops land at 
Killala, County Mayo. 

September 8th. Humbert and 800 men taken by Lord Cornwallis at 

September 1 2th. Turkey declares war with France, and forms 
alliance with England and Russia. 

November igth. Wolfe-Tone commits suicide. 

December $th. Macdonald defeats Mack and 40,000 Neapolitans at 
Civita Castellana. 



December qth. Joubert occupies Turin. 
December l$th. French occupy Rome. 

December 2yth. Coalition of Russia, Austria, and England against 

EVENTS OF 1799. 

NAPOLEONIC HISTORY. January 2^rd. Desaix defeats Mourad Bey 
at Samhoud (Upper Egypt}. February $rd. Desaix defeats Mourad Bey 
at the Isle of Philae (near Assouan} -furthest limit of the Roman Empire. 
Napoleon crosses Syrian desert and takes El Arish (February 2Oth} and 
Gaza (February 2$th), captures Jaffa (March "]th} and Sour , formerly 
Tyre (April $rd). Junot defeats Turks and Arabs at Nazareth {April 
8 /A), and Kleber defeats them at Mount Tabor {April l6th}. Napoleon 
invests Acre but retires (May 2 1st), re-enters Cairo (June l-f/A), annihilates 
Turkish army at Aboukir (July 2$th) ; secretly sails for France (August 
2$rd), lands at Frejus (October <)th), arrives at Paris (October 13^); 
dissolves the Directory {November qth) and Council of Five Hundred 
(November IO//>), and is proclaimed First Consul (December 24^). 

GENERAL HISTORY. January loth. Championnet occupies Capua. 

January 2Oth. Pacification of La Vendee by General Hedouville. 

January 2$rd. Championnet occupies Naples. 

March ^rd. Corfu taken from the French by a Russo-Turkish 

March ^th. Massena defeats the Austrians, and conquers the country 
of the Grisons. 

March 2$th. Archduke Charles defeats Jourdan at Stockach. 

March $oth. Kray defeats French (under Scherer) near Verona, 

April $th. And again at Magnano. 

April i^th. Suwarrow takes command of Austrian army at Verona; 

April 22nd. Defeats French at Cassano, with heavy loss. 

April 28th. French plenipotentiaries, returning from Radstadt, mur- 
dered by men in Austrian uniforms Montgaillard thinks by creatures of 
the Directory. 

May 4/A. Capture of Seringapatam by General Baird. 

May 1 2th. Austro-Russian army checked at Bassignana. 

May \6th. Siyes becomes one of the Directory. 

May 2Oth. Suwarrow takes Brescia, 

May 2$th. And Milan (citadel). 

June $th. Massena defeated at Zurich by Archduke Charles ; and 
Macdonald (June igth} by Suwarrow at the Trebbia. 


June \%th. Gohier, Roger-Ducos, and Moulin replace Treilhard, 
Lareveillere-Lepeaux, and Merlin on the Directory. 

June 2dth. Turin surrenders to Austro- Russians. 

June 22nd. Turkey, Portugal, and Naples join the coalition against 

July i^th. French carry their prisoner, Pope Pius VI., to Valence, 
where he dies (August 2gth}. 

July 22nd. Alessandria surrenders to Austro- Russians. 

July $oth. Mantua, after 72 days' siege, surrenders to Kray. 

August i $th. French defeated at Novi by Suwarrow. French lose 
Joubert and 20,000 men. 

August ijtA. French, under Lecombe, force the St. Gothard. 

August 27 th. English army disembark at the Helder. 

August $oth. Dutch fleet surrendered to the British Admiral. 

September iqth. Brune defeats Duke of York at Bergen. 

September 2$th. Massena defeats allies at Zurich, who lose 16,000 
men and 100 guns. "Massena saves France at Zurich, as Villars saved 
it at Denain." Montgaillard. 

October 6th. Brune defeats Duke of York at Kastrikum. 

October 1th. French take Constance. 

October i6th. Saint-Cyr, without cavalry or cannon, defeats Aus- 
trians at Bosco. 

October iSth. Capitulation at Alkmaar by Duke of York to General 
Brune. "The son of George III. capitulates at Alkmaar as little 
honourably as the son of George II. had capitulated at Kloster-Seven in 
175 7 ." Montgaillard. 

November $th. Melas defeats French at Fossano. 

November i^th. Ancona surrendered to the Austrians by Monnier, 
after a six months' siege. 

November 2^th. Moreau made commander of the armies of the 
Rhine (being in disgrace, has served as a volunteer in Italy most of this 
year) ; Massena sent to the army of Italy. 

December $th. Coni, the key of Piedmont, surrenders to the Austrians. 

December i^th. Death of George Washington. 

December \$th, Battle of Montefaccio, near Genoa. Saint-Cyr 
defeats Austrians. 

EVENTS OF 1800. 

February nth. Bank of France constituted. 
February 2Oth. Kleber defeats Turks at Heliopolis. 
May $rd. Battle of Engen. Moreau defeats Kray, who loses 
10,000 men, and 


May $th. Again defeats Austrians at Moeskirch. 

May 6th. Napoleon leaves Paris. 

May 8th. Arrives at Auxnnne, and on the gth at Geneva, from thence 
moves to Lausanne (May 1 2th), where he is delighted with reception accorded 
to the French t roofs, and hears of Moreau's victory at Bibernach (May 
1 1 th). On the 1 $th he hears of Desaix's safe arrival at Toulon from 
Egypt, together 'with Davoust, and orders the praises of their past achieve- 
ments to be sung in the Moniteur. The same day 'writes Massena that in 
Genoa a man like himself (Massena) is worth 20,000. On the l6th is 
still at Lausanne. 

No. i. 

Lausanne, May I5> i8oo. 

I have been at Lausanne since yesterday. I start to-morrow. 
My health is fairly good. The country round here is very 
beautiful. I see no reason why, in ten or twelve days, you 
should not join me here ; you must travel incognito, and not 
say where you are going, because I want no one to know what 
I am about to do. You can say you are going to Plombieres. 
I will send you Moustache, 1 who has just arrived. 
My very kindest regards to Hortense. Eugene will not be 
here for eight days ; he is en route. BONAPARTE. 

No. 2. 

Torre di Garofolo, May 1 6, 1800. 

I start immediately to spend the night at Saint-Maurice. I 
have not received a single letter from you ; that is not well. 
I have written you by every courier. 

Eugene may arrive the day after to-morrow. I have rather a 
cold, but it will have no ill effects. 

My very kindest regards to you, my good little Josephine, 
and to all who belong to you. BONAPARTE. 

1 Bonaparte's courier. 


May I'jthl^th. At Martigny, "struggling against ice t snow-storms, 
and avalanches ," and astonishing the great St. Bernard " with the passage 
of our 'pieces of 8,' and especially of our limbers a new experience for it" 
On May 2Oth he climbed the St. Bernard on a mule, and descended it on a 
sledge. On May 2 1st he is at Aosta, hoping to be back in Paris within a 
fortnight. His army had passed the mountain in four days. On May 2^th 
he is at Ivrea, taken by Lannes on the 2^th. 

No. 3.1 

[_From Tennant's Tour, &c., vol. ii.] 

II P.M. 

I hardly know which way to turn. In an hour I start for 
Vercelli. Murat ought to be at Novaro to-night. The enemy 
is thoroughly demoralised ; he cannot even yet understand us. 
I hope within ten days to be in the arms of my Josephine, who 
is always very good when she is not crying and not flirting. 
Your son arrived this evening. I have had him examined ; he is 
in excellent health. Accept a thousand tender thoughts. I have 
received M.'s letter. I will send her by the next courier a box 
of excellent cherries. 

We are here within two months for Paris. Yours entirely, 

N. B. 

To Madame Bonaparte. (Address not in Bonaparte's writing.) 

June ist. First experiments with vaccination at Paris, with fluid 
sent from London. 

On June 2nd Napoleon enters Milan, where he spends a week. 

No. 4. 


I am at Milan, with a very bad cold. I can't stand rain, and 
I have been wet to the skin for several hours, but all goes well. 
I don't persuade you to come here. I shall be home in a month. 

1 The date of this letter is May 29, 1800. See Notes. 


I trust to find you flourishing. I am just starting for Pavia and 
Stradella. We are masters of Brescia, Cremona, and Placentia. 
Kindest regards. Murat has borne himself splendidly. 

Junc$th. Massena gives up Genoa, but leaves with all the honours of war. 

June 1th. Lannes takes Pavia, 350 cannon, and 10,000 muskets. 

June gth. Battle of Montebello. Bonaparte defeats Austrian*) who 
lose 8000 men. 

June 1 4/A. Bonaparte 'wins Marengo, but loses Desaix " the man I 
loved and esteemed the most." In his bulletin he admits the battle at one time 
was lost, until he cried to his troops " Children, remember it is my custom to 
sleep upon the battlefield." He mentions the charges of Desaix and Keller- 
mann, and especially eulogises the latter a fact interesting on account of the 
false statements made of his ignoring it. In the bulletin of June 2 1st he 
blames the " punic faith " of Lord Keith at Genoa, a criticism the Admiral 
repaid with usury fifteen years later. 

June i^th. Assassination of Kleber, in Egypt. 

June l6th. Convention of Alessandria between Bonaparte and Melas ; 
end of the " Campaign of Thirty Days." 

June icjth. Moreau defeats Kray at Hochstedt, and occupies Ulm. 

June 2$rd. Genoa re-entered by the French. 

June 26th. Bonaparte leaves Massena in command of the Army of 
Reserve, now united with the Army of Italy. 

July yd. The First Consul is back in Paris unexpectedly not wishing 
triumphal arches or such-like " colifichets" In spite of which the plaudits 
he receives are very dear to him, "sweet as the voice of Josephine." 

September $th. Vaubois surrenders Malta to the English, after two 
years' blockade. 

September i$th. Armistice between France and Austria in Germany. 

September $Oth. Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between 
France and U.S. agreed that the flag covers the goods. 

October ^rd. To facilitate peace King George renounces his title of 
King of France. 

November 12th. Rupture of Armistice between France and Austria. 

December $rd. Moreau wins the battle of Hohenlinden (Austrian 
loss, 16,000 men, 80 guns; French 3000). 

December 2Oth. Moreau occupies Lintz (lOO miles from Vienna). 

December 2^th. Royalist conspirators fail to kill Bonaparte with an 
infernal machine. 

December 2$th. Armistice at Steyer between Moreau and Archduke 
Charles (tent for by the Austrians a fortnight before as their last hope). 


" The peace of Amiens had always been regarded from the side 
of England as an armed truce : on the side of Napoleon it had a 
very different character. ... A careful reader must admit that we 
were guilty of a breach of faith in not surrendering Malta. The 
promise of its surrender was the principal article of the treaty." 

England and Napoleon in 1803. 
(Edited for the R. Hist. S. by Oscar Browning, 1887.) 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 225-231.) 

No. i. 

The blister 

. 225 

Some plants ..... 

. 22 5 

If the weather is as bad . 

. 226 

Malmaison, without you 

. 228 

No. 2. 

The fat Eugene .... 

. 228 

No. 3. 

Tour letter has come .... 

. 229 

Injured 'whilst shooting a boar . 

. 229 

"The Barber of Seville" 

. 229 

No. 4 . 

The Sevres Manufactory 

. 230 

No. 5. 

Tour lover, -who is tired of being alone 

. 230 

General Ney ..... 

. 231 

4 s 


l8oi AND I8O2. 

EVENTS OF 1801. 

January 1st. Legislative Union of Great Britain and Ireland. 

January $rd. French under Brune occupy Verona, and 

January 8th. Vicenza. 

January nth. Cross the Brenta. 

January 1 6th. Armistice at Treviso between Brune and the Austrian 
General Bellegarde. 

February gth. Treaty of Luneville, by which the Thalweg of the 
Rhine became the boundary of Germany and France. 

March 8th. English land at Aboukir. 

March 2ist. Battle of Alexandria (Canopus). Menou defeated 
by Abercromby, with loss of 2000. 

March 2^th. The Czar Paul is assassinated. 

March 28th. Treaty of Peace between France and Naples, who 
cedes Elba and Piombino. 

April 2nd. Nelson bombards Copenhagen. 

May 2$rJ. General Baird lands at Kosseir on the Red Sea with 
1000 English and 10,000 Sepoys. 

June Jth. French evacuate Cairo. 

July ist. Toussaint-Louverture elected Life-Governor of St. Do- 
mingo. Slavery abolished there. The new ruler declares, " I am the 
Bonaparte of St. Domingo, and the Colony cannot exist without me ; " 
and heads his letters to the First Consul, " From the First of the Blacks 
to the First of the Whites." 

July I j/^. Concordat between Bonaparte and the Pope, signed at Paris 
by Bonaparte, ratified by the Pope (August l$th). 

August Ofth. Nelson attacks Boulogne flotilla and is repulsed. 

August 1 5/A. Attacks again, and suffers severely. 

August 3U/. Menou capitulates to Hutchinson at Alexandria. 

September 2()th. Treaty of Peace between France and Portugal ; 
boundaries of French Guiana extended to the Amazon. 

49 D 


October ist. Treaty between France and Spain, who restores Louisiana. 
Preliminaries of Peace between France and England signed in London. 

October Stb. Treaty of Peace between France and Russia. 

October ()th. And between France and Turkey. 

December i^th. Expedition sent out to St. Domingo by the French 
under General Leclerc. 

No. i. 

Paris the "27" . . ., 1801. 

The weather is so bad here that I have remained in Paris. 
Malmaison, without you, is too dreary. The fete has been a 
great success ; it has rather tired me. The blister they have put 
on my arm gives me constant pain. 

Some plants have come for you from London, which I have 
sent to your gardener. If the weather is as bad at Plombieres as 
it is here, you will suffer severely from floods. 

Best love to " Maman " and Hortense. 


EVENTS OF 1802. 

January $th. Louis Bonaparte marries Hortense Beauharnais, both 

January gth. The First Consul, with Josephine, leaves for Lyons, 

January 2$th. He remodels the Cisalpine Republic as the Italian Re- 
public, under his Presidency. 

March ^^th. Treaty of Amiens signed in London. French lose 
only Ceylon and Trinidad. Malta to be restored to the Order of 
Knights, reconstituted. 

May 1th. Toussaint surrenders to Leclerc. 

May iqth. Institution of the Legion of Honour. 


No. 2. 

Malmaison, June 19, 1802. 

I have as yet received no news from you, but I think you 
must already have begun to take the waters. It is rather dull 
for us here, although your charming daughter does the honours 
of the house to perfection. For the last two days I have suffered 
slightly from my complaint. The fat Eugene arrived yesterday 
evening ; he is very hale and hearty. 

I love you as I did the first hour, because you are kind and 
sweet beyond compare. 

Hortense told me that she was often writing you. 

Best wishes, and a love-kiss. Yours ever, 


No. 3. 

Malmaison, June 23, 1802. 

My Good Little Josephine, Your letter has come. I am sorry 
to see you have been poorly on the journey, but a few days' rest 
will put you right. I am very fairly well. Yesterday I was 
at the Marly hunt, and one of my fingers was very slightly 
injured whilst shooting a boar. 

Hortense is usually in good health. Your fat son has been 
rather unwell, but is getting better. I think the ladies are play- 
ing " The Barber of Seville " to-night. The weather is perfect. 

Rest assured that my truest wishes are ever for my little 
Josephine. Yours ever, BONAPARTE. 


No. 4. 

Malmaison, June 27, 1802. 

Your letter, dear little wife, has apprised me that you are out 
of sorts. Corvisart tells me that it is a good sign that the baths 
are having the desired effect, and that your health will soon be 
re-established. But I am most truly grieved to know that you 
are in pain. 

Yesterday I went to see the Sevres manufactory at St. Cloud. 

Best wishes to all. Yours for life, BONAPARTE. 

June 2gth. Pope withdraws excommunication from Talleyrand. 

No. 5. 

Afalmaison, July I, 1802. 

Your letter of June 2Qth has arrived. You say nothing of 
your health nor of the effect of the baths. I see that you expect 
to be home in a week ; that is good news for your lover, who is 
tired of being alone ! 

You ought to have seen General Ney, who started for Plom- 
bieres ; he will be married on his return. 

Yesterday Hortense played Rosina in " The Barber of Seville " 
with her usual skill. 

Rest assured of my love, and that I await your return impa- 
tiently. Without you everything here is dreary. 


August 2nd. Napoleon Bonaparte made First Consul for life. " The 
conduct and the language of Bonaparte represents at once Augustus, Mahomet, 
Louis XI., Masaniello" (Montgaillard, an avowed enemy}. 


September 22nd. Opening of the Ourcq Waterworks for the supply 
of Paris. 

September 2$th. Mass celebrated at St. Cloud for the first time. In 
this month Napoleon annexes Piedmont, and the next sends Ney to occupy 

October nth. Birth of Napoleon Charles, son of Louis Bonaparte and 

October 2tyh. Napoleon and Josephine visit Normandy, and, contrary 
to expectation, receive ovations everywhere. They return to Paris, November 

EVENTS OF 1803. 

February i<)lh. New constitution imposed by France on Switzer- 

April I ifth. Bank of France reorganised by Bonaparte ; /'/ alone allowed 
to issue notes. 

April 2jtb. Death of Toussaint-Louverture at Besancon. 

April ^oth. France sells Louisiana to U.S. for 4,000,000 (15 
million dollars). 

May 22nd. France declares war against England, chiefly respecting 
Malta. England having seized all French ships in British harbours pre- 
vious to war being declared, Napoleon seizes all British tourists in France. 

May $lst. His soldiers occupy Electorate of Hanover. 

June i^th. He visits North of France and Belgium, accompanied by 
Josephine, and returns to Paris August 12th. 

September 2jtb. Press censorship established in France. 

November ^oth. French evacuate St. Domingo. 



" Everywhere the king of the earth found once more, to put 
a bridle on his pride, the inevitable lords of the sea." BIGNON, 
v. 130. 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 232-237.) 


No. I. Madame ........ 232 

Pont de Bricques ...... 232 

The wind having considerably freshened . . .232 
No. 2. The waters ...... 233 

All the vexations . . . . . .233 

Eugene has started for Blots . . . . .234 

No. 3. Aix-la-Chapelle . . . . . . .234 

No. 4. During the past week . . . . . .235 

The day after to-morroiv . . . . .235 

Hor tense . . . . . . . .235 

/ am very well satisfied . . . . .235 

No. 5. Its authenticity . . . . . . .236 

Arras ) August 2<)th . . . . . .236 

I am rather impatient to see you . . . .236 

No. 6. T. . . . . . . . . 237 

B .......... 237 


EVENTS OF 1804. 

February i$th. The conspiracy of Pichegru. Moreau arrested, 
Pichegru (February 2%th], and Georges Cadoudal (March 9//&). 

March 2ist. Due D'Enghien shot at Vincennes. 

April 6th. Suicide of Pichegru. 

April $oth. Proposal to make Bonaparte Emperor. 

May Ofth. Tribune adopts the proposal. 

May l%th. The First Consul becomes the Emperor Napoleon. 

May I gth Napoleon confers the dignity of Marshal of the Empire on 

Berthier, Murat, Moncey, Jourdan, Massena, Augereau, Bernadotte, Soult, 
Brune, Lannrs, Mortier, Ney, Davoust, Bessieres, Kellermann, Lefebvre, 
Perignon, Serrurier. 

July i^th Inauguration of the Legion of Honour. 

No. i. 


Pont-de-Bricques, July 21, 1804. 

Madame and dear Wife^ During the four days that I have 
been away from you I have always been either on horseback or 
in a conveyance, without any ill effect on my health. 

M. Maret tells me that you intend starting on Monday ; 
travelling by easy stages, you can take your time and reach the 
Spa without tiring yourself. 

The wind having considerably freshened last night, one of 



our gunboats, which was in the harbour, broke loose and ran on 
the rocks about a league from Boulogne. I believed all lost 
men and merchandise ; but we managed to save both. The 
spectacle was grand : the shore sheeted in fire from the alarm 
guns, the sea raging and bellowing, the whole night spent in 
anxiety to save these unfortunates or to see them perish ! My 
soul hovered between eternity, the ocean, and the night. At 
5 A.M. all was calm, everything saved ; and I went to bed with 
the feeling of having had a romantic and epic dream a circum- 
stance which might have reminded me that I was all alone, had 
weariness and soaked garments left me any other need but that 
of sleep. NAPOLEON. 

[Correspondence of Napoleon /., No. 7861, 
communicated by M. ChambryJ\ 

No. 2. 


Boulogne, August 3, 1804. 

My Dear, I trust soon to learn that the waters have done 
you much good. I am sorry to hear of all the vexations you 
have undergone. Please write me often. My health is very 
good, although I am rather tired. I shall be at Dunkirk in a 
very few days, and shall write you from there. 

Eugene has started for Blois. 

Je te couvre de baisers. NAPOLEON. 

No. 3. 

Calais, August 6, 1804. 

My Dear, I arrived at Calais at midnight ; I expect to start 
to-night for Dunkirk. I am in v^ry fair health, and satisfied 


with what I see. I trust that the waters are doing you as much 
good as exercise, camp, and seascape are doing me. 

Eugene has set off for Blois. Hortense is well. Louis is at 

I am longing to see you. You are always necessary to my 
happiness. My very best love. NAPOLEON. 

No. 4. 

Ostend, August 14, 1804. 

My Dear, I have had no letter from you for several days ; 
yet I should be more comfortable if I knew that the waters were 
efficacious, and how you spend your time. During the past 
week I have been at Ostend. The day after to-morrow I shall 
be at Boulogne for a somewhat special fete. Advise me by the 
courier what you intend to do, and how soon you expect to end 
your baths. 

I am very well satisfied with the army and the flotillas. 
Eugene is still at Blois. I hear no more of Hortense than if she 
were on the Congo. I am writing to scold her. 

My best love to all. NAPOLEON. 

No. 5. 

Arras, Wednesday, August 29, 1804. 

Madame and dear Wife, I have just reached Arras. I shall 
stay there to-morrow. I shall be at Mons on Friday, and on 
Sunday at Aix-la-Chapelle. I am as well satisfied with my 
journey as with the army. I think I shall pass through Brussels 
without stopping there ; thence I shall go to Maestricht. I am 


rather impatient to see you. I am glad to hear you have tried 
the waters ; they cannot fail to do you good. My health is 
excellent. Eugene is well, and is with me. 

Very kindest regards to every one. BONAPARTE. 

[Translated from a Letter in the Collection of Baron 
Heath t Philobiblon Society, vol. xiv.~] 

October 2nd. Sir Sydney Smith attacks flotilla at Boulogne un- 

No. 6. 

TrhjeS) October 6, 1804. 

My Dear, I arrive at Treves the same moment that you 
arrive at St. Cloud. I am in good health. Do not grant an 

audience to T , and refuse to see him. Receive B only 

in general company, and do not give him a private interview. 
Make promises to sign marriage contracts only after I have 
signed them. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

December 1st. Plebiscite confirms election of Napoleon as Emperor, by 
3,500,000 votes to 2000. 

December 2nd. Napoleon crowns himself Emperor, and Josephine Em- 
press, in the presence and 'with the benediction of the Pope. 

GENERAL EVENTS. October Stk. The negro Dessalines crowned 
Emperor of St. Domingo, under title of James I. 

December 12th. Spain declares war against England. 


' To convey an idea of the brilliant campaign of 1 805 ... I 
should, like the almanack-makers, be obliged to note down a victory 
for every day." BOURRIENNE, vol. ii. 323. 

" Si jamais correspondence de mari a femme a etc" intime et fre- 
quente, si jamais continuite et permanence de tendresse a e"te marquee, 
c'est bien dans ces lettres ecrites, chaque jour presque, par Napole'on 
a sa femme durant la campagne de 1'an XIV." F. MASSON, Jose- 
phine, Imperatrice et Reine, 1899, P' 4 2 7' 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 237-243.) 


No. I. To Josephine ....... 237 

Strasburg . . . . . . .237 

Stuttgard 237 

I am well placed . . . . . .237 

No. 2. Louisburg . . . . . . .238 

In a few Jays . . . . . . .238 

A new bride . . . . . . .238 

Elec tress . . . . . . .238 

No. 3. I have assisted at a marriage . . . .238 

No. 5. The abbey of Elchingen . . . -238 

No. 6. Spent the 'whole of to-day indoors . . . .238 

Vicenza ........ 238 

No. 7. Elchingen ....... 239 

Such a catastrophe . . . . . .239 

No. 9. Munich ........ 239 

Lemarois ........ 239 

/ wa s grieved . . . . . . .239 

Amuse yourself ....... 239 

Talleyrand has come . . . . . .240 

No. 10. We are always in forests . . . . .240 

My enemies . . . . . . . 240 

No. II. Lintz , ........ 240 

No. 12. Schoenbrunn . . . . . . .241 

No. 13. They owe everything to you . , . . .241 
No. 14. Austerlitz . . . . . . .241 

December 2nd . . . . . . .24! 

No. 17. A long time since I had news of you . . .24! 
No. 19. / aw ait events ....... 242 

I) for my part, am sufficiently busy . . . 242 


EVENTS OF 1805. 

March l$th. Napoleon proclaimed King of Italy. 

May 26th. Crowned at Milan. 

June 8th. Prince Eugene named Viceroy of Italy. 

June 2yd. Lucca made a principality, and given to Elisa Bonaparte. 

July 22nd. Naval battle between Villeneuve and Sir Robert Calder, 
which saves England from invasion. 

August l6th. Napoleon breaks up camp of Boulogne. 

September 8th. Third Continental Coalition (Russia, Austria, and 
England against France). Austrians cross the Inn, and invade Bavaria. 

September 2ist. Treaty of Paris between France and Naples, which 
engages to take no part in the war. 

September 2yd. Moniteur announces invasion of Bavaria by Austria. 

September 2^th. Napoleon leaves Paris. 

September 2Jth. Joins at Strasburg his Grand Army (160,000 strong}. 

October 1st. Arrives at Ettlingen. 

October 2nd. Arrives at Louisbourg. Hostilities commence. 

No. i. 

Imperial Headquarters, Ettlingen, 

October 2, 1805, IO A.M. 

I am well, and still here. I am starting for Stuttgard, where 
I shall be to-night. Great operations are now in progress. The 
armies of Wurtemberg and Baden have joined mine. I am well 

placed for the campaign, and I love you. NAPOLEON. 



No. 2. 

Louhbourg y October 4, 1805, Noon. 

I am at Louisbourg. I start to-night. There is as yet 
nothing new. My whole army is on the march. The weather 
is splendid. My junction with the Bavarians is effected. I am 
well. I trust in a few days to have something interesting to 

Keep well, and believe in my entire affection. There is a 
brilliant Court here, a new bride who is very beautiful, and upon 
the whole some very pleasant people, even our Electress, who 
appears extremely kind, although the daughter of the King of 
England. NAPOLEON. 

No. 3. 

Louisbourg, October 5, 1805. 

I continue my march immediately. You will, my dear, be 
five or six days without hearing from me ; don't be uneasy, it is 
connected with operations now taking place. All goes well, and 
just as I could wish. 

I have assisted at a marriage between the son of the Elector 
and a niece of the King of Prussia. I wish to give the young 
princess a wedding present to cost 36,000 to 40,000 francs. 
Please attend to this, and send it to the bride by one of my 
chamberlains, when they shall come to rejoin me. This matter 
must be attended to immediately. 

Adieu, dear, I love you and embrace you. NAPOLEON. 

October bth-yth. French cross the Danube and turn Mack's army. 
October 8th. Battle of Wertingen. (Murat defeats the Austrian!.} 
October <)th. Battle of Gunzburg. (Ney defeats Mack.] 


No. 4. 
October loth. French enter Augsbourg. 


Augsbourg Thursday ', October IO, 1805, 

I I A.M. 

I slept last night 1 with the former Elector of Treves, who 
is very well lodged. For the past week I have been hurrying 
forward. The campaign has been successful enough so far. I 
am very well, although it rains almost every day. Events crowd 
on us rapidly. I have sent to France 4000 prisoners, 8 flags, and 
have 14 of the enemy's cannon. 

Adieu, dear, I embrace you. NAPOLEON. 

October nth. Battle of Hasslach. Dupont holds his own against 
much superior forces. 

No. 5. 

October 1 2th. French enter Munich. 


October 12, 1805, II P.M. 

My army has entered Munich. On one side the enemy is 
beyond the Inn ; I hold the other army, 60,000 strong, blocked 
on the Iller, between Ulm and Memmingen. The enemy is 
beaten, has lost its head, and everything points to a most glorious 
campaign, the shortest and most brilliant which has been made. 
In an hour I start for Burgau-sur-1'Iller. 

I am well, but the weather is frightful. It rains so much 
that I change my clothes twice a day. 

I love and embrace you. NAPOLEON. 

October l^th. Capture of Memmingen and 4000 Austrian* by Soult. 
October l$th, Battle of Elchingen. Ney defeats Laudon. 
October ijth. Capitulation of Ulm. 

1 J'ai coucht aujourcThui i.e. a few hours' morning sleep. 


No. 6. 

October iqth. IVerneck and 8OOO men surrender to Murat. 


Abbaye d' Elchingen, October 19, 1805. 

My dear Josephine, I have tired myself more than I ought. 
Soaked garments and cold feet every day for a week have made 
me rather ill, but I have spent the whole of to-day indoors, which 
has rested me. 

My design has been accomplished ; I have destroyed the 
Austrian army by marches alone ; I have made 60,000 prisoners, 
taken 120 pieces of cannon, more than 90 flags, and more than 
30 generals. I am about to fling myself on the Russians ; they 
are lost men. I am satisfied with my army. I have only lost 
1500 men, of whom two-thirds are but slightly wounded. 

Prince Charles is on his way to cover Vienna. I think 
Massena should be already at Vicenza. 

The moment I can give my thoughts to Italy, I will make 
Eugene win a battle. 

Very best wishes to Hortense. 

Adieu, my Josephine ; kindest regards to every one. 


October 2Otb. Mack and his army dejile before Napoleon. 

No. 7. 

October 2\st. Battle of Trafalgar ; Franco-Spanish fleet destroyed 
after a five hours' fight. " The result of the battle of Trafalgar compen- 
sates, for England, the results of the operations of Ulm. It has been 
justly observed that this power alone, of all those who fought France 
from 1793 to 1812, never experienced a check in her political or military 
combinations without seeing herself compensated forthwith by a signal 
success in some other part of the world " (Montgaillard}. 



E/chingeriy October 21, 1805, Noon. 

I am fairly well, my dear. I start at once for Augsbourg. I 
have made 33,000 men lay down their arms, I have from 60,000 
to 70,000 prisoners, more than 90 flags, and 200 pieces of 
cannon. Never has there been such a catastrophe in military 
annals ! 

Take care of yourself. I am rather jaded. The weather has 
been fine for the last three days. The first column of prisoners 
files off for France to-day. Each column consists of 6000 men. 

No. 8. 

October 25th. The Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia swear, 
at the tomb of the Great Frederick, to make implacable war on France 
(Convention signed November 3rd). 


Augsburg^ October 25, 1805. 

The two past nights have thoroughly rested me, and I am going 
to start to-morrow for Munich. I am sending word to M. de 
Talleyrand and M. Maret to be near at hand. I shall see some- 
thing of them, and I am going to advance upon the Inn in order 
to attack Austria in the heart of her hereditary states. I should 
much have liked to see you ; but do not reckon upon my sending 
for you, unless there should be an armistice or winter quarters. 

Adieu, dear ; a thousand kisses. Give my compliments to 
the ladies. NAPOLEON. 

No. 9. 

Munich^ Sunday, October 27, 1805. 

I received your letter per Lemarois. I was grieved to see 
how needlessly you have made yourself unhappy. I have heard 


particulars which have proved how much you love me, but 
you should have more fortitude and confidence. Besides, I 
had advised you that I should be six days without writing you. 

To-morrow I expect the Elector. At noon I start to sup- 
port my advance on the Inn. My health is fair. You need not 
think of crossing the Rhine for two or three weeks. You must 
be cheerful, amuse yourself, and hope that before the end of the 
month l we shall meet. 

I am advancing against the Russian army. In a few days I 
shall have crossed the Inn. 

Adieu, my dear ; kindest regards to Hortense, Eugene, and 
the two Napoleons. 

Keep back the wedding present a little longer. 

Yesterday I gave a concert to the ladies of this court. The 
precentor is a superior man. 

I took part in the Electors pheasant-shoot ; you see by that 
that I am not so tired. M. de Talleyrand has come. 


October 2%th. Grand Army cross the Inn. Lannes occupies Braunau. 

October 2%th to October 29-30^. Battle of Catcher o. Massena with 
55,000 men attacks Archduke Charles entrenched with 70,000; after 
two days' fight French repulsed at this place, previously disastrous to their 

No. IO. 

Haagj November 3, 1805, IO P.M. 

I am in full march ; the weather is very cold, the earth 
covered with a foot of snow. This is rather trying. Luckily 
there is no want of wood ; here we are always in forests. I am 

1 The month Brumaire i.e, before November 2ist. 


fairly well. My campaign proceeds satisfactorily ; my enemies 
must have more anxieties than I. 

I wish to hear from you and to learn that you are not worry- 
ing yourself. 

Adieu, dear ; I am going to lie down. NAPOLEON. 

November ^th. Combat of Amstetten. Lannes and Murat drive 
back the Russians. Davoust occupies Steyer. Army of Italy takes 

No. ii. 

Tuesday, November 5, 1805. 

I am at Lintz. The weather is fine. We are within seventy 
miles of Vienna. The Russians do not stand ; they are in full 
retreat. The house of Austria is at its wit's end, and in Vienna 
they are removing all the court belongings. It is probable that 
something new will occur within five or six days. I much desire 
to see you again. My health is good. 

I embrace you. NAPOLEON. 

November jtb. Ney occupies Innsbruck. 

November yih. Davoust defeats Meerfeldt at Marienzell. 

November loth. Marmont arrives at Leoben. 

November nth, Battle of Diernstein ; Mortier overwhelmed by 
Russians, but saved by Dupont. 

November i$th. Vienna entered and bridge over the Danube seized. 
Massena crosses the Tagliamento. 

November i^th. Ney enters Trent. 

No. 12. 

November 15, 1805, 9 P.M. 

I have been at Vienna two days, my dear, rather fagged. I 
have not yet seen the city by day ; I have traversed it by night. 


To-morrow I receive the notables and public bodies. Nearly all 
my troops are beyond the Danube, in pursuit of the Russians. 

Adieu, Josephine ; as soon as it is possible I will send for you. 
My very best love. NAPOLEON. 

No. 13. 

November i6th. Jellachich surrenders to Augereau at Feldkirch 
with 7000 men. 


Vienna, November 16, 1805. 

I am writing to M. d'Harville, so that you can set out and 
make your way to Baden, thence to Stuttgard, and from there to 
Munich. At Stuttgard you will give the wedding present to the 
Princess Paul. If it costs fifteen to twenty thousand francs, that 
will suffice ; the rest will do for giving presents at Munich to the 
daughters of the Electress of Bavaria. All that Madame de 
Serent 1 has advised you is definitely arranged. Take with you 
the wherewithal to make presents to the ladies and officers who 
will wait upon you. Be civil, but receive full homage ; they 
owe everything to you, and you owe nothing save civility. The 
Electress of Wurtemberg is daughter of the King of England. 
She is an excellent woman ; you should be very kind to her, but 
yet without affectation. 

I shall be very glad to see you, the moment circumstances 
permit me. I start to join my vanguard. The weather is 
frightful ; it snows heavily. Otherwise my affairs go excellently. 

Adieu, my dear. NAPOLEON. 

November iqth. French occupy Brunn, and Napoleon establishes his 
headquarters at Wischau. 

1 Countess de Serent. the Empress's lady-in-waiting. 


November 2^th. Massena occupies Trieste. 

November 2$tb. Army of Italy joins troops of the Grand Army at 

December 2nd. Battle of the Three Emperors ( Austerlitz). French 
forces 80,000 ; allies 95,000. 

No. 14. 

Austerlitz, December 3, 1805. 

I have despatched to you Lebrun from the field of battle. I 
have beaten the Russian and Austrian army commanded by the 
two Emperors. I am rather fagged. I have bivouacked eight 
days in the open air, through nights sufficiently keen. To-night 
I rest in the chateau of Prince Kaunitz, where I shall sleep for 
the next two or three hours. The Russian army is not only 
beaten, but destroyed. 

I embrace you. NAPOLEON. 

December ^th. Haugwitz, the Prussian Minister, congratulates Napo- 
leon on his victory. *' Volla ! " replied the Emperor ; " un compliment dont 
la fortune a change I'addrcsse." 

No. 15. 

Austerlitz^ December 5, 1805. 

I have concluded a truce. The Russians have gone. The 
battle of Austerlitz is the grandest of all I have fought. Forty- 
five flags, more than 150 pieces of cannon, the standards of the 
Russian Guard, 20 generals, 30,000 prisoners, more than 20,000 
slain a horrible sight. 

The Emperor Alexander is in despair, and on his way to 
Russia. Yesterday, at my bivouac, I saw the Emperor of Germany. 
We conversed for two hours ; we have agreed to make peace 


The weather is not now very bad. At last behold peace 
restored to the Continent ; it is to be hoped that it is going to be 
to the world. The English will not know how to face us. 

I look forward with much pleasure to the moment when I 
can once more be near you. My eyes have been rather bad the 
last two days ; I have never suffered from them before. 

Adieu, my dear. I am fairly well, and very anxious to 
embrace you. NAPOLEON. 

No. 1 6. 

AusterlitZ) December 7, 1805. 

I have concluded an armistice ; within a week peace will be 
made. I am anxious to hear that you reached Munich in good 
health. The Russians are returning ; they have lost enor- 
mously more than 20,000 dead and 30,000 taken. Their 
army is reduced by three-quarters. Buxhowden, their general- 
in-chief, was killed. I have 3000 wounded and 700 to 800 

My eyes are rather bad ; it is a prevailing complaint, and 
scarcely worth mentioning. 

Adieu, dear. I am very anxious to see you again. 

I am going to sleep to-night at Vienna. NAPOLEON. 

No. 17. 

Brunn, December 10, 1805. 

It is a long time since I had news of you. Have the grand 
fetes at Baden, Stuttgard, and Munich made you forget the poor 
soldiers, who live covered with mud, rain, and blood ? 

I shall start in a few days for Vienna. 


We are endeavouring to conclude peace. The Russians have 
gone, and are in flight far from here ; they are on their way back 
to Russia, well drubbed and very much humiliated. 

I am very anxious to be with you again. 

Adieu, dear. 

My bad eyes are cured. NAPOLEON. 

December \$th. Treaty with Prussia. 

No. 1 8. 


December 19, 1805. 

Great Empress, Not a single letter from you since your 
departure from Strasburg. You have gone to Baden, Stuttgard, 
Munich, without writing us a word. This is neither very kind 
nor very affectionate. 

I am still at Brunn. The Russians are gone. I have a 
truce. In a few days I shall see what I may expect. Deign 
from the height of your grandeur to concern yourself a little with 
your slaves. NAPOLEON. 

No. 19. 

Sch'dnbrunri) December 20, 1805. 

I got your letter of the i6th. I am sorry to learn you are in 
pain. You are not strong enough to travel two hundred and 
fifty miles at this time of the year. I know not what I shall do ; 
I await events. I 'have no will in the matter ; everything depends 
on their issue. Stay at Munich ; amuse yourself. That is not 
difficult when you have so many kind friends and so beautiful a 


country. I, for my part, am sufficiently busy. In a few days 
my decision will be made. 

Adieu, dear. Kindest and most affectionate regards. 


December 2 Jth. l Peace of Presburg. 

December $lst. Napoleon arrives outside Munich, and joins Josephine 
the next morning. 

1 VI. Ntvose, which for the year 1805 was December 27 (see Harris Nicolas' 
" Chronology of History "). Haydn, Woodward, Bouillet, all have December 
26th ; Alison and Biographic Universelle have December 27th ; but, as usual, the 
" Correspondence of Napoleon I." is taken here as the final court of appeal. 


" Battles then lasted a few hours, campaigns a few days." 

BIGNON, On Fr'iedland (vol. vi. 292). 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 243-164.) 







Princess of Baden 




I hope that you are at Paris 




T. . 


The Grand Duke . 






Florence . . . 




Arensdorf . 




Bamberg . . . 




The Battle of Preussich- 

Eugene . . . 


Eylau . , , 


Her husband 




Corbineau ... 

2 S 6 





Dahlmann . 

2 5 6 

If she wants to see a battle 

2 45 



TCoung Tascher . . 

2 5 6 



I nearly captured him and 



Napoleon's Correspon- 

the Queen . . 


dence . 

2 S 6 

I have bivouacked 




/ am still at Eylau 




Fatigues, bivouacs . . . 

This country is covered 

have made me fat 


with dead and ivounded 


The great M. Napoleon 








Potsdam . . . 

2 47 

It is not as good as the 



You do nothing but cry . 


great city . . 

2 S 8 



.Madame Tallien . . 


I have ordered -what you 



The bad things I say 

wish for Malmaison . 

2 5 8 

about -women 




Minerva . . . 





2 5 



The first use of Vous . 

2 59 



Afadame L. . . 




Dupuis . . 




December Ind . , 

2 5 







Jealousy . . . 




Marshal Bessieres 




Desir defemme est unfeu 





qul devore . 




Siveet, pouting, and cap- 



I am dependent on events 

2 5 I 

ricious . . . 




The fair ones of Great 



Madame . . 


Poland , 




A -wretched barn . 

2 5 2 



I trust I may hear you 

Such things become com- 

have been rational . 


mon property 

2 5 2 


7 1 - 

May ^oth . 



2 7- 

JVarsa-w. January \rd . 

j j 

2 5 2 



I am vexed tuith Hortense 




Be cheerful gal . . 




Friedland . . 




Roads unsafe and detest- 






2 S3 




January 1st. The Elector of Bavaria and the Duke of Wurtemberg 
created Kings by France. 

January l^rd. Death of William Pitt, aged 47. 

February I $th. Joseph Bonaparte enters Naples, and on 

March lOth is declared King of the Two Sicilies. 

April 1st. Prussia seizes Hanover. 

June $th. Louis Bonaparte made King of Holland. 

July 6th. Battle of Maida (Calabria. English defeat General Reynier. 
French loss 4000 ; English 500). 

July 12th. Napoleon forms Confederation of the Rhine, 'with himself at 
Chief and Protector. 

July l8th. Gaeta surrenders to Massena. 

August 6th. Francis //., Emperor of Germany, becomes Emperor of 
Austria as Francis 7. 

August 1 $th. Russia refuses to ratify peace preliminaries signed by her 
ambassador at Paris on July 2$th. 

September ityh. Death of Charles James Fox, aged 57. 

No. i. 

October $th. Proclamation by the Prince of the Peace against France 
(germ of Spanish War). 


October 5, 1806. 

It will be quite in order for the Princess of Baden to come to 
Mayence. I cannot think why you weep ; you do wrong to 



make yourself ill. Hortense is inclined to pedantry ; she loves 
to air her views. She has written me ; I am sending her a reply. 
She ought to be happy and cheerful. Pluck and a merry heart 
that's the recipe. 

Adieu, dear. The Grand Duke has spoken to me about 
you ; he saw you at Florence at the time of the retreat. 


No. 2. 

Bamberg, October 7, 1806. 

I start this evening, my dear, for Cronach. The whole of 
my army is advancing. All goes well. My health is perfect. 
I have only received as yet one letter from you. I have some 
from Eugene and from Hortense. Stephanie should now be 
with you. Her husband wishes to make the campaign ; he 
is with me. 

Adieu. A thousand kisses and the best of health. 


October Sth. Prussia, assisted by Saxony, Russia, and England, de- 
clares war against France. 

October gth. Campaign opens. Prussians defeated at Schleitz. 

October \Oth. Lannes defeats them at Saalfeld. Prince Louis of 
Prussia killed ; IOOO men and 30 guns taken. 

October nth. French peace negotiations with England broken off". 

No. 3. 

Gera, October 13, 1806, 2 A.M. 

My Dear, I am at Gera to-day. My affairs go excellently 
well, and everything as I could wish. With the aid of God, they 
will, I believe, in a few days have taken a terrible course for the 
poor King of Prussia, whom I am sorry for personally, because he 


is a good man. The Queen is at Erfurt with the King. If she 
wants to see a battle, she shall have that cruel pleasure. I am in 
splendid health. I have already put on flesh since my departure ; 
yet I am doing, in person, twenty and twenty-five leagues a day, 
on horseback, in my carriage, in all sorts of ways. I lie down at 
eight, and get up at midnight. I fancy at times that you have 
not yet gone to bed. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

October l ^th. Battles of Jena and Auerstadt. 

No. 4. 

October i$th. Napoleon at Weimar. He releases 6000 Saxon prisoners , 
which soon causes peace tuith Saxony. 


Jena, October 15, 1806, 3 A.M. 

My Dear, I have made excellent manoeuvres against the 
Prussians. Yesterday I won a great victory. They had 150,000 
men. I have made 20,000 prisoners, taken 100 pieces of cannon, 
and flags. I was in presence of the King of Prussia, and near to 
him ; I nearly captured him and the Queen. For the past two 
days I have bivouacked. I am in excellent health. 

Adieu, dear. Keep well, and love me. 

If Hortense is at Mayence, give her a kiss ; also to Napoleon 
and to the little one. NAPOLEON. 

No. 5. 

October i6th. Soult routs Kalkreuth at Greussen ; Erfurt and 16,000 
men capitulate to Murat. 


Weimar, October 1 6, 1806, 5 P.M. 

M. Talleyrand will have shown you the bulletin, my dear ; 
you will see my successes therein. All has happened as I cal- 


culated, and never was an army more thoroughly beaten and 
more entirely destroyed. I need only add that I am very well, 
and that fatigue, bivouacs, and night-watches have made me fat. 
Adieu, dear. Kindest regards to Hortense and to the great 
M. Napoleon. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

October 17 th. Bernadotte defeats Prussian reserve at Halle. 
October 1 8//>. Davoust takes Leipsic, and an enormous stock of English 

October igth. Napoleon at Halle. 

October 2Oth. Lannes takes Dessau, and Davoust Wittenberg. 

October 2 1st. Napoleon at Dessau. 

No. 6. 

October l^rd. Napoleon males Wittenberg central depot for his army. 


Wittenberg, October 23, 1 806, Noon. 

I have received several of your letters. I write you only a 
line. My affairs prosper. To-morrow I shall be at Potsdam, 
and at Berlin on the 25th. I am wonderfully well, and thrive 
on hard work. I am very glad to hear you are with Hortense and 
Stephanie, en grande compagnie. So far, the weather has been fine. 

Kind regards to Stephanie, and to everybody, not forgetting 
M. Napoleon. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 7. 

October 2^th. Lannes occupies Potsdam. 


Potsdam, October 24, 1806. 

My Dear, I have been at Potsdam since yesterday, and shall 
remain there to-day. I continue satisfied with my undertakings. 


My health is good ; the weather very fine. I find Sans-Souci 
very pleasant. 

Adieu, dear. Best wishes to Hortense and to M. Napoleon. 


October 2$th. Marshal Davoust enters Berlin ; Bernadotte occupies 

October 28th. Prince Hohenlohe surrenders at Prenzlau to Murat with 
1 6,OOO men, including the Prussian Guard. 

October $Oth. Stettin surrenders with 5000 men and 150 cannon. 

No. 8. 

November 1st. Anklam surrenders, with 4000 men, to General Becker. 


November I, 1806, 2 A.M. 

Talleyrand has just arrived and tells me, my dear, that you do 
nothing but cry. What on earth do you want r You have your 
daughter, your grandchildren, and good news ; surely these are 
sufficient reasons for being happy and contented. 

The weather here is superb ; there has not yet fallen during 
the whole campaign a single drop of water. I am very well, and 
all goes excellently. 

Adieu, dear ; I have received a letter from M. Napoleon ; 
I do not believe it is from him, but from Hortense. Kindest 
regards to everybody. NAPOLEON. 

November 2nd. Kustrin surrenders, with 4000 men and 90 guns, to 

No. 9. 

Berlin, November 2, 1806. 

Your letter of October 26th to hand. We have splendid 
weather here. You will see by the bulletin that we have taken 


Stettin it is a very strong place. All my affairs go as well as 
possible, and I am thoroughly satisfied. One pleasure is alone 
wanting that of seeing you, but I hope that will not long be 

Kindest regards to Hortense, Stephanie, and to the little 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. QA. 

From the Memoirs of Mademoiselle d'Avrillon (vol. i. 128). 

Berlin, Monday^ Noon. 

My Dear y I have received your letter. I am glad to know 
that you are in a place which pleases me, and especially to know 
that you are very well there. Who should be happier than you ? - 
You should live without a worry, and pass your time as pleasantly 
as possible ; that, indeed, is my intention. 

I forbid you to see Madame Tallien, under any pretext 
whatever. I will admit of no excuse. If you desire a con- 
tinuance of my esteem, if you wish to please me, never transgress 
the present order. She may possibly come to your apartments, 
to enter them by night ; forbid your porter to admit her. 

I shall soon be at Malmaison. I warn you to have no lovers 
there that night ; I should be sorry to disturb them. Adieu, 
dear ; I long to see you and assure you of my love and affection. 

No. 10. 

November 6, 1806, 9 P.M. 

Yours to hand, in which you seem annoyed at the bad things 
I say about women ; it is true that I hate intriguing women 


more than anything. I am used to kind, gentle, persuasive 
women ; these are the kind I like. If I have been spoilt, it is 
not my fault, but yours. Moreover, you shall learn how kind I 
have been to one who showed herself sensible and good, Madame 
d'Hatzfeld. When I showed her husband's letter to her she 
admitted to me, amid her sobs, with profound emotion, and 
frankly, " Ah ! it is indeed his writing ! " While she was 
reading, her voice went to my heart ; it pained me. I said, 
" Well, madame, throw that letter on the fire, I shall then 
have no longer the power to punish your husband." She burnt 
the letter, and seemed very happy. Her husband now feels at 
ease ; two hours later he would have been a dead man. You see 
then how I like kind, frank, gentle women ; but it is because such 
alone resemble you. 

Adieu, dear ; my health is good. NAPOLEON. 

November 6th and 'jth. Slacker and his army ( i 7,000 men) surrender 
at Lubeck to Soult, Murat, and Bernadotte. 

November 8th. Magdeburg surrenders to Ney, with 2O,OOO men, 
immense stores, and nearly 800 cannon. 

_No. ii. 

November gth. Napoleon levies a contribution of 150 million francs on 
Prussia and her allies. 


Berlin, November 9, 1806. 

My Dear, I am sending good news. Magdeburg has capitu- 
lated, and on November yth I took 20,000 men at Lubeck who 
escaped me last week. The whole Prussian army, therefore, is 
captured ; even beyond the Vistula there does not remain to 


Prussia 20,000 men. Several of my army corps are in Poland. 
I am still at Berlin. I am very fairly well. 

Adieu, dear ; heartiest good wishes to Hortense, Stephanie, 
and the two little Napoleons. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

November !O//>. Davoust occupies Posen. Hanover occupied by Mar- 
shal Morfier. 

No. 12. 


Berlin^ November 1 6, 1806. 

I received your letter of November nth. I note with satis- 
faction that my convictions give you pleasure. You are wrong 
to think flattery was intended ; I was telling you of yourself as I 
see you. I am grieved to think that you are tired of Mayence. 
Were the journey less long, you might come here, for there is no 
longer an enemy, or, if there is, he is beyond the Vistula ; that is 
to say, more than three hundred miles away. I will wait to hear 
what you think about it. I should also be delighted to see M. 

Adieu, my dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

I have still too much business here for me to return to Paris. 

November Ijth. Suspension of arms signed at Charlottenburg. 
November iqth. French occupy Hamburg. 
November 2Oth. French occupy Hameln. 

November 2 1st. French occupy Bremen. Berlin decree. Napoleon 
interdicts trade with England. 

No. 13. 

November 22, 1806, IO P.M. 

Your letter received. I am sorry to find you in the dumps ; 
yet you have every reason to be cheerful. You are wrong to 


show so much kindness to people who show themselves unworthy 

of it. Madame L is a fool ; such an idiot that you ought to 

know her by this time, and pay no heed to her. Be contented, 
happy in my friendship, and in the great influence you possess. 
In a few days I shall decide whether to summon you hither or 
send you to Paris. 

Adieu, dear ; you can go at once, if you like, to Darmstadt, 
or to Frankfort ; that will make you forget your troubles. 

Kindest regards to Hortense. NAPOLEON. 

November 2$tk. Napoleon leaves Berlin. 

No. 14. 


Kustrtri) November 26, 1806. 

I am at Kustrin, making a tour and spying out the land a 
little ; I shall see in a day or two whether you should come. 
You can keep ready. I shall be very pleased if the Queen of 
Holland be of the party. The Grand Duchess of Baden must 
write to her husband about it. 

It is 2 A.M. I am just getting up ; it is the usage of war. 
Kindest regards to you and to every one. 


No. 15. 

November 2Jth. Napoleon arrives at Posen. 


Meseritz, November 27, 1806, 2 A.M. 

I am about to make a tour in Poland. This is the first town 
there. To-night I shall be at Posen, after which I shall send for 
you to come to Berlin, so that you can arrive there the same day 


as I. My health is good, the weather rather bad ; it has rained 
for the past three days. My affairs prosper. The Russians are 
in flight. 

Adieu, dear ; kindest regards to Hortense, Stephanie, and the 
little Napoleons. NAPOLEON. 

November ^%th. Murat enters Warsaw. French occupy Duchies of 

No. 1 6. 

Posen y November 29, 1806, Noon. 

I am at Posen, capital of Great Poland. The cold weather 
has set in ; I am in good health. I am about to take a circuit 
round Poland. My troops are at the gates of Warsaw. 

Adieu, dear ; very kindest regards, and a hearty embrace. 

No. 17. 
December 2nd. Glogau surrenders to Vandamme. 


Poseri, December 2, 1806. 

To-day is the anniversary of Austerlitz. I have been to a 
city ball. It is raining ; I am in good health. I love you and 
long for you. My troops are at Warsaw. So far the cold has 
not been severe. All these fair Poles are Frenchwomen at 
heart ; but there is only one woman for me. Would you know 
her ? I could draw her portrait very well ; but I should have to 
flatter it too much for you to recognise yourself; yet, to tell 
the truth, my heart would only have nice things to say to you. 
These nights are long, all alone. Yours ever, 



No. 1 8. 

December 3, 1806, Noon. 

Yours of November 26th received. I notice two things in 
it. You say I do not read your letters : it is an unkind thought. 
I take your bad opinion anything but kindly. You tell me that 
perhaps it is a mere phantasy of the night, and you add that you 
are not jealous. I found out long ago that angry persons always 
assert that they are not angry ; that those who are afraid keep on 
repeating that they have no fear ; you therefore are convinced of 
jealousy. I am delighted to hear it ! Nevertheless, you are 
wrong ; I think of nothing less, and in the desert plains of 
Poland one thinks little about beauties. . . . 

I had yesterday a ball of the provincial nobility the women 
good-looking enough, rich enough, dowdy enough, although in 
Paris fashions. 

Adieu, dear ; I am in good health. Yours ever, 


No. 19. 

Posen, December 3, 1806, 6 P.M. 

Yours of November 2yth received, from which I see that 
your little head is quite turned. I am reminded of the verse 

" Desir de femme est un feu qui devore." 

Still you must calm yourself. I wrote you that I was in 
Poland ; that, when we were established in winter quarters, you 
could come ; you will have to wait a few days. The greater 
one becomes, the less one can consult one's wishes being 
dependent on events and circumstances. You can come to 


Frankfort or Darmstadt. I am hoping to send for you in a few 
days ; that is, if circumstances will permit. The warmth of 
your letter makes me realise that you, like other pretty women, 
know no bounds. What you will, must be ; but, as for me, 
I declare that of all men I am the greatest slave ; my master has 
no pity, and this master is the nature of things. 

Adieu, dear ; keep well. The person that I wished to speak 

to you about is Madame L , of whom every one is speaking 

ill ; they assure me that she is more Prussian than French 
woman. I don't believe it, but I think her an idiot who talks 
nothing but trash. NAPOLEON. 

December 6th. Thorn (on the Vistula) occupied by Ney. 

No. 20. 

Posen, December 9, 1806. 

Yours of December ist received. I see with pleasure that 
you are more cheerful ; that the Queen of Holland wishes to 
come with you. I long to give the order ; but you must still 
wait a few days. My affairs prosper. 

Adieu, dear ; I love you and wish to see you happy. 


No. 21. 

Posen, December IO, 1806, 5 P.M. 

An officer has just brought me a rug, a gift from you ; it is 
somewhat short and narrow, but I thank you for it none the less. 
I am in fair health. The weather is very changeable. My 
affairs prosper pretty well. I love you and long for you much. 


Adieu, dear ; I shall write for you to come with at least as 
much pleasure as you will have in coming. Yours ever, 

A kiss to Hortense, Stephanie, and Napoleon. 

December llth. Davoust forces the passage of the Bug. 

No. 22. 

December 12th. Treaty of peace and alliance between France and 
Saxony signed at Posen. 


Posen, December I2th, 1806, 7 P.M. 

My Dear, I have not received any letters from you, but 
know, nevertheless, that you are well. My health is good, the 
weather very mild ; the bad season has not begun yet, but the 
roads are bad in a country where there are no highways. Hor- 
tense will come then with Napoleon ; I am delighted to hear it. 
I long to see things shape themselves into a position to enable 
you to come. 

I have made peace with Saxony. The Elector is King and 
one of the confederation. 

Adieu, my well-beloved Josephine. Yours ever, 


A kiss to Hortense, Napoleon, and Stephanie. 

Paer, the famous musician, his wife, a virtuoso whom you 
saw at Milan twelve years ago, and Brizzi are here ; they give 
me a little music every evening. 

No. 23. 

December 15, 1806, 3 P.M. 

My Dear, I start for Warsaw. In a fortnight I shall be 
back ; I hope then to be able to send for you. But if that seems 


a long time, I should be very glad if you would return to Paris, 
where you are wanted. You well know that I am dependent on 
events. All my affairs go excellently. My health is very good ; 
I am as well as possible. 

Adieu, dear. I have made peace with Saxony. Yours ever, 


December ijfh. Turkey declares war on Russia. ( So M ontgaillard ; 
but Napoleon refers to it in the thirty-ninth bulletin, dated December ^th, 
while Haydn dates it January Jtk. ) 

No. 24. 

Warsaw, December 20, 1806, 3 P.M. 

I have no news from you, dear. I am very well. The last 
two days I have been at Warsaw. My affairs prosper. The 
weather is very mild, and even somewhat humid. It has as yet 
barely begun to freeze ; it is October weather. 

Adieu, dear ; I should much have liked to see you, but trust 
that in five or six days I shall be able to send for you. 

Kindest regards to the Queen of Holland and to her little 
Napoleons. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

December 22nd. Napoleon crosses the Nareiu, and the next day defeats 
Russians at Czarnoivo ; also 

December 2^th. At Nasielsk. 

December 26th. Ney defeats Lestocq at Soldau ; Lannes defeats Ben- 
ings en at Pultusk ; 

December 28th. And Augereau defeats Buxhoiuden at Golymin. 

No. 25. 

Golymin^ December 29, 1806, 5 A.M. 

I write you only a line, my dear. I am in a wretched barn. 
I have beaten the Russians, taken thirty pieces of cannon, their 


baggage, and 6000 prisoners ; but the weather is frightful. It is 
raining ; we have mud up to our knees. 

In two days I shall be at Warsaw, whence I shall write you. 
Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 26. 

Publish, December 31, 1806. 

I have had a good laugh over your last letters. You idealise 
the fair ones of Great Poland in a way they do not deserve. I 
have had for two or three days the pleasure of hearing Paer and 
two lady singers, who have given me some very good music. I 
received your letter in a wretched barn, having mud, wind, and 
straw for my only bed. To-morrow I shall be at Warsaw. I 
think all is over for this year. The army is entering winter 
quarters. I shrug my shoulders at the stupidity of Madame de 

L ; still you should show her your displeasure, and counsel 

her not to be so idiotic. Such things become common property, 
and make many people indignant. 

For my part, I scorn ingratitude as the worst fault in a human 
heart. I know that instead of comforting you, these people have 
given you pain. 

Adieu, dear ; I am in good health. I do not think you ought 
to go to Cassel ; that place is not suitable. You may go to 
Darmstadt. NAPOLEON. 

No. 27. 

ff^anaw, January 3, 1807. 

My Dear, I have received your letter. Your grief pains 
me ; but one must bow to events. There is too much country 
to travel between Mayence and Warsaw ; you must, therefore, 


wait till circumstances allow me to come to Berlin, in order that 
I may write you to come thither. It is true that the enemy, 
defeated, is far away ; but I have many things here to put to 
rights. I should be inclined to think that you might return to 
Paris, where you are needed. Send away those ladies who have 
their affairs to look after ; you will be better without people who 
have given you so much worry. 

My health is good ; the weather bad. I love you from my 
heart. NAPOLEON. 

January $th. Capture of Breslau, with 7000 men, by Vandamme and 

No. 28. 
January ^th. English Orders in Council against Berlin Decree. 


Warsaw, January 7, 1807. 

My Dear, I am pained by all that you tell me ; but the 
season being cold, the roads very bad and not at all safe, I cannot 
consent to expose you to so many fatigues and dangers. Return 
to Paris in order to spend the winter there. Go to the Tuileries ; 
receive, and lead the same life as you are accustomed to do when 
I am there ; that is my wish. Perhaps I shall not be long in 
rejoining you there ; but it is absolutely necessary for you to give 
up the idea of making a journey of 750 miles at this time of the 
year, through the enemy's country, and in the rear of the army. 
Believe that it costs me more than you to put off for some weeks 
the pleasure of seeing you, but so events and the success of my 
enterprise order it. 

Adieu, my dear ; be cheerful, and show character. 



No. 29. 

Warsaw, January 8, 1807. 

My Dear, I received your letter of the 27th with those of 
M. Napoleon and Hortense, which were enclosed with it. I had 
begged you to return to Paris. The season is too inclement, the 
roads unsafe and detestable ; the distances too great for me to 
permit you to come hither, where my affairs detain me. It 
would take you at least a month to come. You would arrive 
ill ; by that time it might perhaps be necessary to start back 
again ; it would therefore be folly. Your residence at Mayence 
is too dull ; Paris reclaims you ; go there, it is my wish. I am 
more vexed about it than you. I should have liked to spend the 
long nights of this season with you, but we must obey circum- 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 30. 

Warsaw, January 1 1, 1807. 

Your letter of the 27th received, from which I note that 
you are somewhat uneasy about military events. Everything is 
settled, as I have told you, to my satisfaction ; my affairs prosper. 
The distance is too great for me to allow you to come so far at 
this time of year. I am in splendid health, sometimes rather 
wearied by the length of the nights. 

Up to the present I have seen few people here. 
Adieu, dear. I wish you to be cheerful, and to give a little 
life to the capital. I would much like to be there. Yours ever, 


I hope that the Queen has gone to the Hague with M. 


No. 31. 

January i6tb. Capture of Brleg by the French. 


January 16, 1807. 

My Dear, I have received your letter of the 5th of January; 
all that you tell me of your unhappiness pains me. Why these 
tears, these repinings ? Have you then no longer any fortitude ? 
I shall see you soon. Never doubt my feelings ; and if you wish 
to be still dearer to me, show character and strength of mind. I 
am humiliated to think that my wife can distrust my destinies. 

Adieu, dear. I love you, I long to see you, and wish to 
learn that you are content and happy. NAPOLEON. 

No. 32. 

Warsaw, January 18, 1807. 

I fear that you are greatly grieved at our separation and at 
your return to Paris, which must last for some weeks longer. I 
insist on your having more fortitude. I hear you are always 
weeping. Fie ! how unbecoming it is ! Your letter of January 
7th makes me unhappy. Be worthy of me ; assume more 
character. Cut a suitable figure at Paris ; and, above all, be 

I am very well, and I love you much ; but, if you are always 
crying, I shall think you without courage and without character. 
I do not love cowards. An empress ought to have fortitude. 



No. 33. 

Warsaw, January i^, 1807. 

My Dear, Your letter to hand. I have laughed at your fear 
of fire. I am in despair at the tone of your letters and at what I 
hear. I forbid you to weep, to be petulant and uneasy ; I want 
you to be cheerful, lovable, and happy. NAPOLEON. 

No. 34. 

Warsaw, January 23, 1807. 

Your letter of January I5th to hand. It is impossible to 
allow women to make such a journey as this bad roads, miry 
and unsafe. Return to Paris ; be cheerful and content there. 
Perhaps even I shall soon be there. I have laughed at what 
you say about your having taken a husband to be with him. I 
thought, in my ignorance, that the wife was made for the hus- 
band, the husband for his country, his family, and glory. Pardon 
my ignorance ; one is always learning from our fair ladies. 

Adieu, my dear. Think how much it costs me not to send 
for you. Say to yourself, " It is a proof how precious I am to 
him." NAPOLEON. 

No. 35. 

January 2$th. Russians defeated at Mobrungen by Bernadotte. 


January 25, 1807. 

I am very unhappy to see you are in pain. I hope that you 
are at Paris ; you will get better there. I share your griefs, and 
do not groan. For I could not risk losing you by exposing you 
to fatigues and dangers which befit neither your rank nor 
your sex. 


I wish you never to receive T at Paris ; he is a black 

sheep. You would grieve me by doing otherwise. 
Adieu, my dear. Love me, and be courageous. 


No. 36. 

Warsaw, January 26, 1807, Noon. 

My Dear, I have received your letter. It pains me to see 
how you are fretting yourself. The bridge of Mayence neither 
increases nor decreases the distance which separates us. Remain, 
therefore, at Paris. I should be vexed and uneasy to know that 
you were so miserable and so isolated at Mayence. You must 
know that I ought, that I can, consider only the success of my 
enterprise. If I could consult my heart I should be with you, or 
you with me ; for you would be most unjust if you doubted my 
love and entire affection. NAPOLEON. 

No. 37. 

Willemberg) February I, 1807, Noon. 

Your letter of the nth, from Mayence, has made me laugh. 
To-day, I am a hundred miles from Warsaw j the weather is 
cold, but fine. 

Adieu, dear ; be happy, show character. 


No. 38. 

My Dear y Your letter of January 2Oth has given me pain ; 
it is too sad. That's the fault of not being a little more devout ! 


You tell me that your glory consists in your happiness. That is 
narrow-minded ; one should say, my glory consists in the happi- 
ness of others. It is not conjugal ; one should say, my glory 
consists in the happiness of my husband. It is not maternal ; 
one should say, my glory consists in the happiness of my children. 
Now, since nations your husband, your children can only be 
happy with a certain amount of glory, you must not make little 
of it. Fie, Josephine ! your heart is excellent and your argu- 
ments weak. You feel acutely, but you don't argue as well. 

That's sufficient quarrelling. I want you to be cheerful, 
happy in your lot, and that you should obey, not with grumbling 
and tears, but with gaiety of heart and a little more good temper. 

Adieu, dear ; I start to-night to examine my outposts. 


February $th. Combats of Bergfriede, Wallers dorf, and Deppen ; 
Russians forced back. 

February 6th. Combat of H of. Murat victorious. 
February 8 th. Battle of Eylau ; retreat of Russians. 

No. 39. 

Ey/au, February 9, 1807, 3 A.M. 

My Dear, Yesterday there was a great battle ; the victory 
has remained with me, but I have lost many men. The loss of 
the enemy, which is still more considerable, does not console me. 
To conclude, I write you these two lines myself, although I am 
very tired, to tell you that I am well and that I love you. 
Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 40. 

Eylau, February 9, 1807, 6 P.M. 

My Dear, I write you a line in order that you may not be 
uneasy. The enemy has lost the battle, 40 pieces of cannon, 



10 flags, 12,000 prisoners ; he has suffered frightfully. I have lost 
many : 1600 killed, 3000 or 4000 wounded. 

Your cousin Tascher conducts himself well ; I have sum- 
moned him near me with the title of orderly officer. 

Corbineau has been killed by a shell ; I was singularly attached 
to that officer, who had much merit ; I am very unhappy 
about him. My mounted guard has covered itself with glory. 
Dahlman is dangerously wounded. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 41. 

Eylau, February II, 1807, 3 A.M. 

My Dear, I write you a line ; you must have been very 
anxious. I have beaten the enemy in a fight to be remembered, 
but it has cost many brave lives. The bad weather that has set 
in forces me to take cantonments. 

Do not afflict yourself, please ; all this will soon be over, and 
the happiness of seeing you will make me promptly forget my 
fatigues. Besides, I have never been in better health. 

Young Tascher, of the 4th Regiment, has behaved well ; he 
has had a rough time of it. I have summoned him near me ; I 
have made him an orderly officer there's an end to his troubles. 
This young man interests me. 

Adieu, dear ; a thousand kisses. NAPOLEON. 

No. 42. 

Preussich-Ey/aUy February 12, 1807. 

I send you a letter from General Darmagnac. He is a very 
good soldier, who commanded the 32nd. He is much attached 


to me. If this Madame de Richmond be well off, and it is a 
good match, I shall see this marriage with pleasure. Make this 
known to both of them. NAPOLEON. 

No. 43. 

Ey/au y February 14, 1807. 

My Dear, I am still at Eylau. This country is covered 
with dead and wounded. It is not the bright side of warfare ; 
one suffers, and the mind is oppressed at the sight of so many 
victims. My health is good. I have done as I wished, and 
driven back the enemy, while making his projects fail. 

You are sure to be uneasy, and that thought troubles me. 
Nevertheless, calm yourself, my dear, and be cheerful. Yours 
ever, NAPOLEON. 

Tell Caroline and Pauline that the Grand Duke and the 
Prince l are in excellent health. 

February \6th. Savory defeats Russians at Ostrolenka. 

No. 44. 

Eylau, February 17, 1807, 3 A.M. 

Your letter to hand, informing me of your arrival at Paris. 
I am very glad to know you are there. My health is good. 

The battle of Eylau was very sanguinary, and very hardly 
contested. Corbineau was slain. He was a very brave man. I 
had grown very fond of him. 

Adieu, dear ; it is as warm here as in the month of April ; 
everything is thawing. My health is good. NAPOLEON. 

1 Murat and Borghese. 


No. 45. 

Landsberg y February 18, 1807, 3 A.M. 

I write you two lines. My health is good. I am moving to 
set my army in winter quarters. 

It rains and thaws as in the month of April. We have not 
yet had one cold day. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 46. 

Liebstadt, February 2O, 1807, 2 A.M. 

I write you two lines, dear, in order that you may not be 
uneasy. My health is very good, and my affairs prosper. 

I have again put my army into cantonments. 

The weather is extraordinary ; it freezes and thaws ; it is 
wet and unsettled. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 47. 

Liebstadt, February 21, 1807, 2 A.M. 

Your letter of the 4th February to hand ; I see with pleasure 
that your health is good. Paris will thoroughly re-establish it by 
giving you cheerfulness and rest, and a return to your accus- 
tomed habits. 

I am wonderfully well. The weather and the country are 
vile. My affairs are fairly satisfactory. It thaws and freezes 
within twenty-four hours ; there can never have been known 
such an extraordinary winter. 


Adieu, dear ; I love you, I think of you, and wish to know 
that you are contented, cheerful, and happy. Yours ever, 


No. 48. 


Liebstadt, February 21, 1807, Noon. 

My Dear, Your letter of the 8th received ; I see with 
pleasure that you have been to the opera, and that you propose 
holding receptions weekly. Go occasionally to the theatre, and 
always into the Royal box. I notice also with pleasure the 
banquets you are giving. 

I am very well. The weather is still unsettled ; it freezes 
and thaws. 

I have once more put my army into cantonments in order to 
rest them. 

Never be doleful, love me, and believe in my entire affection. 


No. 49. 


Osterode, February 23, 1807, 2 P.M. 

My Dear, Your letter of the loth received. I am sorry to 
see you are a little out of sorts. 

I have been in the country for the past month, experiencing 
frightful weather, because it has been unsettled, and varying from 
cold to warm within a week. Still, I am very well. 

Try and pass your time pleasantly ; have no anxieties, and 
never doubt the love I bear you. NAPOLEON. 

February 26th. Dupont defeats Russians at Braunsberg. 


No. 50. 

Osterode, March 2, 1807. 

My Dear^ It is two or three days since I wrote to you ; I 
reproach myself for it ; I know your uneasiness. I am very well ; 
my affairs prosper. I am in a wretched village, where I shall 
pass a considerable time ; it is not as good as the great city ! I 
again assure you, I was never in such good health ; you will find 
me very much stouter. 

It is spring weather here ; the snow has gone, the streams 
are thawing which is what I want. 

I have ordered what you wish for Malmaison ; be cheerful 
and happy ; it is my will. 

Adieu, dear ; I embrace you heartily. Yours ever, 


March gtb. The Grand Sanhedrim, which assembled at Paris on 
February 9, terminates its sittings. 

No. 51. 

Osttrode, March IO, 1807, 4 P.M. 

My Dear, I have received your letter of the 25th. I see 
with pleasure that you are well, and that you sometimes make a 
pilgrimage to Malmaison. 

My health is good, and my affairs prosper. 

The weather has become rather cold again. I see that the 
winter has been very variable everywhere. 

Adieu, dear; keep well, be cheerful, and never doubt my 
affection, Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 


No. 52. 

Osterode, March u, 1807. 

My Dear, I received your letter of the 27th. I am sorry to 
see from it that you are ill ; take courage. My health is good ; 
my affairs prosper. I am waiting for fine weather, which should 
soon be here. I love you and want to know that you are con- 
tent and cheerful. 

A great deal of nonsense will be talked of the battle of Eylau ; 
the bulletin tells everything ; our losses are rather exaggerated in 
it than minimised. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 53. 

Osterode, March 13, 1807, 2 P.M. 

My Dear, I learn that the vexatious tittle-tattle that occurred 
in your salon at Mayence has begun again ; make people hold 
their tongues. I shall be seriously annoyed with you if you do 
not find a remedy. You allow yourself to be worried by the 
chatter of people who ought to console you. I desire you to 
have a little character, and to know how to put everybody into 
his (or her) proper place. 

I am in excellent health. My affairs here are good. We 
are resting a little, and organising our food supply. 

Adieu, dear ; keep well. NAPOLEON. 

No. 54. 

Osterode, March 15, 1807. 

I received your letter of the ist of March, from which I see 
that you were much upset by the catastrophe of Minerva at the 


opera. I am very glad to see that you go out and seek distrac- 

My health is very good. My affairs go excellently. Take 
no heed of all the unfavourable rumours that may be circulated. 
Never doubt my affection, and be without the least uneasiness. 
Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 55. 

Osterode, March 17, 1807. 

My Dear, It is not necessary for you to go to the small 
plays and into a private box ; it ill befits your rank ; you should 
only go to the four great theatres, and always into the Royal box. 
Live as you would do if I were at Paris. 

My health is very good. The cold weather has recommenced. 
The thermometer has been down to 8. Yours ever, 


No. 56. 

Osterode, March 17, 1807, 10 P.M. 

I have received yours of March 5th, from which I see with 
pleasure that you are well. My health is perfect. Yet the 
weather of the past two days has been cold again ; the ther- 
mometer to-night has been at 10, but the sun has given us a 
very fine day. 

Adieu, dear. Very kindest regards to everybody. 

Tell me something about the death of that poor Dupuis ; 
have his brother told that I wish to help him. 

My affairs here go excellently. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 


No. 57. 

March 2$th. Abolition of slave trade in Great Britain by Parliament. 


March 25, 1807. 

I have received your letter of March I3th. If you really 
wish to please me, you must live exactly as you live when I am 
at Paris. Then you were not in the habit of visiting the second- 
rate theatres or other places. You ought always to go into the 
Royal box. As for your home life : hold receptions there, and 
have your fixed circles of friends ; that, my dear, is the only way 
to deserve my approbation. Greatness has its inconveniences ; 
an Empress cannot go where a private individual may. 

Very best love. My health is good. My affairs prosper. 


No. 58. 

Osterode, March 27, 1807, 7 P.M. 

My Dear, Your letter pains me. There is no question of 
your dying. You are in good health, and you can have no just 
ground for grief. 

I think you should go during May to St. Cloud ; but you 
must spend the whole month of April at Paris. 

My health is good. My affairs prosper. 

You must not think of travelling this summer ; nothing of 
that sort is feasible. You ought not to frequent inns and camps. 
I long as much as you for our meeting and for a quiet life. 

I can do other things besides fight ; but duty stands first and 
foremost. All my life long I have sacrificed everything to my 
destiny peace of mind, personal advantage, happiness. 

Adieu, dear. See as little as possible of that Madame de 


P . She is a woman who belongs to the lowest grade of 

society ; she is thoroughly common and vulgar. 


I have had occasion to find fault with M. de T . I have 

sent him to his country house in Burgundy. I wish no longer 
to hear his name mentioned. 

No. 59. 

Osterode, April I, 1807. 

My Dear, I have just got your letter of the 2Oth. I am 
sorry to see you are ill. I wrote you to stay at Paris the whole 
month of April, and to go to St. Cloud on May ist. You 
may go and spend the Sundays, and a day or two, at Malmaison. 
At St. Cloud you may have your usual visitors. 

My health is good. It is still quite cold enough here. All 
is quiet. 

I have named the little princess Josephine. 1 Eugene should 
be well pleased. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 60. 

Finckenstein, April 2, 1807. 

My Dear y I write you a line. I have just moved my head- 
quarters into a very fine chateau, after the style of Bessieres', 
where I have several fireplaces, which is a great comfort to me ; 
getting up often in the night, I like to see the fire. 

My health is perfect. The weather is fine, but still cold. 
The thermometer is at four to five degrees. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

1 Eugene's eldest daughter, the Princess Josephine Maximilienne Auguste, 
born March 14, 1807 ; married Bernadotte's son, Prince Oscar, June 18, 1827. 


No. 61. 

Finckenstein, April 6, 1807, 3 P.M. 

My Dear^ I have received your letter, from which I see you 
have spent Holy Week at Malmaison, and that your health is 
better. I long to hear that you are thoroughly well. 

I am in a fine chateau, where there are fireplaces, which I 
find a great comfort. It is still very cold here ; everything is 

You will have seen that I have good news from Constantinople. 

My health is good. There is nothing fresh here. Yours 
ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 62. 

Finckemtein y April IO, 1807, 6 P.M. 

My Dear, My health is excellent. Here spring is begin- 
ning ; but as yet there is no vegetation. I wish you to be 
cheerful and contented, and never to doubt my attachment. 
Here all goes well. NAPOLEON. 

No. 63. 

Finckenstein, April 14, 1807, 7 P.M. 

I have received your letter of April 3rd. I see from it that 
you are well, and that it has been very cold in Paris. The 
weather here is very unsettled ; still I think the spring has come 
at length ; already the ice has almost gone. I am in splendid 

Adieu, dear. I ordered some time ago for Malmaison all that 
you ask for, Yours ever, NAPOLEON, 


No. 64. 

Finckenstein, April 1 8, 1807. 

I have received your letter of April 5th. I am sorry to see 
from it that you are grieved at what I have told you. As usual, 
your little Creole head becomes flurried and excited in a moment. 
Let us not, therefore, speak of it again. I am very well, but yet 
the weather is rainy. Savary is very ill of a bilious fever, before 
Dantzic ; I hope it will be nothing serious. 
Adieu, dear ; my very best wishes to you. 


No. 65. 

Finckenstein, April 24, 1807, 7 P.M. 

I have received your letter of the I2th. I see from it that 
your health is good, and that you are very happy at the thought 
of going to Malmaison. 

The weather has changed to fine ; I hope it may continue so. 

There is nothing fresh here. I am very well. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 66. 

Finckenstein, May 2, 1807, 4 P.M. 

My Dear y I have just received your letter of the 23rd ; I 
see with pleasure that you are well, and that you are as fond as 
ever of Malmaison. I hear the Arch-Chancellor is in love. Is 
this a joke, or a fact ? It has amused me ; you might have 
given me a hint about it ! 


I am very well, and the fine season commences. Spring 
shows itself at length, and the leaves begin to shoot. 
Adieu, dear ; very best wishes. Yours ever, 


No. 67. 

Finckenstein, May 10, 1807. 

I have just received your letter. I know not what you tell 
me about ladies in correspondence with me. I love only my 
little Josephine, sweet, pouting, and capricious, who can quarrel 
with grace, as she does everything else, for she is always 
lovable, except when she is jealous ; then she becomes a regular 
shrew. 1 But let us come back to these ladies. If I had leisure 
for any among them, I assure you that I should like them to be 
pretty rosebuds. 

Are those of whom you speak of this kind ? 

I wish you to have only those persons to dinner who have 
dined with me ; that your list be the same for your assemblies ; 
that you never make intimates at Malmaison of ambassadors and 
foreigners. If you should do the contrary, you would displease 
me. Finally, do not allow yourself to be duped too much by 
persons whom I do not know, and who would not come to the 
house, if I were there. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 68. 

Finckenstein, May 12, 1807. 

I have just received your letter of May 2nd, in which I see 
that you are getting ready to go to St. Cloud. I was sorry to 

see the bad conduct of Madame . Might you not speak to 

1 Toute diablesse. 


her about mending her ways, which at present might easily 
cause unpleasantness on the part of her husband ? 

From what I hear, Napoleon is cured ; I can well imagine 
how unhappy his mother has been ; but measles is an ailment to 
which every one is liable. I hope that he has been vaccinated, 
and that he will at least be safe from the smallpox. 

Adieu, dear. The weather is very warm, and vegetation has 
begun ; but it will be some days before there is any grass. 


No. 69. 

Finckenstein, May 14, 1807. 

I realise the grief which the death of this poor Napoleon l 
must cause you ; you can imagine what I am enduring. 
I should like to be by your side, in order that your sorrow 
might be kept within reasonable bounds. You have had 
the good fortune never to lose children ; but it is one of the 
pains and conditions attached to our miseries here below. I 
trust I may hear you have been rational in your sorrow, and 
that your health remains good ! Would you willingly augment 
my grief? 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 70. 


Finckenstein, May 1 6, 1807. 

I have just received your letter of May 6th. I see from it 
how ill you are already ; and I fear that you are not rational, 
and that you are making yourself too wretched about the mis- 
fortune which has come upon us. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

1 Charles Napoleon, Prince Royal of Holland, died at the Hague, May 5, 1807. 


No. 71. 

Finckenstein, May 2O, 1807. 

I have just received your letter of May loth. I see that you 
have gone to Lacken. I think you might stay there a fortnight ; 
it would please the Belgians and serve to distract you. 

I am sorry to see that you have not been rational. Grief has 
bounds which should not be passed. Take care of yourself for 
the sake of your friend, and believe in my entire affection. 


No. 72. 

May 2^.tk. Dantzic surrenders to Lefebvre after two months' siege, 
with 800 guns and immense stores. 


Finckemtein, May 24, 1807. 

Your letter from Lacken just received. I am sorry to see 
your grief undiminished, and that Hortense has not yet come ; 
she is unreasonable, and does not deserve our love, since she only 
loves her children. 

Try to calm her, and do not make me wretched. For every 
ill without a remedy consolations must be found. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 73. 

Finckenstein, May 26, 1807. 

I have just received your letter of the i6th. I have seen 
with pleasure that Hortense has arrived at Lacken. I am an- 
noyed at what you tell me of the state of stupor in which she 
still is. She must have more courage, and force herself to have it. 


I cannot imagine why they want her to go to take the waters ; 
she will forget her trouble much better at Paris, and find more 
sources of consolation. 

Show force of character, be cheerful, and keep well. My 
health is excellent. 

Adieu, dear. I suffer much from all your griefs ; it is a great 
trouble to me not to be by your side. NAPOLEON. 

May 2%tb. Lefebvre made Duke of Dantzic by Napoleon. 

May 2()th. Selim III. deposed in Turkey by Mustapha IV., his 

June 1st. 22,OOO Spanish troops, sent by Charles IV. , join the French 
army in Germany. 

No. 74. 

Dantzig, June 2, 1807. 

My Dear y I note your arrival at Malmaison. I have no 
letters from you ; I am vexed with Hortense, she has never 
written me a line. All that you tell me about her grieves me. 
Why have you not found her some distractions ? Weeping 
won't do it ! I trust you will take care of yourself in order that 
I may not find you utterly woebegone. 

I have been the two past days at Dantzic ; the weather is 
very fine, my health excellent. I think more of you than you 
are thinking of a husband far away. 

Adieu, dear ; very kindest regards. Pass on this letter to 
Hortense. NAPOLEON. 

No. 75. 

Marienburg) June 3, 1807. 

This morning I slept at Marienburg. Yesterday I left 
Dantzic ; my health is very good. Every letter that comes from 


St. Cloud tells me you are always weeping. That is not well ; 
it is necessary for you to keep well and be cheerful. 

Hortense is still unwell ; what you tell me of her makes me 
very sorry for her. 

Adieu, dear ; think of all the affection I bear for you. 


June $th. Russians defeated at Spanden ; Bernadottc wounded. 

No. 76. 

June 6th. Russians defeated at Deppen by Soult. 


Finckenstein, June 6, 1807. 

My Dear, I am in flourishing health. Your yesterday's 
letter pained me ; it seems to me that you are always grieving, 
and that you are not reasonable. The weather is very fine. 

Adieu, dear ; I love you and wish to see you cheerful and 
contented. NAPOLEON. 

June Qth. Russians defeated at Guttstadt by Napoleon, and 

June \oth. At Heilsberg. 

June i^th. Battle of Fried/and, completing the " Campaign of Ten Days.'* 

No. 77. 

Fried/and, June 15, 1807. 

My Dear, I write you only a line, for I am very tired, by 
reason of several days' bivouacking. My children have worthily 
celebrated the anniversary of the battle of Marengo. 

The battle of Friedland will be as celebrated for my people, 
and equally glorious. The entire Russian army routed, 80 pieces 
of cannon captured, 30,000 men taken or slain, 25 Russian 
generals killed, wounded, or taken, the Russian Guard wiped out. 



The battle is worthy of her sisters Marengo, Austerlitz, Jena. 
The bulletin will tell you the rest. My loss is not consider- 
able. I out-manoeuvred the enemy successfully. 

Be content and without uneasiness. 

Adieu, dear ; my horse is waiting. NAPOLEON. 

You may give this news as official, if it arrives before the 
bulletin. They may also fire salvoes. Cambaceres will make 
the proclamation. 

No. 78. 

June i6tt>. Konigsberg captured by Soult " what tuas left to the 
King of Prussia is conquered." 


Friedland) June 1 6, 1807, 4 P * M - 

My Dear, Yesterday I despatched Moustache with the news 
of the battle of Friedland. Since then I have continued to 
pursue the enemy. Konigsberg, which is a town of 80,000 
souls, is in my power. I have found there many cannon, large 
stores, and, lastly, more than 160,000 muskets, which have come 
from England. 

Adieu, dear. My health is perfect, although I have a slight 
catarrh caused by bivouacking in the rain and cold. Be happy 
and cheerful. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

June 17 th. Neisse, in Silesia, with 6000 men, surrenders to the 
French ; also 

June iSth. Glatz. 

No. 79. 

Tilsit, June 19, 1807. 

This morning I despatched Tascher to you, to calm all your 
fears. Here all goes splendidly. The battle of Friedland has 


decided everything. The enemy is confounded, overwhelmed, 
and greatly weakened. 

My health is good, and my army is superb. 

Adieu, dear. Be cheerful and contented. NAPOLEON. 

June 2 1 st. Armistice concluded at Tilsit. 

No. 80. 

Tilsit, June 22, 1807. 

My Dear, I have your letter of June loth. I am sorry to 
see you are so depressed. You will see by the bulletin that I 
have concluded a suspension of arms, and that we are negotiating 
peace. Be contented and cheerful. 

I despatched Borghese to you, and, twelve hours later, Mous- 
tache ; therefore you should have received in good time my 
letters and the news of the grand battle of Friedland. 

I am wonderfully well, and wish to hear that you are 
happy. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 81. 

Tilsit, June 25, 1807. 

My Dear, I have just seen the Emperor Alexander. I was 
much pleased with him. He is a very handsome, young, and 
kind-hearted Emperor ; he has more intelligence than people 
usually give him credit for. To-morrow he will lodge in the 
town of Tilsit. 

Adieu, dear. I am very anxious to hear that you are well 
and happy. My health is very good. NAPOLEON. 


No. 82. 

Tilsit, July 3, 1807. 

My Dear^ M. de Turenne will give you full details of all 
that has occurred here. Everything goes excellently. I think I 
told you that the Emperor of Russia drinks your health with 
much cordiality. He, as well as the King of Prussia, dines with 
me every day. I sincerely trust that you are happy. 
Adieu, dear. A thousand loving remembrances. 


No. 83. 


Tilsit y July 6, 1807. 

I have your letter of June 25th. I was grieved to see that 
you were selfish, and that the success of my arms should have no 
charm for you. 

The beautiful Queen of Prussia is to come to-morrow to 
dine with me. 

I am well, and am longing to see you again, when destiny 
shall so order it. Still, it may be sooner than we expect. 

Adieu, dear ; a thousand loving remembrances. 


No. 84. 

July yfh. Peace signed between France and Russia. 

Tilsit y July 7, 1807. 

My Dear, Yesterday the Queen of Prussia dined with me. 
I had to be on the defence against some further concessions she 


wished me to make to her husband ; but I was very polite, and 
yet held firmly to my policy. She is very charming. I shall 
soon give you the details, which I could not possibly give you 
now unless at great length. When you read this letter, peace 
with Prussia and Russia will be concluded, and Jerome acknow- 
ledged King of Westphalia, with a population of three millions. 
This news is for yourself alone. 

Adieu, dear ; I love you, and wish to know that you are 
cheerful and contented. NAPOLEON. 

No. 85. 

Tilsit, July 8, 1 1807. 

The Queen of Prussia is really charming ; she is full of 
coquetterle for me ; but don't be jealous ; I am an oil-cloth over 
which all that can only glide. It would cost me too much to 
play the lover. NAPOLEON. 

No. 12,875 of the Correspondence (taken from Las Cases). 

July tyh. Peace signed between France and Prussia, the latter resign- 
ing all its possessions between the Rhine and the Elbe. 

No. 86. 

Dresden, July 18, 1807, Noon. 

My Dear, Yesterday I arrived at Dresden at 5 P.M., in 
excellent health, although I remained a hundred hours in the 
carriage without getting out. I am staying here with the King 
of Saxony, with whom I am highly pleased. I have now there- 
fore traversed more than half the distance that separates us. 

1 Presumed date. 


It is very likely that one of these fine nights I may descend 
upon St. Cloud like a jealous husband, so beware. 

Adieu, dear ; I shall have great pleasure in seeing you. 
Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

July 2$th. Plot of Prince Ferdinand of Asturias against his parents, 
the King and Queen of Spain. 

July 2Jth. Napoleon arrives at St. Cloud, 5 A.M. 

August iqth. Napoleon suppresses the French Tribunate. 

August 2Oth. Marshal Brune captures Stralsund from the Swedes. 

September 1st. The Ionian Isles become part of the French Empire. 

September $th to 1th. Bombardment of Copenhagen by the English. 

September fth. Occupation of Rugen by Marshal Brune. 

October 6th. War between Russia and Sweden. 

October 1 6th. Treaty of alliance between France and Denmark. 

October l"]th. Junot with 27,000 men starts for Portugal, with whom 
France has been nominally at war since 1801. 

October 27 th. Treaty of Fontainebleau signed between France and 
Spain. ( Plot of Prince Ferdinand against his father discovered at Madrid 
the same day. ) 

November 8th. Russia declares war against England. 

November I $th. Napoleon constitutes the kingdom of Westphalia, with 
his brother Jerome as king. 

November 26th. Junot enters Abrantes, and on 

November $Oth, enters Lisbon. 

December )th. Trade suspended between England and the United 
States (re rights of neutrals). 

December 2$rd. France levies a contribution of IOO million francs on 


" Napoleon was received with unbounded adulation by all 
the towns of Italy. . . . He was the Redeemer of France, 
but the Creator of Italy." ALISON, Hist, of Europe (vol. xi. 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 264-267.) 


No. I. Milan ........ 264 

Mont Cents ....... 264 

Eugene . . . . . . . 264 

No. 2. Venice ........ 265 

November $oth ...... 265 

No. 3. Udine ........ 265-7 

/ may soon be in Paris . . . . . 267 



November i6th. Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau. 
November ^^nd-^s > th. At Milan. 

No. i. 

Mi/an, November 25, 1807. 

My Dear, I have been here two days. I am very glad that 
I did not bring you here ; you would have suffered dreadfully in 
crossing Mont Cenis, where a storm detained me twenty-four 

I found Eugene in good health ; I am very pleased with him. 
The Princess is ill ; I went to see her at Monza. She has had a 
miscarriage ; she is getting better. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

November 2gtb to December Jth. At Venice (writes Talleyrand, " This 
land is a phenomenon of the power of commerce "). 

No. 2. 


Venice, November 30, 1807. 

I have your letter of November 22nd. The last two days I 
have been at Venice. The weather is very bad, which has not 


prevented me from sailing over the lagoons in order to see the 
different forts. 

I am glad to see you are enjoying yourself at Paris. 

The King of Bavaria, with his family, as well as the Princess 
Eliza, are here. 

I am spending December 2nd l here, and that past I shall be 
on my way home, and very glad to see you. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 3. 

Udine, December 1 1, 1807. 

My Dear, I have your letter of December 3rd, from which 
I note that you were much pleased with the Jardin des Plantes. 
Here I am at the extreme limit of my journey ; it is possible I 
may soon be in Paris, where I shall be very glad to see you 
again. The weather has not as yet been cold here, but very 
rainy. I have profited by this good season up to the last moment, 
for I suppose that at Christmas the winter will at length make 
itself felt. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

December 1 2th. At Udine. 

December l^th. At Mantua. 

December \6th. At Milan (till December 26th}. 

December I Jtb. His Milan decree against English commerce. 

December 2'jth-28tk. At Turin. 

January 1st. At Paris. 

1 His Coronation Day. 


" The imbecility of Charles IV., the vileness of Ferdinand, 
and the corruption of Godoy were undoubtedly the proximate 
causes of the calamities which overwhelmed Spain." NAPIER'S 
Peninsular War (vol. i. preface). 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 267-269.) 


No. I. Bayonnc ........ 267 

No. 2. A country-house . ...... 267 

Everything is still most primitive . . . .267 

No. 3. Prince of the Asturias . . . . . .268 

The Queen 268 

No. 4. A son has been born ...... 268 

Arrive on the 27 'th . . . . . . 269 




" This year offers a strange picture. The Emperor Napoleon was 
at Venice in the month of January, surrounded by the homage of all the 
courts and princes of Italy ; in the month of April he was at Bayonne, 
surrounded by that of Spain, and the great personages of that country ; 
and, finally, in the month of October he is at Erfurth, with his parterre 
of kings." Memoires du Due de Rovigo. 

January 2'Jth. Queen and Prince Regent of Portugal reach Rio 
de Janeiro. 

February 2nd. French troops enter Rome. 

February I'jth. French occupy Pampcluna, and 

February 2tyh. Barcelona. 

March ityh. Charles IV. abdicates, and his son proclaimed Ferdi- 
nand VII. 

March 2Oth. Godoy imprisoned by Ferdinand. 

March 2^rd. Murat enters Madrid. 

March 2'Jth. Napoleon excommunicated. 

April i J//6. Napoleon arrives at Bayonne. 

No. i. 

Bayonne^ April 1 6, 1808. 

I have arrived here in good health, rather tired by a dull 
journey and a very bad road. 



I am very glad you stayed behind, for the houses here are 
wretched and very small. 

I go to-day into a small house in the country, about a mile 
from the town. 

Adieu, dear. Take care of yourself. 

No. 2. 

Bayonne, April 17, 1808. 

I have just received yours of April I5th. What you tell me 
of the owner of the country-house pleases me. Go and spend 
the day there sometimes. 

I am sending an order for you to have 2O,OOO francs per 
month additional while I am away, counting from the ist of 

I am lodged atrociously. I am leaving this place in an hour, 
to occupy a country-house (bastide) about a mile away. The 
Infant Don Carlos and five or six Spanish grandees are here, the 
Prince of the Asturias fifty miles away. King Charles and the 
Queen are due. I know not how I shall lodge all these people. 
Everything here is still most primitive (a I'auberge). The health 
of my troops in Spain is good. 

It took me some time to understand your little jokes ; I have 
laughed at your recollections. O you women, what memories 
you have ! 

My health is fairly good, and I love you most affectionately. 
I wish you to give my kind regards to everybody at Bordeaux ; I 
have been too busy to send them to anybody. NAPOLEON. 

April 2Olh. Ferdinand arrives at Bayonne. 


No. 3. 

April 21, 1808. 

I have just received your letter of April igth. Yesterday I 
had the Prince of the Asturias and his suite to dinner, which 
occasioned me considerable embarrassment. I am waiting for 
Charles IV. and the Queen. 

My health is good. I am now sufficiently recovered for the 

Adieu, dear. Your letters always give me much pleasure. 


No. 4. 

Bayonne^ April 23, 1808. 

My Dear, A son has been born to Hortense ; l I am highly 
delighted. I am not surprised that you tell me nothing of it, 
since your letter is dated the 2ist, and the child was only born 
on the 20th, 2 during the night. 

You can start on the 26th, sleep at Mont de Marsan, and 
arrive here on the 2yth. Have your best dinner-service sent on 
here on the 25th, in the evening. I have made arrangements 
for you to have a little house in the country, next to the one I 
have. My health is good. 

I am waiting for Charles IV. and his wife. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

April $Oth. Charles IV. and the Queen arrive at Bayonne. 
May 1st. Ferdinand gives back the crown to his father. 
May+2nd. Murat subdues insurrection at Madrid. 
May $th. Treaty of Bayonne ; Charles IV. and Ferdinand (May 6) 
surrender to Napoleon their rights to the Spanish crown. 

1 Charles Louis Napoleon, afterwards Napoleon III. 2 At 17 Rue Lafitte. 


May iyh. Spanish Junta ask for Joseph Bonaparte to be their king. 
June 6th. King Joseph proclaimed King of Spain and the Indies by 
Napoleon, in an imperial decree, dated Bayonne. 

June 'jth. French, under Dupont, sacked Cordova. 

June Qth. Emperor of Austria calls out his militia. 

June i$th. French fleet at Cadiz surrender to the Spanish. 

July 4//. English cease hostilities with Spain, and recognise Fer- 
dinand VII. 

July 'Jth. Spanish new constitution sworn to by Joseph and by the 

July (jth. Commences the siege of Saragassa. 

July \^th. Bessieres defeats 40,000 Spaniards at Medina de Rio 

July l$th. Murat declared King of Naples. 

July 2Otk. Joseph enters Madrid. Mahmoud deposed by his 
younger brother at Constantinople. 

July 22nd. Dupont capitulates at Baylen " the only stain on French 
arms for twenty years (17921812)." Montgaillard. 

July $Oth. French protest against Austrian armaments. 

August 1st. Wellington landed in Portugal. 

August 2 1 st. Battle of Vimiera, creditable to Junot. 

August 2$th. Spanish troops reoccupy Madrid. 

August $Oth. Convention of Cintra. French only hold Barcelona, 
Biscay, Navarre, and Alava, In the 'whole of Spain. 

September ftth. Convention of Paris (Prussia and France) ; Prussian 
army not to exceed 40,000 men. 


" When he shows as seeking quarter, with paws like hands in prayer, 
That is the time of peril the time of the truce of the Bear ! " 




(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 269-273.) 


No. I. I have rather a cold ...... 270 

I am pleased with the Emperor . . . .270 

No. 2. Shooting over the battlefield of Jena . . . .271 

The Weimar ball . . . . . . .271 

A few trifling ailments . . . . . .271 

No. 3 I am pleased with Alexander . . . . .272 
He ought to be with me . . . , . . 272 
Erfurt ........ 273 


No. i. 

Erfurt, September 29, 1 808. 

I have rather a cold. I have received your letter, dated 
Malmaison. I am well pleased with the Emperor and every 
one here. 

It is an hour after midnight, and I am tired. 
Adieu, dear ; take care of yourself. 


No. 2. 

October 9, 1808. 

My Dear, I have received your letter. I note with pleasure 
that you are well. I have just been shooting over the battle- 
field of Jena. We had breakfast (dejeune) at the spot where I 
bivouacked on the night of the battle. 

I assisted at the Weimar ball. The Emperor Alexander 
dances ; but not I. Forty years are forty years. 

My health is really sound, in spite of a few trifling ailments. 

Adieu, dear ; I hope to see you soon. Yours ever, 



No. 3. 

My ZWr, I write you seldom ; I am very busy. Conver- 
sations which last whole days, and which do not improve my cold. 
Still all goes well. I am pleased with Alexander ; he ought to 
be with me. If he were a woman, I think I should make him 
my sweetheart. 

I shall be back to you shortly ; keep well and let me find 
you plump and rosy. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 


" The winter campaign commenced on the I st of November 
1808, and terminated on the ist of March 1809, to the advantage 
of the French, who, for that reason, denominate it the Imperial 
Campaign. The Spaniards were long before they could recover 
from the terror caused by the defeat of their armies, the capture of 
Madrid, the surrender of Saragossa, and the departure of the English 
from Corunna." Sarrazins History of the War in Spain and 
Portugal, 1815. 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 273-278.) 


No. 5. Aranda ....... 273 

No. 6. Madrid ....... 273 

Parisian tveather . . . . . . 273 

No. 8. Kourak'm ....... 274 

No. 9. The English appear to have received reinforce- 
ments ....... 274 

No. IO. Bena-vmte ....... 274 

The English flee panic-stricken . . . . 274 

The 'weather . . . . . . . 274 

Lefebvre . . . . . . . 275 

No. II. Tour letters ....... 275-6 

No. 12. The English are in utter rout . . . . 276 

Nos. 13 & 14. Valladolid ...... 277 

Eugene has a daughter . . . . . 277 

They are foolish in Paris . . . . . 277 



October 2gth. English enter Spain. 

October 3 ist. Blake defeated by Lefebvre at Tornosa. 

No. i. 

November 3, 1808. 

I arrived to-night 1 with considerable trouble. I had ridden 
several stages at full speed. Still, I am well. 
To-morrow I start for Spain. 
My troops are arriving in force. 
Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

November ^th. Napoleon enters Spain. . 

No. 2. 

Tolosa, November 5, 1808. 

I am at Tolosa. I am starting for Vittoria, where I shall be 
in a few hours. I am fairly well, and I hope everything will 
soon be completed. NAPOLEON. 

1 At Bayonne. 


No. 3. 

Vittoria, November J. 

My Dear y I have been the last two days at Vittoria. I am 
in good health. My troops are arriving daily ; the Guard arrived 

The King is in very good health. I am very busy. 
I know that you are in Paris. Never doubt my affection. 


November loth. Battle of Burgos. Sou/t and Bessieres defeat 
Spaniards, nuho lose 3000 killed and 3000 prisoners, and 2O cannon. 

November i2tb. Battle of Espinosa. Marshal Victor defeats La 
Romano and Blake, luho lose 2O,ooo men and 50 cannon. 

No. 4. 

November i^th. Third revolution at Constantinople. Mahmoud IV. 
assassinated (November I5/^). 


Burgos^ November 14, 1808. 

Matters here are progressing at a great rate. The weather is 
very fine. We are successful. My health is very good. 


November 2$rd. Battle of Tudela. Castanos and Palafox defeated, 
with loss of 7000 men and 30 cannon, by Marshal Lannes. " The battle 
of Tudela makes the pendant of that of Espinosa." Napoleon. 

No. 5. 

November 26, 1808. 

I have received your letter. I trust that your health be as 
good as mine is, although I am very busy. All goes well here. 


I think you should return to the Tuileries on December 2ist, 
and from that date give a concert daily for eight days. Yours 
ever, NAPOLEON. 

Kind regards to Hortense and to M. Napoleon. 

December $rd. French voluntarily evacuate Berlin. 

December qth. Surrender of Madrid. Napoleon abolishes the Inquisi- 
tion and feudal rights. {"He regards the taking of a capital as decisive for 
the submission of a 'whole kingdom ; thus in 1814 'will act his adversaries, 
pale but judicious imitators of his strategy." Montgaillard.) 

No. 6. 

December 7, 1808. 

Your letter of the 28th to hand. I am glad to see that you 
are well. You will have seen that young Tascher has dis- 
tinguished himself, which has pleased me. My health is good. 

Here we are enjoying Parisian weather of the last fortnight 
in May. We are hot, and have no fires ; but the nights are 
rather cool. 

Madrid is quiet. All my affairs prosper. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

Kind regards to Hortense and to M. Napoleon. 

No. 7. 

Chamartiri) December IO, 1808. 

My Dear, Yours to hand, in which you tell me what bad 
weather you are having in Paris ; here it is the best weather 
imaginable. Please tell me what mean these alterations Hortense 
is making ; I hear she is sending away her servants. Is it be- 
cause they have refused to do what was required ? Give me 
some particulars. Reforms are not desirable. 


Adieu, dear. The weather here is delightful. All goes 
excellently, and I pray you to keep well. NAPOLEON. 

No. 8. 

December 21, 1808. 

You ought to have been at the Tuileries on the I2th. I 
trust you may have been pleased with your rooms. 

I have authorised the presentation of Kourakin to you and 
the family ; be kind to him, and let him take part in your plays. 

Adieu, dear. I am well. The weather is rainy ; it is rather 
cold. NAPOLEON. 

No. 9. 
December 22nd. Napoleon quits Madrid. 


Madrid, December 22, 1808. 

I start at once to outmanoeuvre the English, who appear to 
have received reinforcements and wish to look big. 

The weather is fine, my health perfect ; don't be uneasy. 


No. 10. 

Benavento, December 31, 1808. 

My Dear, The last few days I have been in pursuit of the 
English, but they flee panic-stricken. They have pusillanimously 
abandoned the remnant of La Romana's army in order not to 
delay its retreat a single half day. More than a hundred waggons 
of their baggage have already been taken. The weather is 
very bad. 


Lefebvre l has been captured. He took part in a skirmish with 
300 of his chasseurs ; these idiots crossed a river by swimming and 
threw themselves in the midst of the English cavalry ; they killed 
several, but on their return Lefebvre had his horse wounded ; it 
was swimming, the current took him to the bank where the 
English were ; he was taken. Console his wife. 

Adieu, dear. Bessieres, with 10,000 cavalry, is at Astorga. 


A happy New Year to everybody. 

No. ii. 

January 3, 1809. 

My Dear, I have received your letters of the i8th and 2ist. 
I am close behind the English. 

The weather is cold and rigorous, but all goes well. 
Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

A happy New Year, and a very happy one, to my Josephine. 

No. 12. 

Benavento, January 5, 1809. 

My Dear^ I write you a line. The English are in utter 
rout ; I have instructed the Duke of Dalmatia to pursue them 
closely (I'tyee dans les reins). I am well ; the weather bad. 
Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 13. 


January 8, 1809. 

I have received yours of the 23rd and 26th. I am sorry to 
see you have toothache. I have been here two days. The 

1 General Lefebvre Desnouettes. 


weather is what we must expect at this season. The English are 
embarking. I am in good health. 

Adieu, dear. 

I am writing Hortense. Eugene has a daughter. 

Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 14. 


January 9, 1809. 

Moustache brings me your letter of 3ist December. I see 
from it, dear, that you are sad and have very gloomy disquietudes. 
Austria will not make war on me ; if she does, I have 150,000 
men in Germany and as many on the Rhine, and 400,000 
Germans to reply to her. Russia will not separate herself from 
me. They are foolish in Paris ; all goes well. 

I shall be at Paris the moment I think it worth while. I 
advise you to beware of ghosts ; one fine day, at two o'clock in 
the morning. 

But adieu, dear ; I am well, and am yours ever, 



" Berthier, incapable of acting a principal part, was surprised, 
and making a succession of false movements that would have 
been fatal to the French army, if the Emperor, journeying 
night and day, had not arrived at the very hour when his lieu- 
tenant was on the point of consummating the ruin of the army. 
But then was seen the supernatural force of Napoleon's genius. 
In a few hours he changed the aspect of affairs, and in a few 
days, maugre their immense number, his enemies, baffled and 
flying in all directions, proclaimed his mastery in an art which, 
up to that moment, was imperfect ; for never, since troops first 
trod a field of battle, was such a display of military genius made 
by man." NAPIER. 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 278-295.) 


Napoleon's position in Europe . . . . 278 

No. I. Donauwerth 281 

The Ratisbon proclamation, and first successes of 

the campaign up to April 23rd . . . 281-2 

No. 2. May 6th 282 

The ball that touched me . . . . . 283 
No. 3. Baron Marbot's foray ; and memories of Richard 

Coeur de Lion ..... 284 
No. 4. Schoenbrunn . . . . . . .2845 

May 12th 285 

No. 5. Ebersdorf .... 286 

Eugene . . . has completely performed the task . 287 

No. 6. May 2<)th 288 

No. 7. 1 have ordered the t<wo prince s .... 2889 

The Duke of Montebello 289 

Thus everything ends . . . . . 289 

No. 9. Eugene won a battle . . . . . 290 

No. ii. Wagram ....... 290 

Lasalle . . . . . . . 291 

I am sunburnt . . . . . . 291 

No. 12. A surfeit of bile . . . . . . 291 

Wolkersdorf . . . . . . . 291 

No. 1 6. My affairs follow my wishes . . . . 292 

No. 17. August 2lst ....... 292 

No. 1 8. Comedians ....... 292 

Women ... no/ having been presented . . 293 

No. 19. All this is very suspicious . . . . . 293 

No. 20. Krems 293 

My health has never been better . . . . 293 

No. 23. October l^th ....... 294 

No. 24. Stuttgard 295 



EVENTS OF 1809. 

January Jth. Ring and Queen of Prussia visit Alexander at St. 

January I2th. Cayenne and French Guiana captured by Spanish 
and Portuguese South Americans. 

January i ^th. Combat of Alcazar. Victor defeats Spaniards. 

January i qjh. Treaty of Alliance between England and Spain. 

January i6th. Battle of Corunna. Moore killed ; Baird wounded. 

January I'jth. English army sails for England. 

January 22nd. King Joseph returns to Madrid. 

January 2Jtb. Soult takes Ferrol (retaken by English, June 22nd). 

February 2 1st. Lannes takes Saragossa. 

February 2$rd. English capture Martinique. 

March 4//>. Madison made President of United States. 

March 2()th. Soult fights battle of Oporto. Spaniards lose 2O,OOO 
men and 200 guns. Gustavus Adolphus abdicates throne of Sweden. 

April gth. Austrians under Archduke Charles cross the Inn, enter 
Bavaria, and take Munich. Napoleon receives this news April i2th, and 
reaches Strasburg April l$th. 

April i $th. Eugene defeated on the Tagliamento. 

April i6th. And at Sacile. 

April i()th, Combat of Pfafferhofen. Oudinot repulses Austrians, 
while Davoust wins the Battle of Thann. Napoleon joins the army. 

April 2Oth. Battle of Abensberg. Archduke Louis defeated. 
Austrians take Ratisbon, and 1800 prisoners. Poles defeated by Arch- 
duke Ferdinand at Baszy. 

April 2ist. Combat of Landshut ; heavy Austrian losses. Austrians 
under Archduke Ferdinand take Warsaw. 



April 22nd. Battle of Eckmiihl. Napoleon defeats Archduke Charles. 

April 2$rd. French take Ratisbon. 

April 2$th. King of Bavaria re-enters Munich. 

April 26th. French army crosses the Inn. 

April 2%th-T ) oth. French force the Salza, and cut in two the main 
Austrian army " One of the most beautiful manoeuvres of modern 
tactics" (Monlgaillard}. 

April zyth. Combat of Caldiero. Eugene defeats Archduke John. 

May $rd. Russia declares war on Austria, and enters Galicia. 

May ajh. Combat of Ebersberg. Massena defeats Austrians, but 
loses a large number of men. 

No. i. 

Donauwoerth, April 17, 1809. 

I arrived here yesterday at 4 A.M. ; I am just leaving it. 
Everything is under way. Military operations are in full activity. 
Up to the present, there is nothing new. 

My health is good. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 2. 

Enns, May 6, 1809, Noon. 

My Dear, I have received your letter. The ball that 
touched me has not wounded me ; it barely grazed the tendon 

My health is very good. You are wrong to be uneasy. 
My affairs here go excellently. Yours ever, 

Kind regards to Hortense and the Duke de Berg. 1 

May 8/^. Eugene crosses the Piave, and defeats Archduke John. 

1 Napoleon Louis, Prince Royal of Holland, and Grand Duke of Berg from 
March 3, 1809. 


No. 3. 

Saint-Polten, May 9, 1809. 

My Dear, I write you from Saint-Polten. To-morrow I 
shall be before Vienna ; it will be exactly a month to the day 
after the Austrians crossed the Inn, and violated peace. 

My health is good, the weather splendid, and the soldiery very 
cheerful ; there is wine here. 

Keep well. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

May I3//6. French occupy Vienna, after a bombardment of thirty- 
six hours. 

May I'jth. Roman States united to the French Empire. 

May i8th. French occupy Trieste. 

May iqth. Lefebvre occupies Innsbruck. 

May 2Oth. Eugene reaches Klagenfurt. 

May 2ist22nd. Battle of Essling. A drawn battle, unfavourable 
to the French, who lose Marshal Lannes, three generals killed, and 500 
officers and 18,000 men wounded. The Archduke admits a loss of 
4200 killed and 16,000 wounded. 

May 22nd. Meerveldt with 4000 men surrenders at Laybach to 

May 2$th. Eugene reaches Leoben in Styria, and captures most of 
the corps of Jellachich. 

May 26th. Eugene joins the army of Germany, at Bruck in Styria. 

No. 4. 

May \2th. Soult evacuates Portugal. Wellington crosses the 
Douro, and enters Spain. 


Schoenbrunriy May 12, 1809. 

I am despatching the brother of the Duchess of Montebello 
to let you know that I am master of Vienna, and that everything 
here goes perfectly. My health is very good. NAPOLEON. 



No. 5. 

Ebendorf, May 27, 1809. 

I am despatching a page to tell you that Eugene has rejoined 
me with all his army ; that he has completely performed the task 
that I entrusted him with ; and has almost entirely destroyed the 
enemy ""s army opposed to him. 

I send you my proclamation to the army of Italy, which will 
make you understand all this. 

I am very well. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

P.5. You can have this proclamation printed at Strasburg, 
and have it translated into French and German, in order that it 
may be scattered broadcast over Germany. Give a copy of the 
proclamation to the page who goes on to Paris. 

May 28tf>. Hofer defeats Bavarians at Innsbruck. 

No. 6. 

Ebersdorf, May 29, 1809, 7 P.M. 

My Dear, I have been here since yesterday ; I am stopped 
by the river. The bridge has been burnt ; I shall cross at mid- 
night. Everything here goes as I wish it, viz., very well. 

The Austrians have been overwhelmed (frapph de la foudre). 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 7. 

Ebendorf, May 31, 1809. 

Your letter of the 26th to hand. I have written you that 
you can go to Plombieres. I do not care for you to go to Baden ; 


it is not necessary to leave France. I have ordered the two 
princes to re-enter France. 1 

The loss of the Duke of Montebello, who died this morning, 
has grieved me exceedingly. Thus everything ends ! ! 

Adieu, dear ; if you can help to console the poor Marechale, 
do so. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

June 1st. Archduke Ferdinand evacuates Warsaw. 

June 6th. Regent of Sweden proclaimed King as Charles XIII. 

No. 8. 

Schoenbrunn, June 9, 1809. 

I have received your letter ; I see with pleasure that you are 
going to the waters at Plombieres, they will do you good. 

Eugene is in Hungary with his army. I am well, the weather 
very fine. I note with pleasure that Hortense and the Duke of 
Berg are in France. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

June loth. Union of the Papal States to France promulgated in 

June llth. Napoleon and all his abettors excommunicated. 

June i^th. Eugene, aided by Macdonald and Lauriston, defeats 
Archduke Ferdinand at Raab. 

No. 9. 

Schoenbrunn, June 1 6, 1809. 

I despatch a page to tell you that, on the I4th, the anni- 
versary of Marengo, Eugene won a battle against the Archduke 

1 Her two grandsons, who, with Hortense, their mother, were at Baden. 


John and the Archduke Palatine, at Raab, in Hungary ; that he 
has taken 3000 men, many pieces of cannon, 4 flags, and pur- 
sued them a long way on the road to Buda-Pesth. 


June iSth. Combat of Belchite. Blake defeated by Suchet near 

No. IO. 


Schoenbrunn^ June 19, 1809, Noon. 

I have your letter, which tells me of your departure for 
Plombieres. I am glad you are making this journey, because I 
trust it may do you good. 

Eugene is in Hungary, and is well. My health is very good, 
and the army in fighting trim. 

I am very glad to know that the Grand Duke of Berg is 
with you. 

Adieu, dear. You know my affection for my Josephine ; it 
never varies. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

July Afth-yh. French cross Danube, and win battle of EnzersdorfF. 

July $th-6th. Pope Pius VII. carried off from Rome by order of 
Murat ; eventually kept at Savona. 

July 6th. Battle of Wagram. The most formidable artillery battle 
ever fought up to this date (900 guns in action). The Austrians had 
120,000 men, with more guns and of larger calibre than those of the 

No. II. 

July Jib. St. Domingo surrenders to the English. 

Ebersdorf, July 7, 1809, 5 A.M. 

I am despatching a page to bring you the good tidings of the 
victory of Enzersdorf, which I won on the 5th, and that of 
Wagram, which I won on the 6th. 


The enemy's army flies in disorder, and all goes according to 
my prayers (voeux). 

Eugene is well. Prince Aldobrandini is wounded, but 

Bessieres has been shot through the fleshy part of his thigh ; 
the wound is very slight. Lasalle was killed. My losses are 
full heavy, but the victory is decisive and complete. We have 
taken more than 100 pieces of cannon, 12 flags, many prisoners. 

I am sunburnt. 

Adieu, dear. I send you a kiss. Kind regards to Hortense. 


No. 12. 

Wolkersdorf^ July 9, 1809, 2 A.M. 

My Dear, All goes here as I wish. My enemies are de- 
feated, beaten, utterly routed. They were in great numbers ; I 
have wiped them out. To-day my health is good ; yesterday I 
was rather ill with a surfeit of bile, occasioned by so many hard- 
ships, but it has done me much good. 

Adieu, dear. I am in excellent health. NAPOLEON. 

July \2th. Armistice of Znaim. Archduke Charles resigns his 

No. 13. 

In the Campy before Znaim, July 13, 1809. 
I send you the suspension of arms concluded yesterday with 
the Austrian General. Eugene is on the Hungary side, and is well. 


Send a copy of the suspension of arms to Cambaceres, in case he 
has not yet received one. 

I send you a kiss, and am very well. NAPOLEON. 

You may cause this suspension of arms to be printed at Nancy. 

July nth. English seize Senegal. Oudinot, Marmont, Macdonald 
made Marshals. 

No. 14. 

Schoenbrunn, July 17, 1809. 

My Dear, I have sent you one of my pages. You will 
have learnt the result of the battle of Wagram, and, later, of the 
suspension of arms of Znaim. 

My health is good. Eugene is well, and I long to know that 
you, as well as Hortense, are the same. 

Give a kiss for me to Monsieur, the Grand Duke of Berg. 

No. 15. 

Schoenbrunn, July 24, 1809. 

I have just received yours of July i8th. I note with pleasure 
that the waters are doing you good. I see no objection to you 
going back to Malmaison after you have finished your treatment. 
It is hot enough here in all conscience. My health is ex- 

Adieu, dear. Eugene is at Vienna, in the best of health. 
Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

July 28tb. Battle of Tala-vera. Wellington repulses Victor, who 
attacks by King Joseph's order, without waiting for the arrival of Souk 
with the main army. Wellington retires on Portugal. 

July 29/^-3 1 st Walcheren Expedition; 17,000 English land in 


No. 1 6. 

Schoenbrunn, August 7, 1809. 

I see from your letter that you are at Plombieres, and intend 
to stay there. You do well ; the waters and the fine climate can 
only do you good. 

I remain here. My health and my affairs follow my wishes. 

Please give my kind regards to Hortense and the Napoleons. 
Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

August 8th Combat of Arzobispo. Soult defeats the Spaniard*. 
August i $th Flushing surrenders to the English. 

No. 17. 

Schoenbrunn, August 21, 1809. 

I have received your letter of August I4th, from Plombieres ; 
I see from it that by the i8th you will be either at Paris or Mal- 
maison. The heat, which is very great here, will have upset 
you. Malmaison must be very dry and parched at this time of 

My health is good. The heat, however, has brought on a 
slight catarrh. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 1 8. 

Schoenbrunn y August 26, 1809. 

I have your letter from Malmaison. They bring me word 
that you are plump, florid, and in the best of health. I assure 


you Vienna is not an amusing city. I would very much rather 
be back again in Paris. 

Adieu, dear. Twice a week I listen to the comedians 
(bouffbns] ; they are but very middling ; it, however, passes the 
evenings. There are fifty or sixty women of Vienna, but out- 
siders (au parterre], as not having been presented. 


No. 19. 

Schoenbrunn, August 31, 1809. 

I have had no letter from you for several days ; the pleasures 
of Malmaison, the beautiful greenhouses, the beautiful gardens, 
cause the absent to be forgotten. It is, they say, the rule of your 
sex. Every one speaks only of your good health ; all this is very 

To-morrow I am off with Eugene for two days in Hungary. 

My health is fairly good. 

Adieu, dear. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 20. 

KremSj September 9, 1809. 

My Dear, I arrived here yesterday at 2 A.M. ; I have come 
here to see my troops. My health has never been better. I 
know that you are very well. 

I shall be in Paris at a moment when nobody will expect me. 
Everything here goes excellently and to my satisfaction. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 


No. 21. 

Schoenbrunri) September 23, 1809. 

I have received your letter of the 1 6th, and note that you are 
well. The old maid's house is only worth 120,000 * francs ; they 
will never get more for it. Still, I leave you mistress to do what 
you like, since it amuses you ; only, once purchased, don't pull 
it down to put a rockery there. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 22. 

Schoenbrunriy September 25, 1809. 

I have received your letter. Be careful, and I advise you to be 
vigilant, for one of these nights you will hear a loud knocking. 

My health is good. I know nothing about the rumours ; I 
have never been better for many a long year. Corvisart was no 
use to me. 

Adieu, dear ; everything here prospers. Yours ever, 


September 26th. Battle of Silistria ; Turks defeat Russians. 

No. 23. 

October i^th. Treaty of Vienna, between France and Austria. 

Schoenbrunn, October 14, 1809. 

My Dear, I write to advise you that Peace was signed two 
hours ago between Champagny and Prince Metternich. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

October igth. Mortier routs Spaniards at Ocjana. 

1 Boispreau, belonging to Mademoiselle Julien. 


No. 24. 

Nymphenburg, near Munich, October 21, 1809. 

I arrived here yesterday in the best of health, but shall not 
start till to-morrow. I shall spend a day at Stuttgard. You will 
be advised twenty-four hours in advance of my arrival at Fon- 

I look forward with pleasure to seeing you again, and I await 
that moment impatiently. 

I send you a kiss. Yours ever, NAPOLEON. 

No. 25. 

Munich, October 22, 1809. 

My Dear, I start in an hour. I shall be at Fontainebleau 
from the 26th to 2Jth ; you may meet me there with some of 
your ladies. NAPOLEON. 

November 2$tb. Disappearance of Benjamin Bathurst, erroneously 
thought to have been murdered by the French, really by robbers. 

December 1st. Capture of Gerona and 200 cannon by Augereau. 

December 1 6th. French Senate pronounce the divorce of Napoleon and 

December 2$th. English re-embark from Flushing. 


" Josenhine, my excellent Josephine, thou knowest if I have 
loved thee ! To thee, to thee alone do I owe the only moments 
of happiness which I have enjoyed in this world. Josephine, 
my destiny overmasters my will. My dearest affections must 
be silent before the interests of France." BOURRIENNE'S 

1 Also MEME'S Memoirs of Josephine, p. 333. 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 295-304.) 


No. i. A Family Council . . . . . . 295 

No. 2. Savary ........ 297 

Queen of Naples ...... 298 

The hunt ....... 298 

No. 4. The -weather is very damp .... 298 

No. 5. King of Bavaria ...... 299 

No. 6. Their last dinner together . . . . 299 

No. 7. Tuileries ....... 299 

No. 8. A house vacant in Paris . . . . . 299 

No. 9. Hortense ....... 300 

No. 10. A visit to Josephine . . . . . 300 

No. II. JVhat charms your society has .... 300 

No. 12. King of Westphalia . . . . . 301 

No. 13. Sensible 301 

No. 14. D'Audenarde ...... 302 

No. 1 6. The choosing of a bride ..... 302 

No. 17. Date 302 

Nos. 1 8 & 19. L'/ysee 302-3 

No. 2O. Bessieres' country-house ..... 303 

No. 21. Rambouillet ....... 303 

Adieu .......; 303 



DECEMBER, 1809, TO APRIL 2, 1810. 

No. i. 

December 1809, 8 P.M. 

My Dear, I found you to-day weaker than you ought to 
be. You have shown courage ; it is necessary that you should 
maintain it and not give way to a doleful melancholy. You 
must be contented and take special care of your health, which is 
so precious to me. 

If you are attached to me and if you love me, you should 
show strength of mind and force yourself to be happy. You 
cannot question my constant and tender friendship, and you 
would know very imperfectly all the affection I have for you if 
you imagined that I can be happy if you are unhappy, and con- 
tented if you are ill at ease. 

Adieu, dear. Sleep well ; dream that I wish it. 



No. 2. 

Tuesday, 6 o'clock. 

The Queen of Naples, whom I saw at the hunt in the Bois 
de Boulogne, where I rode down a stag, told me that she left 
you yesterday at I P.M. in the best of health. 

Please tell me what you are doing to-day. As for me, I am 
very well. Yesterday, when I saw you, I was ill. I expect you 
will have been for a drive. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 3. 


Trianon, J P.M. 

My Dear, I have just received your letter. Savary tells me 
that you are always crying ; that is not well. I trust that you 
have been a drive to-day. I sent you my quarry. I shall come 
to see you when you tell me you are reasonable, and that your 
courage has the upper hand. 

To-morrow, the whole day, I am receiving Ministers. 

Adieu, dear. I also am sad to-day ; I need to know that you 
are satisfied and to learn that your equilibrium (aplomb] is restored. 
Sleep well. NAPOLEON. 

No. 4. 

Thursday, Noon, 1809. 

My Dear, I wished to come and see you to-day, but I was 
very busy and rather unwell. Still, I am just off to the Council. 
Please tell me how you are. 
This weather is very damp, and not at all healthy. 



No. 5. 


I should have come to see you to-day if I had not been obliged 
to come to see the King of Bavaria, who has just arrived in Paris. 
I shall come to see you to-night at eight o'clock, and return 
at ten. 

I hope to see you to-morrow, and to see you cheerful and 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 6. 

Trianon^ Tuesday. 

My Dear, I lay down after you left me yesterday ; x I am 
going to Paris. I wish to hear that you are cheerful. I shall 
come to see you during the week. 

I have received your letters, which I am going to read in the 
carriage. NAPOLEON. 

No. 7. 

PariSy Wednesday, Noon, 2Jth December 1809. 

Eugene told me that you were very miserable all yesterday. 
That is not well, my dear ; it is contrary to what you pro- 
mised me. 

I have been thoroughly tired in revisiting the Tuileries ; that 
great palace seemed empty to me, and I felt lost in it. 

Adieu, dear. Keep well. NAPOLEON. 

1 The Empress, with Hortense, had been to dine at Trianon. 


No. 8. 

Paris, Sunday, December 31, IO A.M., 1809. 

My Dear, To-day I have a grand parade ; I shall see all my 
Old Guard and more than sixty artillery trains. 

The King of Westphalia is returning home, which will leave 
a house vacant in Paris. I am sad not to see you. If the parade 
finishes before 3 o'clock, I will come ; otherwise, to-morrow. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 9. 

Thursday Evening, 1810. 

My Dear, Hortense, whom I saw this afternoon, has given 
me news of you. I trust that you will have been able to see 
your plants to-day, the weather having been fine. I have only 
been out for a few minutes at three o'clock to shoot some hares. 

Adieu, dear ; sleep well. NAPOLEON. 

No. 10. 

Friday, 8 P.M., 1810. 

I wished to come and see you to-day, but I cannot ; it will 
be, I hope, in the morning. It is a long time since I heard from 
you. I learnt with pleasure that you take walks in your garden 
these cold days. 

Adieu, dear ; keep well, and never doubt my affection. 



No. ii. 

Sunday , 8 P.M., 1810. 

I was very glad to see you yesterday ; I feel what charms 
your society has for me. 

To-day I walked with Esteve. 1 I have allowed 4000 for 
1810, for the extraordinary expenses at Malmaison. You can 
therefore do as much planting as you like ; you will distribute 
that sum as you may require. I have instructed Esteve to send 
8000 the moment the contract for the Maison Julien shall be 
made. I have ordered them to pay for your parure of rubies, 
which will be valued by the Department, for I do not wish to 
be robbed by jewellers. So, there goes the 16,000 that this 
may cost me. 

I have ordered them to hold the million which the Civil List 
owes you for 1810 at the disposal of your man of business, in 
order to pay your debts. 

You should find in the coffers of Malmaison twenty to 
twenty-five thousand pounds ; you can take them to buy your 
plate and linen. 

I have instructed them to make you a very fine porcelain 
service ; they will take your commands in order that it may be a 
very fine one. NAPOLEON. 

No. 12. 

Wednesday, 6 P.M., 1810. 

My Dear, I see no objection to your receiving the King of 
Westphalia whenever you wish. The King and Queen of 
Bavaria will probably come to see you on Friday. 

I long to come to Malmaison, but you must really show for- 

1 General Treasurer of the Crown. 



titude and self-restraint ; the page on duty this morning told me 
that he saw you weeping. 

I am going to dine quite alone. 

Adieu, dear. Never doubt the depth of my feelings for you ; 
you would be unjust and unfair if you did. 


No. 13. 

Saturday, I P.M., 1810. 

My Dear, Yesterday I saw Eugene, who told me that you 
gave a reception to the kings. I was at the concert till eight 
o'clock, and only dined, quite alone, at that hour. 

I long to see you. If I do not come to-day, I will come after 

Adieu, dear. I hope to find you sensible and in good health. 
This weather should indeed make you put on flesh. 


January 9. The clergy of Paris annul the religious marriage of Napoleon 
with Josephine (so Biographic Un'rverselle, Michaud ; Montgaillard gives 
January 18). Confirmed by the Metropolitan Officialite, January 12 
(Pasquier). . 

No. 14. 

Trianon, January 17, 1810. 

My Dear, D'Audenarde, whom I sent to you this morning, 
tells me that since you have been at Malmaison you have no 
longer any courage. Yet that place is full of our happy memo- 
ries, which can and ought never to change, at least on my side. 

I want badly to see you, but I must have some assurance that 


you are strong and not weak ; I too am rather like you, and it 
makes me frightfully wretched. 

Adieu, Josephine ; good-night. If you doubted me, you 
would be very ungrateful. NAPOLEON. 

No. 15. 

January 2O, 1810. 

My Dear, I send you the box that I promised you the day 
before yesterday representing the Island of Lobau. I was rather 
tired yesterday. I work much, and do not go out. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 1 6. 


Noon, Tuesday, 1810. 

I hear that you are making yourself miserable ; this is too 
bad. You have no confidence in me, and all the rumours that 
are being spread strike you ; this is not knowing me, Josephine. 
I am much annoyed, and if I do not find you cheerful and con- 
tented, I shall scold you right well. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 17. 


Sunday, 9 P.M., 1810. 

My Dear, I was very glad to see you the day before yes- 

I hope to go to Malmaison during the week. I have had all 
your affairs looked after here, and ordered that everything be 
brought to the Elysee-Napoleon. 

Please take care of yourself. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 


No. 1 8. 

January 30, 1810. 

My Dear, Your letter to hand. I hope the walk you had 
yesterday, in order to show people your conservatories, has done 
you good. 

I will gladly see you at the Elyse'e, and shall be very glad to 
see you oftener, for you know how I love you. NAPOLEON. 

No. 19. 

Saturday , 6 P.M., 1810. 

I told Eugene that you would rather give ear to the vulgar 
gossip of a great city than to what I told you ; yet people should 
not be allowed to invent fictions to make you miserable. 

I have had all your effects moved to the Elysee. You shall 
come to Paris at once ; but be at ease and contented, and have 
full confidence in me. NAPOLEON. 

February 2. Soult occupies Seville. The Junta takes refuge at 

February 6. Guadeloupe surrenders to the English. 

February 7. Convention of marriage between the Emperor Napoleon 
and the Archduchess Marie Louise. 

No. 20. 


February 19, 1810. 

My Dear, I have received your letter. I long to see you, 
but the reflections that you make may be true. It is, perhaps, 


not desirable that we should be under the same roof for the first 
year. Yet Bessieres' country-house is too far off to go and return 
in one day ; moreover I have rather a cold, and am not sure of 
being able to go there. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 21. 

Friday ', 6 P.M., 1810. 

Savary, as soon as he arrived, brought me your letter ; I am 
sorry to see you are unhappy. I am very glad that you saw 
nothing of the fire. 

I had fine weather at Rambouillet. 

Hortense told me that you had some idea of coming to a 
dinner at Bessieres, and of returning to Paris to sleep. I am 
sorry that you have not been able to manage it. 

Adieu, dear. Be cheerful, and consider how much you 
please me thereby. NAPOLEON. 

No. 22. 

March 12, 1810. 

My Dear, I trust that you will be pleased with what I have 
done for Navarre. You must see from that how anxious I am to 
make myself agreeable to you. 

Get ready to take possession of Navarre ; you will go there 
on March 25, to pass the month of April. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

April i. Civil marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise. (Religious 
marriage, April 2.) 



{after the Marriage with Marie Louise], 

Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria ! nube." 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 304-310.) 


No. i. Navarre ........ 304 

To Malmaison . . . . . . .305 

No. I a. It is written in a bad style ..... 305 

No. 2. Josephine's wishes ...... 305 

No. la. Ttvo letters ....... 306 

No. 3. The northern tour of 1 8 10 . .... 306 

I 'will come to see you ...... 307 

No. 4. July Stt> 308 

Tou will have seen Eugene . . . . .308 

That unfortunate daughter . . . . .308 

No. 5. The conduct of the King of Holland . . .308 

No. 6. To die in a lake ....... 309 

No. 8. Paris, this Friday . . . . . .309 

No. 9. The only suitable places . . . . .310 

No. 10. Malmaison . . . . . . .310 

The Empress progresses satisfactorily . . .310 


No. i. 


Navarre^ April 19, 1810. 

Sire, I have received, by my son, the assurance that your 
Majesty consents to my return to Malmaison, and grants to me 
the advances asked for in order to make the chateau of Navarre 
habitable. This double favour, Sire, dispels to a great extent the 
uneasiness, nay, even the fears which your Majesty's long silence 
had inspired. I was afraid that I might be entirely banished 
from your memory ; I see that I am not. I am therefore less 
wretched to-day, and even as happy as henceforward it will be 
possible for me to be. 

I shall go at the end of the month to Malmaison, since your 
Majesty sees no objection to it. But I ought to tell you, Sire, 
that I should not so soon have taken advantage of the latitude 
which your Majesty left me in this respect had the house of 
Navarre not required, for my health's sake and for that of my 
household, repairs which are urgent. My idea is to stay at Mal- 
maison a very short time ; I shall soon leave it in order to go to 
the waters. But while I am at Malmaison, your Majesty may 
be sure that I shall live there as if I were a thousand leagues 
from Paris. I have made a great sacrifice, Sire, and every day I 
realise more its full extent. Yet that sacrifice will be, as it 
ought to be, a complete one on my part. Your Highness, amid 
your happiness, shall be troubled by no expression of my regret. 

I shall pray unceasingly for your Majesty's happiness, perhaps 

even I shall pray that I may see you again ; but your Majesty 



may be assured that I shall always respect our new relationship. 
I shall respect it in silence, relying on the attachment that you 
had to me formerly ; I shall call for no new proof ; I shall trust 
to everything from your justice and your heart. 

I limit myself to asking from you one favour : it is, that you 
will deign to find a way of sometimes convincing both myself 
and my entourage that I have still a small place in your memory 
and a great place in your esteem and friendship. By this means, 
whatever happens, my sorrows will be mitigated without, as it 
seems to me, compromising that which is of permanent import- 
ance to me, the happiness of your Majesty. 


No. IA. 
(Reply of the Emperor Napoleon to the preceding.} 


Compiegne y April 21 , 1810. 

My Dear, I have yours of April 1 8th ; it is written in a 
bad style. I am always the same ; people like me do not change. 
I know not what Eugene has told you. I have not written to 
you because you have not written to me, and my sole desire is to 
fulfil your slightest inclination. 

I see with pleasure that you are going to Malmaison and that 
you are contented ; as for me, I shall be so likewise on hearing 
news from you and in giving you mine. I say no more about it 
until you have compared this letter with yours, and after that I 
will leave you to judge which of us two is the better friend. 

Adieu, dear ; keep well, and be just for your sake and mine. 


April 2$rd. Battle of Lerida. Suchet defeats Spaniards. 


No. 2. 

A thousand, thousand loving thanks for not having forgotten 
me. My son has just brought me your letter. With what im- 
petuosity I read it, and yet I took a long time over it, for there 
was not a word which did not make me weep ; but these tears 
were very pleasant ones. I have found my whole heart again 
such as it will always be ; there are affections which are life 
itself, and which can only end with it. 

I was in despair to find my letter of the igth had displeased 
you ; I do not remember the exact expressions, but I know what 
torture I felt in writing it the grief at having no news from you. 

I wrote you on my departure from Malmaison, and since 
then how often have I wished to write you ! but I appreciated 
the causes of your silence and feared to be importunate with a 
letter. Yours has been the true balm for me. Be happy, be as 
much so as you deserve ; it is my whole heart which speaks to 
you. You have also just given me my share of happiness, and a 
share which I value the most, for nothing can equal in my esti- 
mation a proof that you still remember me. 

Adieu, dear ; I again thank you as affectionately as I shall 
always love you. JOSEPHINE. 

No. 2A. 


Comp'iegne^ April 28, 1810. 

My Dear, I have just received two letters from you. I am 
writing to Eugene. I have ordered that the marriage of Tascher 
with the Princess de la Leyen shall take place. 

To-morrow I shall go to Antwerp to see my fleet and to 
give orders about the works. I shall return on May i5th. 

Eugene tells me that you wish to go to the waters ; trouble 
yourself about nothing. Do not listen to the gossip of Paris ; it 


is idle and far from knowing the real state of things. My affec- 
tion for you does not change, and I long to know that you are 
happy and contented. NAPOLEON. 

No. 3. 


My Dear, I have your letter. Eugene will give you tidings 
of my journey and of the Empress. I am very glad that you are 
going to the waters. I trust they may do you good. 

I wish very much to see you. If you are at Malmaison at 
the end of the month, I will come to see you. I expect to be at 
St. Cloud on the 3Oth of the month. My health is very good 
... it only needs to hear that you are contented and well. Let 
me know in what name you intend to travel. 

Never doubt the whole truth of my affection for you ; it will 
last as long as I. You would be very unjust if you doubted it. 


July 1st. Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, abdicates in favour of 
his son. 

No. 4. 


Rambouilletj July 8, 1810. 

My Dear, I have your letter of July 8th. You will have 
seen Eugene, and his presence will have done you good. I learn 
with pleasure that the waters are beneficial to you. The King 
of Holland has just abdicated the throne, while leaving the 
Regency, according to the Constitution, in the hands of the 
Queen. He has quitted Amsterdam and left the Grand Duke 
of Berg behind. 

I have reunited Holland to France, which has, however, the 
advantage of setting the Queen at liberty, and that l unfortunate 

1 So Collection Didot, followed by Aubenas. St. Amand has " ton infortune'e 


girl is coming to Paris with her son the Grand Duke of Berg 
that will make her perfectly happy. 

My health is good. I have come here to hunt for a few days. 
I shall see you this autumn with pleasure. Never doubt my 
friendship ; I never change. 

Keep well, be cheerful, and believe in the truth of my 
attachment. NAPOLEON. 

July gth. Holland incorporated with the French Empire. 
July lot A. Ney takes Ciudad Rodrigo, after twenty-five days open 

No. 5. 


St. Cloud, July 20, 1810. 

My Dear, I have received your letter of July I4th, and 
note with pleasure that the waters are doing you good, and that 
you like Geneva. I think that you are doing well to go there 
for a few weeks. 

My health is fairly good. The conduct of the King of 
Holland has worried me. 

Hortense is shortly coming to Paris. The Grand Duke of 
Berg is on his way ; I expect him to-morrow. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 6. 


Trianon, August IO, 1810. 

Your letter to hand. I was pained to see what a risk you 
had run. For an inhabitant of the isles of the ocean to die in a 
lake would have been a fatality indeed ! 


The Queen is better, and I hope her health will be re-estab- 
lished. Her husband is in Bohemia, apparently not knowing 
what to do. 

I am fairly well, and beg you to believe in my sincere 
attachment. NAPOLEON. 

August 2ist. Swedes elect Marshal Bernadotte Crown Prince of 

August 27 th. Massena takes Almeida. 

No. 7. 


St. C/oud y September 14, 1810. 

My Dear, I have your letter of September gth. I learn 
with pleasure that you keep well. There is no longer the 
slightest doubt that the Empress has entered on the fourth month 
of her pregnancy ; she is well, and is much attached to me. 
The young Princes Napoleon are very well ; they are in the 
Pavilion d'ltalie, in the Park of St. Cloud. 

My health is fairly good. I wish to learn that you are happy 
and contented. I hear that one of your entourage has broken a 
leg while going on the glacier. 

Adieu, dear. Never doubt the interest I take in you and 
the affection that I bear towards you. NAPOLEON. 

September 2jtk. Battle of Busaco. Like Ebersburg, another of 
Massena' s expensive and unnecessary frontal attacks. He loses 5000 
men, but next day turns the position of Wellington, who continues to 


No. 8. 

Paris, this Friday. 

My Dear, Yours to hand. I am sorry to see that you have 
been ill ; I fear it must be this bad weather. 

Madame de la T is one of the most foolish women of 

the Faubourg. I have borne her cackle for a very long time ; I 
am sick of it, and have ordered that she does not come again to 
Paris. There are five or six other old women that I equally wish 
to send away from Paris ; they are spoiling the young ones by 
their follies. 

I will name Madame de Makau Baroness since you wish it, 
and carry out your other commissions. 

My health is pretty good. The conduct of B appears 

to me very ridiculous. I trust to hear that you are better. 

Adieu, dear. NAPOLEON. 

No. 9. 

Fontainebleau, October I, 1810. 

I have received your letter. Hortense, whom I have seen, 
will have told you what I think. Go to see your son this 
winter ; come back to the waters of Aix next year, or, still 
better, wait for the spring at Navarre. I would advise you to go 
to Navarre at once, if I did not fear you would get tired of it. 
In my view, the only suitable places for you this winter are 
either Milan or Navarre ; after that, I approve of whatever you 
may do, for I do not wish to vex you in anything. 

Adieu, dear. The Empress is as I told you in my last letter. 
I am naming Madame de Montesquieu governess of the Children 


of France. Be contented, and do not get excited ; never doubt 
my affection for you. NAPOLEON. 

October 6tb. Wellington reaches the lines of Torres Vedras. 
November tyh. Opening of St. Quentin Canal at Paris. 

No. 10. 

Fontainebleau, November 14, 1810. 

My Dear, I have received your letter. Hortense has spoken 
to me about it. I note with pleasure that you are contented. 
I hope that you are not very tired of Navarre. 

My health is very good. The Empress progresses satis- 
factorily. I will do the various things you ask regarding your 
household. Take care of your health, and never doubt my 
affection for you. NAPOLEON. 

No. ii. 

I have your letter. I see no objection to the marriage of 
Mackau with Wattier, if he wishes it ; this general is a very 
brave man. I am in good health. I hope to have a son ; I shall 
let you know immediately. 

Adieu, dear. I am very glad that Madame d'Arberg 1 has 
told you things which please you. When you see me, you will 
find me with my old affection for you. NAPOLEON. 

December yd. English take Mauritius. 

1 Josephine's chief maid-of-honour. 



" Nun steht das Reich gesichert, wie gegriindet, 
Nun fiihlt er froh im Sohne sich gegriindet. 

Und sei durch Sie dies letze Gliick beschieden 
Der alles wollen kann, will auch den Frieden." 

GOETHE (Ibro der Kaiserin von Frankreich Majestat}. 

177 M 


(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 311-312.) 


No. I . The New Tear . . . . . . . 3 1 1 

More women than men . . . . . .311 

Keep well . . . . . . . .311 

No. 2. Birth of the King of Rome . . . . . 311 

Eugene . . . . . . . .311 

No. 4. As fat as a good Normandy farmeress . . .312 


No. i. 

Paris, January 8th, i8ll. 

I have your New Year's letter. I thank you for its contents. 
I note with pleasure that you are well and happy. I hear that 
there are more women than men at Navarre. 

My health is excellent, though I have not been out for a 
fortnight. Eugene appears to have no fears about his wife ; he 
gives you a grandson. 

Adieu, dear ; keep well. NAPOLEON. 

February i gth. Soult defeats Spaniards at the Gebora, near Badajoz. 

February 28tb. French occupy Duchy of Oldenburg, to complete 
the line of the North Sea blockade against England. This occupation 
embitters the Emperor of Russia and his family. 

March loth. Mortier captures Badajoz after a siege of 54 days. 

March 2Otb. Birth of the King of Rome " a pompous title buried 
in the tomb of the Ostrogoths." 

No. 2. 

Paris, March 22nd, l8ll. 

My Dear, I have your letter. I thank you for it. 

My son is fat, and in excellent health. I trust he may con- 
tinue to improve. He has my chest, my mouth, and my eyes. 
I hope he may fulfil his destiny. I am always well pleased with 
Eugene j he has never given me the least anxiety. 



April 4/. Battle of Fuentes d'Onoro. Massena attacks English, 
and is repulsed. 

June i Rth. Wellington raises siege of Badajoz, and retires on 

June 2$th. French storm Tarragona, whereupon Suchet created 

No. 3. 

Trianon, August l^th, 1811. 

I have your letter. I see with pleasure that you are in good 
health. I have been for some days at Trianon. I expect to go 
to Compiegne. My health is very good. 

Put some order into your affairs. Spend only 60,000, and 
save as much every year ; that will make a reserve of 600,000 
in ten years for your grandchildren. It is pleasant to be able 
to give them something, and be helpful to them. Instead of 
that, I hear you have debts, which would be really too bad. 
Look after your affairs, and don't give to every one who wants 
to help himself. If you wish to please me, let me hear that 
you have accumulated a large fortune. Consider how ill I 
must think of you, if I know that you, with 125,000 a year, 
are in debt. 

Adieu, dear ; keep well. NAPOLEON. 

No. 4. 

Friday, 8 A.M., 1811. 

I send to know how you are, for Hortense tells me you were 
in bed yesterday. I was annoyed with you about your debts. I 
do not wish you to have any ; on the contrary, I wish you to put 
a million aside every year, to give to your grandchildren when 
they get married. 


Nevertheless, never doubt my affection for you, and don't 
worry any more about the present embarrassment. 

Adieu, dear. Send, me word that you are well. They say 
that you are as fat as a good Normandy farmeress. 


October 2$thz6th. Battle of Murviedro and capture of Sagunto : 
Blake and O'Donnell heavily defeated by Suchet. 

December 2Otb. Senatus Consultus puts 120,000 conscripts (born in 
1792) at disposal of Government for 1812. 

December 26th. Suchet defeats Spanish, and crosses Guadalaviar. 


1 'Tis the same landscape which the modern Mars saw 
Who march'd to Moscow, led by Fame, the siren ! 
To lose by one month's frost, some twenty years 
Of conquest, and his guard of grenadiers." 

BYRON (Don Juan, canto x. stanza 58). 



(For subjoined Notes to this Series see pages 312-315.) 


No. I. Konigsberg . . . . . . .312 

No. 2. Gumblnnen . , . , . . . .313 


Montgaillard sums up his tirade against Napoleon for the Russian 
campaign by noting that it took the Romans ten years to conquer Gaul, 
while Napoleon " would not give two to the conquest of that vast desert 
of Scythia which forced Darius to flee, Alexander to draw back, Crassus 
to perish ; where Julian terminated his career, where Valerian covered 
himself with shame, and which saw the disasters of Charles XII." 

January tyh. Suchet captures Valencia, 18,000 Spanish troops, and 
400 cannon. The marshal is made Duke of AlbufeYa. 

January l$th. Imperial decree ordains 100,000 acres to be put 
under cultivation of beetroot, for the manufacture of indigenous sugar. 

January igth. Taking of Ciudad Rodrigo by Wellington. 

January 26th French, under General Friand, occupy Stralsund and 
Swedish Pomerania. 

February ^4 f th. Treaty of alliance between France and Prussia; the 
latter to support France in case of a war with Russia. 

March i$th. Senatus Consultus divides the National Guards into 
three bans, to include all capable men not already in military service. 
They are not to serve outside France. A hundred cohorts, each 970 
strong, of the first ban (men between 20 and 26), put at disposal of 

March i^th. Treaty between France and Austria ; reciprocal help, 
in need, of 30,000 men and 60 guns. The integrity of European Turkey 
mutually guaranteed. 

March 26th. Treaty between Russia and Sweden. Bernadotte is 
promised Norway by Alexander. 

April 7th. The English take Badajoz by assault. "The French 
General, Philippon, with but 3000 men, has been besieged thrice within 
thirteen months by armies of 50,000 men " (Montgaillard). 

April 2^th. Alexander leaves St. Petersburg, to take command of 
his Grand Army. 

May qth. Napoleon leaves Paris for Germany. 

May nth. Assassination of English Prime Minister, Perceval. 



May iy//>-28/^. Napoleon at Dresden ; joined there by the Emperor 
and Empress of Austria, and afresh "parterre of kings ." 

May 2&th. Treaty of Bucharest, between Turkey and Russia. The 
Pruth as boundary, and Servia restored to Turkey. This treaty, so fatal 
to Napoleon, and of which he only heard in October, was mainly the 
work of Stratford de Redcliffe, then aged twenty-five. Wellington, 
thinking the treaty his brother's work, speaks of it as " the most important 
service that ever fell to the lot of any individual to perform." 

No. i. 

June \2th. Suchet defeats an Anglo- Spanish army outside Tarra- 


June I2th, 1812. 

My Dear, I shall always receive news from you with great 

The waters will, I hope, do you good, and I shall see you 
with much pleasure on your return. 

Never doubt the interest I feel in you. I will arrange all the 
matters of which you speak. NAPOLEON. 

June i6th. Lord Liverpool Prime Minister of England. 
June i8/A. United States declares war against England concerning 
rights of neutrals. 

June ityh. The captive Pope (Pius VII.) brought to Fontainebleau. 

No. 2. 

Gumbinnen, June 2Oth, 1812. 

I have your letter of June loth. I see no obstacle to your 
going to Milan, to be near the Vice-Reine. You will do well to 
go incognito. You will find it very hot. 


My health is very good. Eugene is well, and is doing good 
work. Never doubt the interest I have in you, and my friend- 
ship. NAPOLEON. 

June 22nd. Napoleon from his headquarters, Wtlkoiuyszki, declares 
war against Russia. His army comprised 550,000 men and I2OO cannon, 
and he held sway at this epoch over 85,000,000 souls half the then popu- 
lation of Europe. 

June 24/A French cross the Niemen, over 450,000 strong. 1 Of 
these 20,000 are Italians, 80,000 from Confederation of the Rhine, 
30,000 Poles, 30,000 Austrians, and 20,000 Prussians. The Russian 
army numbers 360,000. 

June 2%tk. French enter Wilna, the old capital of Lithuania. 
Napoleon remains here till July 1 6th, establishing a provisional government, 
and leaving his Foreign Minister, Maret, there. 

July itth. Americans invade Canada. 

July 1 8th. Treaty of peace between England and Sweden ; and 
between Russia and the Spanish Regency at Cadiz. 

July 22nd. Battle of Salamanca (Arapiles). Marmont defeated by 
Wellington, and badly wounded. French lose nearly 8000 men and 
5000 prisoners ; English loss, 5200. The Spanish Regency had decided 
to submit to Joseph Bonaparte, but this battle deters them. French 
retire behind the Douro. 

July 2-^rd. Combat of Mohilow, on the Dneiper. Davoust defeats 

July 2$tk. French enter Witepsk. 

August ist. Treaty of alliance between Great Britain and Russia. 
English fleet henceforward guards the Gulf of Riga. Combat of Obai- 
arzma, on the bank of the Drissa. Marshal Oudinot defeats Wittgen- 
stein. Russians lose 5000 men and 14 guns. 

August qth Battle of Brownstown (near Toronto). Americans 
defeated; surrender August i6th with 2500 men and 33 guns to General 

August 12th. Wellington enters Madrid. 

August iJtf>~lSth. Battle and capture of Smolensk. Napoleon defeats 
Barclay de Tolly ; Russians lose 1 2,OOO, French less than half. 

1 Averaged from early historians of the campaigns. Marbot gives the numbers 
155,400 French and 175,000 Allies. Allowing for the secession of the Austrian 
and Prussian contingents and for 30,000 prisoners, he gives the actual French 
death-roll by February 1813 at 65,000. This is a minimum estimate. 


August iSth. Battle of Polotsk, fifty miles from Witepsk, down the 
Dwina. St. Cyr defeats Wittgenstein's much larger army, and takes 20 
guns. (St. Cyr made marshal for this battle, August 27th.) 

August igth. Combat of Volontino-Cova, beyond Smolensk. Ney 
defeats Russians. 

August 27th. Norway guaranteed Sweden in lieu of Finland by 

August 28th. Interview at Abo, in Finland, between Alexander, 
Bernadotte, and Lord Cathcart (English ambassador). Decided that 
Sweden shall join the crusade against France, and that Moreau be im- 
ported from U.S.A. to command another army. 

August 2()th. Viazma, burnt by Russians, entered by the French. 

September ^th. Battle of Borodino (La Moskoiva). Nearly all the 
Russian generals are present : Barclay de Tolly, Beningsen, Bagration 
(who is killed), all under Kutusoff. Russians lose 30,000 men, French 
20,000, including many generals who had survived all the campaigns of 
the Revolution. The French, hungry and soaked in rain, have no energy 
to pursue. 

September i^th. Occupation of Moscow; fired by emissaries of 
Rostopchin, its late governor. Of 4000 stone houses only 200 remain, 
of 8000 wooden ones 500. Over 20,000 sick and wounded burnt in 
their beds. Fire lasts till September 2Oth. 

September 1 8th. Russian Army of the Danube under Admiral Tschit- 
chagow joins the Army of Reserve. 

September 26th. Russian troops from Finland disembark at Riga. 

September $Oth. Napoleon Jinds a copy of Treaty of Bucharest at 

October 1 1 th. Admiral Tschitchagow with 36,000 men reaches Bresc, 
on the Bug, threatening the French communications with Warsaw. 

October ijth-iyth. Second combat of Polotsk. Wittgenstein again 
defeated by St. Cyr, who it wounded. 

October i8th. Combat of Winkowo ; Kutusoff defeats Murat. 
Americans defeated at Queenston Heights, on the Niagara, and lose 
900 men. 

October iqth. Commencement of the Retreat from Moscow. 

October 22nd. Burgos captured by Wellington. 

October 2$rd. Conspiracy of Malet at Paris; Cambacers to the 
rescue. Evacuation of Moscow by Mortier after forty days' occupation. 
The French army now retreating has only half its original strength, and 
the best cavalry regiments boast only 100 horses. 

October 2^th. Battle of Malo-Jaros/avitz. Eugene with 17,000 


men defeats Kutusoff with 6o,OOO ; but Napoleon finds the enemy too strong 
and too tenacious to risk the fertile Kaluga route. 

November ^rd. Battle of Wiazma. Rearguard action, in which 
Ney and Eugene are distinguished. 

November gth. Napoleon reaches Smolensk and hears of Malet con- 

November i^ih. Evacuation of Smolensk. 

November \6th. Russian Army (of the Danube) takes Minsk, and 
cuts off the French from the Niemen. 

November \6th-i)th. Combat of Krasnoi, twenty-five miles west of 
Smolensk. Kutusoff with 30,000 horse and 70,000 foot tries to stop 
the French, who have only 25,000 effective combatants. Magnificent 
fighting by Ney with his rearguard of 6000. 

November 2ist. Russians seize at Borizow the bridges over the Bere- 
sina, which are 

November 2't t rd. Retaken by Oudinot. 

November 26th-2%th. French cross the Beresina, but lose 2O,OOO 
prisoners and nearly all their cannon (150). 

November 2tyth. Napoleon 'writes Maret he has heard nothing of 
France or Spain for Jif teen days. 

December -^rd. Twenty-ninth bulletin dated Malodeczna, fifty miles 
west of Borisow. 

December $th. Napoleon reaches Smorgoni, and starts for France. 

December loth. Murat, left in command, evacuates Wilna. French 
retreat in utter rout ; " It is not General Kutusoff who routed the French, 
it is General Morosow " (the frost), said the Russians. 

December i^th. Napoleon reaches Dresden, and 

December 1 8th. Paris. 

December igth. Evacuation of Kovno and passage of the Niemen. 

December 2Oth. Napoleon welcomed by the Senate in a speech by the 
naturalist Latepede : " The absence of your Majesty, sire, is always a 
national calamity." 

December $oth. Defection of the Prussian General York and Con- 
vention of Taurogen, near Tilsit, between Russia and Prussia. This 
defection is the signal for the uprising of Germany from the Oder to the 
Rhine, from the Baltic to the Julienne Alps. 


January $th. Konigsberg occupied by the Russians. 
January i$th. Senatus Consultus calls up 250,000 conscripts. 


January 22nd. Americans defeated at Frenchtown, near Detroit, 
and lose 1200 men. 

January 2$th. Concordat at Fontainebleau between Napoleon and Pope 
Pius VII.) with advantageous terms for the Papacy. The Pope, however, 
soon breaks faith. 

January 28th. Murat deserts the French army for Naples, and leaves 
Posen. " Tour husband is very brave on the battlefield, but he is weaker 
than a woman or a monk 'when he is not face to face with an enemy. He 
has no moral courage " [Napoleon to his sister Caroline, January 24^,1813. 
Brotonne, 1032). Replaced by Eugene [Napoleons letter dated January 

February 1st. Proclamation of Louis XVIII. to the French people 
(dated London). 

February Sth. Warsaw surrenders to Russia. 

February loth. Proclamation of Emperor Alexander calling on the 
people of Germany to shake off the yoke of " one man." 

February 28th. Sixth Continental Coalition against France. Treaty 
signed between Russia and Prussia at Kalisch. 

March yd. New treaty between England and Sweden at Stock- 
holm : Sweden to receive a subsidy of a million sterling and the island of 
Guadaloupe in return for supporting the Coalition with 30,000 men. 

March 4/A. Cossacks occupy Berlin. Madison inaugurated Presi- 
dent U.S.A. 

March qth. Eugene removes his headquarters to Leipsic. 

March 12th. French evacuate Hamburg. 

March 2ist. Russians and Prussians take new town of Dresden. 

April 1st. France declares war on Prussia. 

April loth. Death of Lag range, mathematician ; greatly bemoaned by 
Napoleon, -who considered his death as a "presentiment" (D'Abrants). 

April i^th. Swedish army lands in Germany. 

April i$th. Napoleon leaves Paris; arrives Erfurt (April 2$th). 
Americans take Mobile. 

April i6th. Thorn (garrisoned by 900 Bavarians) surrenders to the 
Russians. Fort York (now Toronto) and 

April 21th. Upper Canada taken by the Americans. 

May 1st. Death of the Abbe Delille, poet. Opening of campaign. 
French forces scattered in Germany, 166,000 men; Allies' forces ready 
for action, 225,000 men. Marshal Bessires killed by a cannon-ball at 

May 2nd. Napoleon with 90,000 men defeats Prussians and Russians at 
Lutzen [Gross-Goerschen) with I IO,OOO ; French loss, IO,OOO. Battle won 


chiefly by French artillery. Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia 

May 8th. Napoleon and the French reoccupy Dresden. 

May iSth. Eugene reaches Milan, and enrols an Italian army 
47,000 strong. 

May igth-2lsf. Combats of Konigswartha, Bautzen, Hochkirch, 
Wurschen. Napoleon defeats Prussians and Russians ; French loss, I2,OOO; 
Allies ) 2O,OOO. 

May 2yd. Duroc (shot on May 22nd) dies. "Duroc," said the 
Emperor, " there is another life. It is there you -will go to await me, and 
there r we shall meet again some day." 

May 27 th. Americans capture Fort George (Lake Ontario) and 

May 2tyh. Defeat English at Sackett's Harbour. 

May $oth. French re-enter Hamburg and 

June 1st. Occupy Breslau. British frigate Shannon captures Chesa- 
peake in fifteen minutes outside Boston harbour. 

June Ofth. Armistice of P/essivitz, bet-ween Napoleon and the Allies. 

June 6th. Americans (3500) surprised at Burlington Heights by 
700 British. 

June I $th. Siege of Tarragona raised by Suchet ; English re-embark, 
leaving their artillery. " If I had had two marshals such as Suchet, I 
should not only have conquered Spain, but I should have kept it" (Napoleon 
in Campan's Memoirs). 

June 2ist. Battle of Vittoria ; total rout of the French under 
Marshal Jourdan and King Joseph. In retreat the army is much more 
harassed by the guerillas than by the English. 

June 2$rd. Admiral Cockburn defeated at Craney Island by 

June 2qth. Five hundred Americans surrender to two hundred 
Canadians at Beaver's Dams. 

June 2$th. Combat of Tolosa. Foy stops the advance of the 
English right wing. 

June $Oth. Convention at Dresden. Napoleon accepts the mediation of 
Austria ; armistice prolonged to August I oth. 

July 1st. Souk sent to take chief command in Spain. 

July loth. Alliance between France and Denmark. 

July 12th. Congress of Prague. Austria, Prussia, and Russia decide 
that Germany must be independent, and the French Empire bounded by the 
Rhine and the Alps ; " but to reign over 36,000,000 men did not appear to 
Napoleon a sufficiently great destiny" (Montgaillard). Congress breaks up 
July 2%tL 


July 26th. Moreau arrives from U.S., and lands at Gothenburg. 

July $ist. Soult attacks Anglo-Spanish army near Roncesvalles in 
order to succour Pampeluna. Is repulsed, with loss of 8000 men. 

August 1 2th. Austria notifies its adhesion to the Allies. 

August 1 $th. Jomini, the Swiss tactician, turns traitor and escapes to 
the Allies. He advises them of Napoleon s plans to seize Berlin and relieve 
Dantzic [_see letter to Ney, No. 19,714, 20,006, and especially 20,360 
{August 1 2th) in Correspondence]]. On August i6th Napoleon writes to 
Cambaceres : " Jomini, Ney's chief of staff", has deserted. It is he 'who 
published some volumes on the campaigns and who has been in the pay of 
Russia for a long time. He has yielded to corruption. He is a soldier of 
little value, yet he is a 'writer 'who has grasped some of the sound principles 
of war" 

August ijth. Renewal of hostilities in Germany. Napoleon's army, 
280,000, of whom half recruits who had never seen a battle; the Allies 
520,000, excluding militia. In his counter-manifesto to Austria, dated 
Bautzen, Napoleon declares " Austria, the enemy of France, and cloaking 
her ambition under the mask of a mediation, complicated everything. . . . 
But AustriOf our avowed foe, is in a truer guise, and one perfectly obvious. 
Europe is therefore much nearer peace ; there is one complication the /ess." 

August i%th. Suchet, having blown up fortifications of Tarragona, 
evacuates Valentia. 

August list. Opening of the campaign in Italy. Eugene, with 
50,000 men, commands the Franco-Italian army. 

August 2^rd. Combats of Gross-Beeren and Ahrensdorf, near Berlin. 
Bernadotte defeats Oudinot with loss of 1 500 men and 20 guns. Berlin 
is preserved to the Allies. Oudinot replaced by Ney. Lauriston defeats 
Army of Silesia at Goldberg with heavy loss. 

August 26th 27th. Battle of Dresden. Napoleon marches a hundred 
miles in seventy hours to the rescue. With less than IOO,OOO men he defeats 
the Allied Army of l8o,OOO under Schwartzenberg, Wittgenstein, and 
Kleist. Austrians lose 2O,OOO prisoners and 60 guns. Moreau is mor- 
tally wounded {dies September 1st). Combat of the Katzbach, in Silesia. 
Blucher defeats Macdonald with heavy loss, who loses 10,000 to 12,000 
men in his retreat. 

August 1,0th. Combat of Kulm. Vandamme enveloped in Bohemia, 
and surrenders with 12,000 men. 

August $ist. Combat of Irun. Soult attacks Wellington to save 
San Sebastian, but is repulsed. Graham storms San Sebastian. 

September 6th. Combat of Dennewitz (near Berlin). Ney routed 
by Bulow and Bernadotte ; loses his artillery, baggage, and 1 2,000 men. 


September loth. Americans capture the English flotilla on Lake 

September \2th. Combat of Villafranca (near Barcelona). Suchet 
defeats English General Bentinck. 

October jth. Wellington crosses the Bidassoa into France. " It is 
on the frontier of France itself that ends the enterprise of Napoleon on 
Spain. The Spaniards have given the first conception of a people's war 
versus a war of professionals. For it would be a mistake to think that 
the battles of Salamanca (July 22nd, 1812) and Vittoria (June zist, 
1813) forced the French to abandon the Peninsula. ... It was the 
daily losses, the destruction of man by man, the drops of French blood 
falling one by one, which in five years aggregated a death-roll of 1 50,000 
men. As to the English, they appeared in this war only as they do in 
every world-crisis, to gather, in the midst of general desolation, the fruits 
of their policy, and to consolidate their plans of maritime despotism, of 
exclusive commerce " (Montgaillard). 

October I $th. Bavarian army secedes and joins the Austrians. 

October \6th-igth. Battles of Leipsic. Allied army 330,000 men 
(Schwartzenberg, Bernadotte, Blucher, Beningsen}, Napoleon 175,000. 
Twenty-six battalions and ten squadrons of Saxon and Wurtemberg men 
leave Napoleon and turn their guns against the French. Napoleon is not de- 
feated, but determines to retreat. The rearguard (2O,OOO men} and 2OO 
cannon taken. Poniatowski drowned ; Reynier and Lauriston captured. 

October 2Oth. Blucher made Field-Marshal. 

October 2$rd. French army reach Erfurt. 

October $Oth. Combat of Hanau. Napoleon defeats Wrede with heavy 

October $ist. Combat and capture of Bassano by Eugene. English 
capture Pampeluna. 

November 2nd. Napoleon arrives at Mayence (where typhus carries 
off 40,000 French}^ and is 

November qth. At St. Cloud. 

November loth. Wellington defeats Soult at St. Jean de Luz. 

November nth. Surrender of Dresden by Gouvion St. Cyr ; its 
French soldiers to return under parole to France. Austrians refuse to 
ratify the convention, and 1700 officers and 23,000 men remain prisoners 
of war. 

November i^th. Napoleon addresses the Senate : " All Europe marched 
with us a year ago ; all Europe marches against us to-day. That is because 
the world's opinion is directed either by France or England" 



November i$th. Eugene defeats Austrians at Caldiero. Senatus- 
Consultus puts 300,000 conscripts at disposal of government. 

November 2^th. Capture of Amsterdam by Prussian General Bulow. 

December 1st. Allies declare at Frankfort that they are at war with 
the Emperor and not with France. 

December 2nd. Bulow occupies Utrecht. Holland secedes from the 
French Empire. 

December $th. Capture of Lubeck by the Swedes, and surrender of 
Stettin (7000 prisoners), Zamosk (December 22nd), Modlin (December 
25th), and Torgau (December 26th, with 10,000 men). 

December 8th-i$tb. Soult defends the passage of the Nive costly 
to both sides. Murat (now hostile to Napoleon) enters Ancona. 

December gth-ioth. French evacuate Breda. 

December nth. Treaty of Valen$ay between Napoleon and his prisoner 
Ferdinand VII., 'who is to reign over Spain, but not to cede Minorca or 
Ceuta (now in their power} to the English. 

December i$th. Denmark secedes from French alliance. 

December 2ist. Allies, ioo,ooo strong, cross the Rhine in ten divi- 
sions (Bale to Schaffhausen). Jomini is said to have contributed to this 
violation of Swiss territory. 

December 2^th. Final evacuation of Holland by the French. 

December 28tb. Austrians capture Ragusa. 

December 3 1st. Napoleon, having trouble with his Commons, dissolves 
the Corps Legislatif. Austrians capture Geneva. Blucher crosses the 
Rhine at Mannheim and Coblentz. Exclusive of Landwehr and levies 
en masse, there are now a million trained men in arms against Napoleon. 


" The Allied Powers having proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon 
was the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of the Peace of Europe, 
the Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, 
for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there 
is no personal sacrifice, even that of life itself, that he will not be ready 
to make for the sake of France." {Act of Abdication.") 

January 1st. Capitulation of Danzic, which General Rapp had 
defended for nearly a year, having lost 20,000 (out of 30,000) men by 
fever. Russians, who had promised to send the French home, break 
faith, following the example of Schwartzenberg at Dresden. 

January 2nd. Russians take Fort Louis (Lower Rhine) ; and 
January ^rd. Austrians Montbe"liard ; and Bavarians Colmar. 


January 6th. General York occupies Treves. Convention between 
Murat and England and (January nth) with Austria. Murat is to join 
Allies with 30,000 men. 

January 'jth. Austrians occupy Vesoul. 

January 8/. French Rentes 5 per cents, at 47.50. Wurtemberg 
troops occupy Epinal. 

January loth. General York reaches Forbach (on the Moselle). 

January \$th. Cossacks occupy Cologne. 

January i6th. Russians occupy Nancy. 

January igth. Austrians occupy Dijon; Bavarians, Neufchateau. 
Murat's troops occupy Rome. 

January 2Oth. Capture of Toul by the Russians ; and of Chambery 
by the Austrians. 

January 2ist. Austrians occupy Chilons-sur-Saone. General 
York crosses the Meuse. 

January 2$rd. Pope Pius VII. returns to Rome. 

January 2$th. General York and Army of Silesia established at 
St. Dizier and Joinville on the Marne. . Austrians occupy Bar-sur-Aube. 
Napoleon leaves Paris ; and 

January 26th. Reaches Chdlons-sur- Marne ; and 

January 2"]th. Retakes St. Dizier in person. 

January 2<)th. Combat of Brienne. Napoleon defeats Blucher. 

February 1st. Battle of La Rothiere, six miles north of Brienne. 
French, 40,000 ; Allies, 1 10,000. Drawn battle, but French retreat on 
Troyes ; French evacuate Brussels. 

February ^th. Eugene retires upon the Mincio. 

February $th. Cortes disavow Napoleon's treaty of Falenfay ivith 
Ferdinand VII. Opening of Congress of Chatillon. General York 
occupies Chalons-sur-Marne. 

February 'jth. Allies seize Troyes. 

February 8th. Battle of the Mincio. Eugene with 30,000 con- 
scripts defeats Austrians under Bellegarde with 50,000 veterans. 

February iQth. Combat of Champaubert. Napoleon defeats Russians. 

February llth. Combat of Montmirail. Napoleon defeats Sacken. 
Russians occupy Nogent-sur-Seine ; and 

February 12th. Laon. 

February l^th. Napoleon routs Blucher at Vauchamp. His losses, 
IO,OOO men ; French loss, 600 men. In Jive days Napoleon has wiped out 
the Jive corps of the Army of Silesia, inflicting a loss c/" 2 5,000 men. 

February IJth. Combat near Nangis. Napoleon defeats Austro- 
Russians with loss of IO,OOO men and 12 cannon. 


February iSth. Combat of Montereau. Prince Royal of Wurtem- 
berg defeated with loss of 7000. 

February 2ist. Comte d'Artois arrives at Veioul. 

February 22nd. Combat of Mery-sur-Seine. Sacken defeated by 
Boyer's Division, who fight in masks it being Shrove Tuesday. 

February 2$th. French re-enter Troyes. 

February 2"]th. Bulow captures La Fere with large stores. Battle 
of Orthes (Pyrenees), Wellington with 70,000 defeats Soult entrenched 
with 38,000. Foy badly wounded. 

February 2Jth-28tb. Combats of Bar and Ferte-sur-Aube. Marshals 
Oudinot and Macdonald forced to retire on the Seine. 

March ist. Treaty of Chaumont Allies against Napoleon. 

March 2nd. Bulow takes Soissons. 

March 4//>. Macdonald evacuates Troyes. 

March Jtt> Battle of Craonne bet-ween Napoleon (30,000 men) and 
Sacken (100,000). Indecisive. 

March gth. English driven from Berg-op-Zoom. 

March qthioth. Combat under Laon : depot of Allied army. 
Napoleon fails to capture it. 

March \2th. Due d'Angouleme arrives at Bordeaux. This town 
is the first to declare for the Bourbons, and to welcome him as 
Louis XVIII. 

March ityh. Ferdinand VII. set at liberty. 

March i^th. Napoleon retakes Rheims from the Russians. 

March I gth. Rupture of Treaty of Chatillon. 

March 2Oth. Battle of Tarbes. Wellington defeats French. 

March 2Oth-2ist. Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube. Indecisive. 

March 2lst. Austrians enter Lyons. Augereau retires on Valence. 
Had Eugene joined him with his 40,000 men he might have saved 
France after Vauchamp. 

March 2$th. Combat of Fere-Champenoise. Marmont and Mortier 
defeated with Joss of 9000 men. 

March 26th. Combat of St. Dizier. Napoleon defeats Russians, and 
starts to save Paris. 

March 2Qth. Allies outside Paris. Napoleon at Troyes (125 miles off ). 

March $oth. Sat tie of Paris. The Emperor's orders disobeyed. 
Heavy cannon from Cherbourg left outside Paris, also 20,000 men. 
Clarke deserts to the Allies. Joseph runs away, leaving Marmont 
permission to capitulate. After losing 5000 men (and Allies 8000) 
Marmont evacuates Paris and retires. Napoleon reaches Fontainebleau in 
the evening, and hears the bad news. 


March 3U/. Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, and 36,000 
men enter Paris. Stocks and shares advance. Emperor Alexander 
states, " The. Allied Sovereigns will treat no longer with Napoleon 
Bonaparte, nor any of his family." 

April ist. Senate, with Talleyrand as President, institute a Pro- 
visional Government. 

April 2nd. Provisional Government address the army : " You are 
no longer the soldiers of Napoleon ; the Senate and the whole of France 
absolve you from your oaths." They also declare Napoleon deposed 
from the throne, and his family from the succession. 

April 4/i, Napoleon signs a declaration of abdication in favour of his 
son, but after t<wo days' deliberation, and Mormon? s defection, Alexander 
insists on an absolute abdication. 

April $th. Convention of Chevilly. Marmont agrees to join the 
Provisional Government, and disband his army under promise that Allies 
will guarantee life and liberty to Napoleon Bonaparte. Funds on March 
zgth at 45, now at 63.75. 

April 6th. New Constitution decreed by the Senate. The National 
Guard ordered to wear the White Cockade in lieu of the Tricolor. 

April loth Battle of Toulouse. Hotly contested ; almost a defeat 
for Wellington. 

April nth. Treaty of Paris between Napoleon and Allies [Austria, 
Russia, and Prussia}. Isle of Elba reserved for Napoleon and his family, 
with a revenue of ^200,000 ; the Duchies of Parma and Placentia for 
Marie Louise and her son. England accedes to this Treaty. Act of 
Abdication of the Emperor Napoleon. 

April 1 2th. Count d' Artois enters Paris. 

April i6th. Convention between Eugene and Austrian General 
Bellegarde. Emperor of Austria sees Marie Louise at the little Trianon, 
and decides upon his daughter's return to Vienna. 

April i8t&. Armistice of Soult and Wellington. 

April 2Oth. Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau, and bids adieu to his Old 
Guard : " Do not mourn over my fate; if I have determined to survive, it is 
in order still to dedicate myself to your glory ; I wish to write about the 
great things r we have done together" 

April 24//. Louis XVIII. lands at Calais, and 

May ^rd. Enters Paris. 

May Afth. Napoleon reaches Elba. 

May 2gth. Death of Josephine, aged 51. 

May $Oth. Peace of Paris, 



(The numbers correspond to the numbers of the Letters.] 

No. i. 

Bonaparte made Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Italy. 
Marmont's account of how this came to pass is probably sub- 
stantially correct, as he has less interest in distorting the facts 
than any other writer as well fitted for the task. The winter 
had rolled by in the midst of pleasures soirees at the Luxembourg, 
dinners of Madame Tallien, "nor," he adds, "were we hard to 
please." "The Directory often conversed with General Bona- 
parte about the army of Italy, whose general Scherer was 
always representing the position as difficult, and never ceasing to 
ask for help in men, victuals, and money. General Bonaparte 
showed, in many concise observations, that all that was super- 
fluous. He strongly blamed the little advantage taken from the 
victory at Loano, and asserted that, even yet, all that could be 
put right. Thus a sort of controversy was maintained between 
Scherer and the Directory, counselled and inspired by Bonaparte." 
At last when Bonaparte drew up plans afterwards followed 
for the invasion of Piedmont, Scherer replied roughly that he who 
had drawn up the plan of campaign had better come and execute 
it. They took him at his word, and Bonaparte was named 
General-in-Chief of the army of Italy (vol. i. 93). 

" 7 A.M." Probably written early in March. Leaving Paris 
on March nth, Napoleon writes Letourneur, President of the 


NOTES 199 

Directory, of his marriage with the " citoyenne Tascher Beau- 
harnais," and tells him that he has already asked Barras to inform 
them of the fact. "The confidence which the Directory has 
shown me under all circumstances makes it my duty to keep it 
advised of all my actions. It is a new link which binds me to 
the fatherland ; it is one more proof of my fixed determination to 
find safety only in the Republic." l 

No. 2. 

" Our good Ossian" The Italian translation of Ossian by 
Cesarotti was a masterpiece ; better, in fact, than the original. 
He was a friend of Macpherson, and had learnt English in order 
to translate his work. Cesarotti lived till an advanced age, and 
was sought out in his retirement in order to receive honours and 
pensions from the Emperor Napoleon. 

" Our good Ossian " speaks, like Homer, of the joy of grief. 

No. 4. 

" Chauvet is dead" Chauvet is first mentioned in Napoleon's 
correspondence in a letter to his brother Joseph, August 9, 1795. 
Mdme. Junot, Memoirs, i. 138, tells us that Bonaparte was very 
fond of him, and that he was a man of gentle manners and very 
ordinary conversation. She declares that Bonaparte had been a 
suitor for the hand of her mother shortly before his marriage with 
Josephine, and that because the former rejected him, the general 
had refused a favour to her son ; this had caused a quarrel 
which Chauvet had in vain tried to settle. On March 2Jth 
Bonaparte had written Chauvet from Nice that every day that 
he delayed joining him, "takes away from my operations one 
chance of probability for their success." 

No. 5. 

St. Amand notes that Bonaparte begins to suspect his wife 
in this letter, while the previous ones, especially that of April 
3rd, show perfect confidence. Napoleon is on the eve of a 

1 No. 89 of Napoleon III.'s Correspondence of Napoleon I., vol. i., the last 
letter signed Buonaparte ; after March 24 we only find Bonaparte. 

200 NOTES 

serious battle, and has only just put his forces into fighting trim. 
On the previous day (April 6th) he wrote to the Directory that 
the movement against Genoa, of which he does not approve, has 
brought the enemy out of their winter quarters almost before he 
has had time to make ready. "The army is in a state of alarming 
destitution ; I have still great difficulties to surmount, but they 
are surmountable : misery has excused want of discipline, and 
without discipline never a victory. I hope to have all in good 
trim shortly there are signs already ; in a few days we shall be 
fighting. The Sardinian army consists of 50,000 foot, and 5000 
horse; I have only 45,000 men at my disposal, all told. Chauvet, 
the commissary-general, died at Genoa : it is a heavy loss to the 
army, he was active and enterprising." 

Two days later Napoleon, still at Albenga, reports that he 
has found Royalist traitors in the army, and complains that the 
Treasury had not sent the promised pay for the men, " but in 
spite of all, we shall advance." Massena, eleven years older than 
his new commander-in-chief, had received him coldly, but soon 
became his right-hand man, always genial, and full of good ideas. 
Massena's men are ill with too much salt meat, they have hardly 
any shoes, but, as in I Soo, 1 he has never a doubt that Bonaparte 
will make a good campaign, and determines to loyally support 
him. Poor Laharpe, so soon to die, is a man of a different stamp 
one of those, doubtless, of whom Bonaparte thinks when he 
writes to Josephine, "Men worry me." The Swiss, in fact, was 
a chronic grumbler, but a first-rate fighting man, even when his 
men were using their last cartridges. 

" The lovers of nineteen" The allusion is lost. Aubenas, 
who reproduces two or three of these letters, makes a comment 
to this sentence, " Nous n'avons pu trouver un nom a mettre sous 
cette fantasque imagination" (vol. i. 317). 

" My brother" viz. Joseph. He and Junot reached Paris in 
five days, and had a great ovation. Carnot, at a dinner-party, 
showed Napoleon's portrait next to his heart, because "I foresee 
he will be the saviour of France, and I wish him to know that he 
has at the Directory only admirers and friends." 

1 Compelled to surrender Genoa, before Marengo takes place, he swears to 
the Austrian general he will be back there in fourteen days, and keeps his word. 

NOTES 201 

No. 6. 

Unalterably good. " C'est Joseph peint d'un seul trait." 
Aubenas (vol. i. 320). 

" If you want a place for any one y you can send him here. I will 
give him one" Bonaparte was beginning to feel firm in the 
saddle, while at Paris Josephine was treated like a princess. 
Under date April 25th, Letourneur, as one of the Directory, 
writes him, "A vast career opens itself before you; the Directory 
has measured the whole extent of it." They little knew ! The 
letter concludes by expressing confidence that their general will 
never be reproached with the shameful repose of Capua. In a 
further letter, bearing the same date, Letourneur insists on a full and 
accurate account of the battles being sent, as they will be necessary 
" for the history of the triumphs of the Republic." In a private 
letter to the Directory (No. 22O, vol. i. of the Correspondence^ 
1858), dated Carru, April 24th, Bonaparte tells them that when 
he returns to camp, worn-out, he has to work all night to put 
matters straight, and repress pillage. "Soldiery without bread 
work themselves into an excess of frenzy which makes one blush 
to be a man." l ..." I intend to make terrible examples. I 
shall restore order, or cease to command these brigands. The 
campaign is not yet decided. The enemy is desperate, numerous, 
and fights well. He knows I am in want of everything, and 
trusts entirely to time ; but I trust entirely to the good genius of 
the Republic, to the bravery of the soldiers, to the harmony of 
the officers, and even to the confidence they repose in me." 

No. 7. 

Aubenas goes into ecstasies over this letter, " the longest, most 
eloquent, and most impassioned of the whole series" (vol. i. 322). 

1 Two days later he evidently feels this letter too severe, and writes: "All 
goes well. Pillage is less pronounced. This first thirst of an army destitute of 
everything is quenched. The poor fellows are excusable ; after having sighed 
for three years at the top of the Alps, they arrive in the Promised Land, and wish 
to taste of it." 



Au Quanirr General dt Cajv\4t-*+. It 

fan fuarriemt Je la Rfput/iqut Francaite , unf tt inUv'mtU: 



-AV*^* ^^-^<?t<^tt>-^^^^^^ ""^-A^-tK**^. 

~- -c^zi .* 

fcu^- / 'If^- " \. 

L- C, 

204 NOTES 

June 15. Here occurs the first gap in the correspondence, 
but his letters to the Directory between this date and the last 
letter to Josephine extant (April 24) are full of interest, including 
his conscientious disobedience at Cherasco, and the aura of his 
destiny to " ride the whirlwind and direct the storm " which first 
inspired him after Lodi. On April 28th was signed the armistice 
of Cherasco, by which his rear was secured by three strong 
fortresses. 1 He writes the Directory that Piedmont is at their 
mercy, and that in making the armistice into a definite peace 
he trusts they will not forget the little island of Saint-Pierre, 
which will be more useful in the future than Corsica and Sardinia 
combined. He looks upon northern Italy as practically conquered, 
and speaks of invading Bavaria through the Tyrol. "Prodigious " 
is practically the verdict of the Directory, and later of Jomini. 
" My columns are marching ; Beaulieu flees. I hope to catch 
him. I shall impose a contribution of some millions on the Duke 
of Parma : he will sue for peace : don't be in a hurry, so that I 
may have time to make him also contribute to the cost of the 
campaign, by replenishing our stores and rehorsing our waggons 
at his expense." Bonaparte suggests that Genoa should pay 
fifteen millions indemnity for the frigates and vessels taken in 
the port. Certain risks had to be run in invading Lombardy, 
owing to want of horse artillery, but at Cherasco he secured 
artillery and horses. When writing to the Directory for a dozen 
companies, he tells them not to entrust the execution of this 
measure " to the men of the bureaus, for it takes them ten days 
to forward an order." Writing to Carnot on the same day he 
states he is marching against Beaulieu, who has 26,000 foot out 
of 38,000 at commencement of campaign. Napoleon's force is 
28,000, but he has less cavalry. On May ist, in a letter dated 
Acqui to Citizen Faipoult, he asks for particulars of the pictures, 

1 Bingham, with his customary ill-nature, remarks that Bonaparte, "in spite 
of the orders of the Directory, took upon himself to sign the armistice." These 
orders, dated March 6th, were intended for a novice, and no longer applicable to 
the conqueror of two armies, and which a Despatch on the way, dated April 25th, 
already modified. Jomini admits the wisdom of this advantageous peace, which 
secured Nice and Savoy to France, and gave her all the chief mountain-passes 
leading into Italy. 

NOTES 205 

statues, &c., of Milan, Parma, Placentia, Modena, and Bologna. 
On the same day Massena writes that his men are needing shoes. 
On May 6th Bonaparte announces the capture of Tortona, "a 
very fine fortress, which cost the King of Sardinia over fifteen 
millions," while Cherasco has furnished him with twenty-eight 
guns. Meanwhile Massena has taken possession of Alessandria, 
with all its stores. On May gth Napoleon writes to Carnot, 
"We have at last crossed the Po. The second campaign is 
begun ; Beaulieu . . . has fool-hardiness but no genius. One 
more victory, and Italy is ours." A clever commissary-general 
is all he needs, and his men are growing fat with good meat 
and good wine. He sends to Paris twenty old masters, with fine 
examples of Correggio and Michael-Angelo. It is pleasant to 
find Napoleon's confidence in Carnot, in view of Barras' in- 
sinuations that the latter had cared only for Moreau his type 
of Xenophon. In this very letter Napoleon writes Carnot, "I 
owe you my special thanks for the care that you have kindly 
given to my wife ; I recommend her to you, she is a sincere 
patriot, and I love her to distraction." He is sending " a dozen 
millions " to France, and hopes that some of it will be useful to 
the army of the Rhine. Meanwhile, and two days before 
Napoleon's letter to Carnot just mentioned, the latter, on behalf 
of the Directory, suggests the division of his command with the 
old Alsatian General Kellermann. The Directory's idea of a 
gilded pill seems to be a prodigiously long letter. It is one of 
those heart-breaking effusions that, even to this day, emanate 
from board-rooms, to the dismay and disgust of their recipients. 
After plastering him with sickening sophistries as to his "sweetest 
recompense," it gives the utterly unnecessary monition, "March ! 
no fatal repose, there are still laurels to gather " ! Nevertheless, 
his plan of ending the war by an advance through the Tyrol strikes 
them as too risky. He is to conquer the Milanais, and then divide 
his army with Kellermann, who is to guard the conquered pro- 
vince, while he goes south to Naples and Rome. As an implied 
excuse for not sending adequate reinforcements, Carnot adds, "The 
exaggerated rumours that you have skilfully disseminated as to 
the numbers of the French troops in Italy, will augment the fear 
of our enemies and almost double your means of action." The 

206 NOTES 

Milanais is to be heavily mulcted, but he is to be prudent. If 
Rome makes advances, his first demand should be that the Pope 
may order immediate public prayers for the prosperity and success 
of the French Republic ! The sending of old masters to France 
to adorn her National Galleries seems to have been entirely a 
conception of Napoleon's. He has given sufficiently good reasons, 
from a patriotic point of view ; for money is soon spent, but a 
masterpiece may encourage Art among his countrymen a genera- 
tion later. The plunderers of the Parthenon of 1800 could not 
henceforward throw stones at him in this respect. But his real 
object was to win the people of Paris by thus sending them 
Glory personified in unique works of genius. 

The Directory, already jealous of his fame, endeavour to 
neutralise the effect of his initiative by hearty concurrence, and 
write, " Italy has been illumined and enriched by their possession, 
but the time is now come when their reign should pass to France 
to stablish and beautify that of Liberty." The despatch adds 
somewhat naively that the effects of the vandalism committed 
during their own Republican orgies would be obliterated by this 
glorious campaign, which should "join to the splendour of 
military trophies the charm of beneficent and restful arts." The 
Directory ends by inviting him to choose one or two artists to 
select the most valuable pictures and other masterpieces. 

Meanwhile, the Directory's supineness in pushing on the war 
on the Rhine is enabling the Austrians to send large reinforce- 
ments against Napoleon. Bonaparte, who has recently suffered 
(Jomini, vol. viii. 113) from Kellermann's tardiness in sending 
reinforcements at an important moment, replies to the letters of 
May yth a week later, and writes direct to Citizen Carnot from 
Lodi, as well as to the Executive Directory. " On the receipt of 
the Directory's letter of the yth your wishes were fulfilled, and 
the Milanais is ours. I shall shortly march, to carry out your 
intentions, on Leghorn and Rome ; all that will soon be done. 
I am writing the Directory relatively to their idea of dividing the 
army. I swear that I have no thought beyond the interest of 
my country. Moreover, you will always find me straight (dans 
la ligne droit}. ... As it might happen that this letter to the 
Directory may be badly construed, and since you have assured 

NOTES 207 

me of your friendship, I take this opportunity of addressing you, 
begging you to make what use of it your prudence and attach- 
ment for me may suggest. . . . Kellermann will command the 
army as well as I, for no one is more convinced than I am that 
the victories are due to the courage and pluck of the army ; but 
I think joining Kellermann and myself in Italy is to lose every- 
thing. I cannot serve willingly with a man who considers 
himself the first general in Europe ; and, besides, I believe one 
bad general is better than two good ones. War is like govern- 
ment : it is an affair of tact. To be of any use, I must enjoy 
the same confidence that you testified to me in Paris. Where I 
make war, here or there, is a matter of indifference. To serve 
my country, to deserve from posterity a page in our history, to 
give the Government proofs of my attachment and devotion 
that is the sum of my ambition. But I am very anxious not to 
lose in a week the fatigues, anxieties, and dangers of two months, 
and to find myself fettered. I began with a certain amount of 
fame ; I wish to continue worthy of you." To the Directory 
he writes that the expeditions to Leghorn, Rome, and Naples are 
small affairs, but to be safely conducted must have one general in 
command. " I have made the campaign without consulting a 
soul ; I should have done no good if I had had to share my views 
with another. I have gained some advantages over superior 
forces, and in utter want of everything, because, certain of your 
confidence, my marches have been as quick as my thoughts." 
He foretells disaster if he is shackled with another general. 
" Every one has his own method of making war. General 
Kellermann has more experience, and will do it better than I ; 
but both together will do it very badly." With Barras he knew 
eloquence was useless, and therefore bribed him with a million 
francs. On May loth was gained the terrible battle of the 
Bridge of Lodi, where he won promotion from his soldiers, and 
became their " little corporal," and where he told Las Cases that 
he " was struck with the possibility of becoming famous. It was 
then that the first spark of my ambition was kindled." On entering 
Milan he told Marmont, " Fortune has smiled on me to-day, only 
because I despise her favours ; she is a woman, and the more 
she does for me, the more I shall exact from her. In our day no 

2o8 NOTES 

one has originated anything great ; it is for me to give the 

On May I5th, thirty-five days after the commencement of 
the campaign, he entered Milan, under a triumphal arch and 
amid the acclamations of the populace. On the previous evening 
he was guilty of what Dr. Johnson would have considered a 
fitting herald of his spoliation of picture-galleries the perpetration 
of a pun. At a dinner-table the hostess observed that his youth 
was remarkable in so great a conqueror, whereat he replied, 
" Truly, madam, I am not very old at present barely twenty- 
seven but in less than twenty-four hours I shall count many 
more, for I shall have attained Milan " (milk ans]. 

On May 22nd he returned to Lodi, but heard immediately 
that Lombardy in general, and Pavia in particular, was in open 
revolt. He makes a terrible example of Pavia, shooting its chief 
citizens, and, for the only time, giving up a town to three hours' 
pillage. The Directory congratulates him on these severe 
measures : "The laws of war and the safety of the army render 
them legitimate in such circumstances." He writes them that 
had the blood of a single Frenchman been spilt, he would have 
erected a column on the ruins of Pavia, on which should have 
been inscribed, " Here was the town of Pavia." 

On May 2ist, Carnot replies to the letter from Lodi : "You 
appear desirous, citizen general, of continuing to conduct the 
whole series of military operations in Italy, at the actual seat of 
war. The Directory has carefully considered your proposition, 
and the confidence that they place in your talents and republican 
zeal has decided this question in the affirmative. . . . The rest of 
the military operations towards the Austrian frontier and round 
Mantua are absolutely dependent on your success against Beaulieu. 
The Directory feels how difficult it would be to direct them from 
Paris. It leaves to you in this respect the greatest latitude, while 
recommending the most extreme prudence. Its intention is, how- 
ever, that the army shall cross into the Tyrol only after the 
expedition to the south of Italy." 

This was a complete victory for Bonaparte (Bingham calls it 
the Directory's "abject apology"), and, as Scott points out, he 
now " obtained an ascendency which he took admirable care not 

NOTES 209 

to relinquish ; and it became the sole task of the Directory, so 
far as Italy was concerned, to study phrases for intimating their 
approbation of the young general's measures." 

He had forged a sword for France, and he now won her 
heart by gilding it. On May 1 6th the Directory had asked him 
to supply Kellermann with money for the army of the Alps, and 
by May 22nd he is able to write that six or eight million francs 
in gold, silver, ingots, or jewels is lying at their disposal with one 
of the best bankers in Genoa, being superfluous to the needs of 
the army. " If you wish it, I can have a million sent to Bale for 
the army of the Rhine." He has already helped Kellermann, 
and paid his men. He also announces a further million requisi- 
tioned from Modena. " As it has neither fortresses nor muskets, 
I could not ask for them." 

Henceforth he lubricates the manifold wheels of French 
policy with Italian gold, and gains thereby the approbation and 
gratitude of the French armies and people. Meanwhile he 
does not neglect those who might bear him a grudge. To 
Kellermann and to all the Directors he sends splendid chargers. 
From Parma he has the five best pictures chosen for Paris 
the Saint Jerome and the Madonna della Scodella, both by 
Correggio; the Preaching of St. John in the Desert, a Paul 
Veronese, and a Van Dyck, besides fine examples of Raphael, 
Caracci, &c. 

The Directory is anxious that he shall chastise the English 
at Leghorn, as the fate of Corsica is somewhat dependent on it, 
whose loss " will make London tremble." They secretly dread 
a war in the Tyrol, forgetting that Bonaparte is a specialist in 
mountain fighting, educated under Paoli. They remind him 
that he has not sent the plans of his battles. " You ought 
not to lack draughtsmen in Italy. Eh ! what are your young 
engineer officers doing ? " 

On May 3ist Carnot writes to urge him to press the siege 
of Mantua, reasserting that the reinforcements which Beaulieu 
has received will not take from that army its sense of inferiority, 
and that ten battalions of Hoc he's army are on the way. It 
approves and confirms the " generous fraternity " with which 
Bonaparte offers a million francs to the armies on the Rhine. 


210 NOTES 

On June yth he tells the Directory that Rome is about to fulmi- 
nate a bull against the French Royalists, but that he thinks the 
expedition to Naples should be deferred, and also a quarrel with 
Venice at least till he has beaten his other enemies ; it is not 
expedient to tackle every one at once. On June 6th he thanks 
Carnot for a kind letter, adding that the best reward to sweeten 
labour and perils is the esteem of the few men one really admires. 
He fears the hot weather for his men : " we shall soon be in July, 
when every march will cost us 200 sick." The same day he 
writes General Clarke that all is flourishing, but that the dog-star 
is coming on at a gallop, and that there is no remedy against its 
malign influence. " Luckless beings that we are ! Our position 
with nature is merely observation, without control." He holds 
that the only safe way to end the campaign without being beaten 
is not to go to the south of Italy. On the gth he thanks Keller- 
man n for the troops he sends, and their excellent discipline. On 
the nth always as anxious to help his generals as himself he 
urges the Directory to press the Swiss Government to refund 
La Harpe's property to his children. 

"Presentiment of ill" Marmont tells us what this was. The 
glass of his wife's portrait, which he always carried with him, was 
found to be broken. Turning frightfully pale, he said to Mar- 
mont, " My wife is either very ill, or unfaithful." She left Paris 
June 24th. Marmont says, " Once at Milan, General Bona- 
parte was very happy, for at that time he lived only for his wife. 
. . . Never love more pure, more true, more exclusive, has pos- 
sessed the heart of any man." 

No. 8. 

Between June I5th and the renewal of Josephine's corre- 
spondence a glance at the intervening dates will show that 
Bonaparte and his army were not wasting time. The treaty 
with Rome was a masterpiece, as in addition to money and 
works of art, he obtained the port of Ancona, siege-guns with 
which to bombard Mantua, and best of all, a letter from the 
Pope to the faithful of France, recommending submission to the 
new government there. In consideration of this, and possibly 

NOTES 211 

yielding to the religious sentiments of Josephine, he spared Rome 
his presence the only capital which he abstained from entering, 
when he had, as in the present case, the opportunity. It was 
not, however, until February 1797 that the Pope fulfilled his 
obligations under this Treaty, and then under new compulsion. 
Fortune. Josephine's dog (see note to Letter 2, Series B). 


No. i. 

July 6, Sortie from Mantua of the Austrians. According to 
Jomini the French on this occasion were not successful (vol. viii. 
162). In one of his several letters to the Directory on this date 
is seen Bonaparte's anxiety for reinforcements ; the enemy has 
already 67,000 men against his available 40,000. Meanwhile 
he is helping the Corsicans to throw off the British yoke, and 
believes that the French possession of Leghorn will enable the 
French to gain that island without firing a shot. 

No. 2. 

Marmirolo. On July 1 2th he writes to the Directory from 
Verona that for some days he and the enemy have been watching 
each other. "Woe to him who makes a false move." He 
indicates that he is about to make a coup de main on Mantua, 
with 300 men dressed in Austrian uniforms. He is by no 
means certain of success, which "depends entirely on luck 
either on a dog * or a goose." He complains of much sickness 
among his men round Mantua, owing to the heat and miasmata 
from the marshes, but so far no deaths. He will be ready to 
make Venice disgorge a few millions shortly, if the Directory 
make a quarrel in the interim. 

On the 1 3th he was with Josephine, as he writes from Milan, 
but leaves on the I4th, and on the I7th is preparing a coup de 

1 Murat, says Marmont, who hated him, was the culprit here. 

212 NOTES 

main with 800 grenadiers, which, as we see from the next letter, 

Fortune. Arnault tells an anecdote of this lap-dog, which in 
1794, in the days of the Terror, had been used as a bearer of 
secret despatches between Josephine in prison and the governess 
of her children outside the grille. Henceforward Josephine 
would never be parted from it. One day in June 1797 the dog 
was lying on the same couch as its mistress, and Bonaparte, 
accosting Arnault and pointing to the dog with his finger, said, 
" You see that dog there. He is my rival. He was in possession 
of Madame's bed when I married her. I wished to make him 
get out vain hope ! I was told I must resign myself to sleep 
elsewhere, or consent to share with him. That was sufficiently 
exasperating, but it was a question of taking or leaving, and I 
resigned myself. The favourite was less accommodating than I. 
I bear the proof of it in this leg." 

Not content with barking at every one, he bit not only men 
but other dogs, and was finally killed by a mastiff, much to 
Bonaparte's secret satisfaction ; for, as St. Amand adds, " he 
could easily win battles, accomplish miracles, make or unmake 
principalities, but could not show a dog the door." 

No. 3. 

" The village of Virgil" Michelet (Jusqu'au 18 Brumaire] 
thinks that here he got the idea of the Fete of Virgil, established 
a few months later. In engravings of the hero of Italy we see 
him near the tomb of Virgil, his brows shaded by a laurel 

No. 4. 

Achille. Murat. He had been appointed one of Bonaparte's 
aides-de-camp February 29th, made General of Brigade after the 
Battle of Lodi (May loth) ; is sent to Paris after Junot with 
nine trophies, and arrives there first. He flirts there outrageously 
with Josephine, but does not escort her back to her husband. 

NOTES 213 

No. 5. 

1 Will 0' the wisp" i.e. r ardent. This word, according to 
Menage, was given by the Sieur de St. Germain to those lively 
young sparks who, about the year 1634, used to meet at the 
house of Mr. Marsh (M. de Marest), who was one of them. 

No. 6. 

The needs of the army. Difficulties were accumulating, and 
Napoleon was, as he admits at St. Helena, seriously alarmed. 
Wurmser's force proves to be large, Piedmont is angry with the 
Republic and ready to rise, and Venice and Rome would 
willingly follow its example ; the English have taken Porto- 
Ferrajo, and their skilful minister, Windham, is sowing the seeds 
of discord at Naples. Although on July 2Oth he has written a 
friend in Corsica that " all smiles on the Republic," he writes 
Saliceti, another brother Corsican, very differently on August 
ist. "Fortune appears to oppose us at present. ... I have 
raised the siege of Mantua ; I am at Brescia with nearly all my 
army. I shall take the first opportunely of fighting a battle with 
the enemy which will decide the fate of Italy if I'm beaten, I 
shall retire on the Adda ; if I win, I shall not stop in the marshes 
of Mantua. . . . Let the citadels of Milan, Tortona, Alessandria, 
and Pavia be provisioned. . . . We are all very tired; I have ridden 
five horses to death." Reading between the lines of this letter to 
Josephine, it is evident that he thinks she will be safer with him 
than at Milan Wurmser having the option of advancing via 
Brescia on Mi'an, and cutting off the French communications. 
The Marshal's fatal mistake was in using only half his army for 
the purpose. This raising of the siege of Mantua (July 3ist) 
was heart-rending work for Bonaparte, but, as Jomini shows, he 
had no artillery horses, and it was better to lose the siege train, 
consisting of guns taken from the enemy, than to jeopardise the 
whole army. Wurmser had begun his campaign successfully by 
defeating Massena, and pushing back Sauret at Salo. " The 
Austrians," wrote Massena, " are drunk with brandy, and fight 
furiously," while his men are famished and can only hang on by 

2i 4 NOTES 

their teeth. Bonaparte calls his first war council, and thinks for 
a moment of retreat, but Augereau insists on fighting, which is 
successfully accomplished while Wurmser is basking himself 
among the captured artillery outside Mantua. Bonaparte had 
been perfectly honest in telling the Directory his difficulties, and 
sends his brother Louis to the Directory for that purpose on the 
eve of battle. He is complimented in a letter from the Directory 
dated August I2th a letter probably the more genuine as they 
had just received a further despatch announcing a victory. On 
August 3rd Bonaparte won a battle at Lonato, and the next day 
Augereau gained great laurels at Castiglione ; in later years the 
Emperor often incited Augereau by referring to those " fine days 
of Castiglione." Between July 2Qth and August I2th the 
French army took 15,000 prisoners, 70 guns, and wounded or 
killed 25,000, with little more than half the forces of the 
Austrians. Bonaparte gives his losses at 7000, exclusive of the 
15,000 sick he has in hospital ; from July 3ist to August 6th he 
never changed his boots, or lay down in a bed. Nevertheless, 
Jomini thinks that he showed less vigour in the execution of his 
plans than in the earlier part of the campaign ; but, as an opinion 
per contra, we may note that the French grenadiers made their 
" little Corporal " Sergeant at Castiglione. Doubtless the 
proximity of his wife at the commencement (July 3ist) made 
him more careful, and therefore less intrepid. On August i8th 
he wrote Kellermann with an urgent request for troops. On 
August 1 7th Colonel Graham, after hinting at the frightful 
excesses committed by the Austrians in their retreat, adds in a 
postscript " From generals to subalterns the universal language 
of the army is that we must make peace, as we do not know how 
to make war." 1 

On August 1 3th Bonaparte sent to the Directory his opinion 
of most of his generals, in order to show that he required some 
better ones. Some of his criticisms are interesting : 

Berthier " Talents, activity, courage, character ; he has 
them all." 

Augereau " Much character, courage, firmness, activity ; is 

1 J. H. Rose in Eng. Hist. Review, January 1899. 

NOTES 215 

accustomed to war, beloved by the soldiers, lucky in his opera- 

Massena " Active, indefatigable, has boldness, grasp, and 
promptitude in making his decisions." 

Serrurier " Fights like a soldier, takes no responsibility ; 
determined, has not much opinion of his troops, is often ailing." 

Despinois " Flabby, inactive, slack, has not the genius for 
war, is not liked by the soldiers, does not fight with his head ; 
has nevertheless good, sound political principles : would do well 
to command in the interior." 

Sauret " A good, very good soldier, not sufficiently en- 
lightened to be a general ; unlucky." 

Of eight more he has little good to say, but the Directory in 
acknowledging his letter of August 23rd remarks that he has 
forgotten several officers, and especially the Irish general Kil- 

About the same time Colonel Graham (Lord Lynedoch) was 
writing to the British Government from Trent that the Austrians, 
despite their defeats, were " undoubtedly brave fine troops, and 
an able chief would put all to rights in a little time." 1 On 
August 1 8th he adds " When the wonderful activity, energy, 
and attention that prevail in the French service, from the 
commander-in-chief downward, are compared to the indecision, 
indifference, and indolence universal here, the success of their 
rash but skilful manoeuvres is not surprising." 

No. 7. 

Brescia. Napoleon was here on July 27th, meeting Josephine 
about the date arranged (July 25th), and she returned with him. 
On July 29th they were nearly captured by an Austrian ambus- 
cade near Ceronione, and Josephine wept with fright. " Wurm- 
ser," said Napoleon, embracing her, " shall pay dearly for those 
tears." She accompanies him to Castel Nova, and sees a skirmish 
at Verona; but the sight of wounded men makes her leave the army, 
and, finding it impossible to reach Brescia, she flees vid Ferrara 

1 See Essay by J. H. Rose in Eng. Hist. Revuw, January 1899. 

216 NOTES 

and Bologna to Lucca. She leaves the French army in dire straits 
and awaits news anxiously, while the Senate of Lucca presents 
her with the oil kept exclusively for royalty. Thence she goes 
via Florence to Milan. By August Jth the Austrian army was 
broken and in full retreat, and Bonaparte conducts his correspond- 
ence from Brescia from August nth to i8th. On the 25th he 
is at Milan, where he meets his wife after her long pilgrimage, 
and spends four days. By August 3Oth he is again at Brescia, 
and reminds her that he left her " vexed, annoyed, and not well." 
From a letter to her aunt, Madame de Renaudin, at this time, 
quoted by Aubenas, we can see her real feelings : " I am feted 
wherever I go ; all the princes of Italy give me fetes, even the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, brother of the Emperor. Ah, well, I 
prefer being a private individual in France. I care not for 
honours bestowed in this country. I get sadly bored. My 
health has undoubtedly a great deal to do with making me 
unhappy ; I am often out of sorts. If happiness could assure 
health, I ought to be in the best of health. I have the most 
amiable husband imaginable. I have no time to long for any- 
thing. My wishes are his. He is all day long in adoration 
before me, as if I were a divinity ; there could not possibly be a 
better husband. M. Serbelloni will tell you how he loves me. 
He often writes to my children ; he loves them dearly. He is 
sending Hortense, by M. Serbelloni, a lovely repeater, jewelled 
and enamelled ; to Eugene a splendid gold watch." 

No. 9. 

" / hope we shall get into Trent by the $th" He entered the 
city on that day. In his pursuit of Wurmser, he and his army 
cover sixty miles in two days, through the terrific Val Saguna 
and Brenta gorges, brushing aside opposition by the way. 

No. 12. 

" One of these nights the doors will be burst open with a bang" 
Apparently within two or three days, for Bonaparte is at Milan 
on September 2ist, and stays with his wife till October I2th. 

NOTES 217 

On October 1st he writes to the Directory that his total forces 
are only 27,900 ; and that the Austrians, within six weeks, will 
have 50,000. He asks for 26,000 more men to end the war 
satisfactorily : " If the preservation of Italy is dear to you, citizen 
directors, send me help." On the 8th they reply with the pro- 
mise of IO,OOO to I2,OOO, to which he replies (October I ith) that 
if 10,000 have started only 5000 will reach him. The Directory 
at this time are very poverty stricken, and ask him once more to 
pay Kellermann's Army of the Alps, as being " to some extent 
part of that which you command." This must have been 
" nuts and wine " for the general who was to have been super- 
seded by Kellermann a few months earlier. On October ist 
they advise him that Wurmser's name is on the list of emigrants, 
and that if the Marshal will surrender Mantua at once he need 
not be sent to Paris for trial. If, however, Bonaparte thinks that 
this knowledge will make the old Marshal more desperate, he is not 
to be told. Bonaparte, of course, does not send the message. 
For some time these letters had been signed by the President 
Lareveillere Lepeaux, but on September iQth there was a charm- 
ing letter from Carnot : " Although accustomed to unprecedented 
deeds on your part, our hopes have been surpassed by the victory 
of Bassano. What glory is yours, immortal Bonaparte ! Moreau 
was about to effect a juncture with you when that wretched 
reculade of Jourdan upset all our plans. Do not forget that 
immediately the armies go into winter quarters on the Rhine 
the Austrians will have forces available to help Wurmser." At 
Milan Bonaparte advises the Directory that he is dealing with 
unpunished " fripponeries " in the commissariat department. Here 
he receives from young Kellermann, afterwards the hero of 
Marengo, a precis of the condition of the Brescia fever-hospitals, 
dated October 6th : " A wretched mattress, dirty and full of 
vermin, a coarse sheet to each bed, rarely washed, no counter- 
panes, much dilatoriness, such is the spectacle that the fever- 
hospitals of Brescia present ; it is heart-rending. The soldiers 
justly complain that, having conquered opulent Italy at the cost 
of their life-blood, they might, without enjoying comforts, at 
least find the help and attention which their situation demands. 
Bread and rice are the only passable foods, but the meat is hard. 

2i8 NOTES 

I beg that the general-in-chief will immediately give attention to 
his companions in glory, who wish for restored health only that 
they may gather fresh laurels." Thus Bonaparte had his Bloem- 
fontein, and perhaps his Burdett-Coutts. 

On October 1 2th he tells the Directory that Mantua will 
not fall till February the exact date of its capitulation. One is 
tempted to wonder if Napoleon was human enough to have 
inserted one little paragraph of his despatch of October I2th 
from Milan with one eye on its perusal by his wife, as it contains 
a veiled sneer at Hoche's exploits : " Send me rather generals of 
brigade than generals of division. All that comes to us from 
La Vendee is unaccustomed to war on a large scale ; we have 
the same reproach against the troops, but they are well-hardened." 
On the same day he shows them that all the marvels of his 
six months' campaign have cost the French Government only 
.440,000 (eleven million francs). He pleads, however, for special 
auditors to have charge of the accounts. Napoleon had not only 
made war support war, but had sent twenty million francs requi- 
sitioned in Italy to the Republic. On October I2th he leaves 
Milan for Modena, where he remains from the I4th to the i8th, 
is at Bologna on the igth, and Ferrara from the igth to the 
22nd, reaching Verona on the 24th. 

Jomini has well pointed out that Napoleon's conception of 
making two or three large Italian republics in place of many 
small ones minimised the power of the Pope, and also that of 
Austria, by abolishing its feudal rigours. 

By this time Bonaparte is heartily sick of the war. On 
October 2nd he writes direct to the Emperor of Germany : 
" Europe wants peace. This disastrous war has lasted too long ; " 
and on the i6th to Marshal Wurmser : "The siege of Mantua, 
sir, is more disastrous than two campaigns." His weariness is 
tempered with policy, as Alvinzi was en route, and the French 
reinforcements had not arrived, not even the 10,000 promised in 

No. 13. 

" Corsica is ours" At St. Helena he told his generals, " The 
King of England wore the Corsican crown only two years. 

NOTES 219 

This whim cost the British treasury five millions sterling. John 
Bull's riches could not have been worse employed." He writes 
to the Directory on the same day : " The expulsion of the 
English from the Mediterranean has considerable influence on 
the success of our military operations in Italy. We can exact 
more onerous conditions from Naples, which will have the 
greatest moral effect on the minds of the Italians, assures our 
communications, and makes Naples tremble as far as Sicily." On 
October 25th he writes: "Wurmser is at his last gasp; he is 
short of wine, meat, and forage ; he is eating his horses, and has 
15,000 sick. In fifty days Mantua will either be taken or 

No. 14. 

Verona. Bonaparte had made a long stay at Verona, to 
November 4th, waiting reinforcements which never came. On 
November 5th he writes to the Directory : " All the troops of 
the Directory arrive post-haste at an alarming rate, and we we 
are left to ourselves. Fine promises and a few driblets of men 
are all we have received;" and on November I3th he writes 
again : " Perchance we are on the eve of losing Italy. None of 
the expected reinforcements have arrived. ... I am doing my 
duty, the officers and men are doing theirs ; my heart is breaking, 
but my conscience is at rest. Help send me help ! . . . I 
despair of preventing the relief of Mantua, which in a week 
would have been ours. The wounded are the pick of the army ; 
all our superior officers, all our picked generals are hors de combat ; 
those who have come to me are so incompetent, and they have 
not the soldiers' confidence. The army of Italy, reduced to a 
handful of men, is exhausted. The heroes of Lodi, Millesimo, 
Castiglione, and Bassano have died for their country, or are in 
hospital ; 1 to the corps remain only their reputation and their 
glory. Joubert, Lannes, Lanusse, Victor, Murat, Chabot, 
Dupuy, Rampon, Pijon, Menard, Chabran, and St. Hilaire are 
wounded. ... In a few days we shall make a last effort. Had I 
received the 83rd, 3500 strong, and of good repute in the army, 

1 With fevers caught in the rice-swamps of Lombardy. 

220 NOTES 

I would have answered for everything. Perhaps in a few days 
40,000 will not suffice." The reason for this unwonted pes- 
simism was the state of his troops. His brother Louis reported 
that Vaubois' men had no shoes and were almost naked, in the 
midst of snow and mountains ; that desertions were taking place 
of soldiers with bare and bleeding feet, who told the enemy the 
plans and conditions of their army. Finally Vaubois bungles, 
through not knowing the ground, and is put under the orders of 
Massena, while two of his half-brigades are severely censured by 
Napoleon in person for their cowardice. 

No. 15. 

" Once more I breathe freely." Thrice had Napoleon been 
foiled, as much by the weather and his shoeless soldiers as by 
numbers (40,000 Austrians to his 28,000), and his position was 
well-nigh hopeless on November I4th. He trusts Verona to 
3000 men, and the blockade of Mantua to Kilmaine, and the 
defence of Rivoli to Vaubois the weakest link in the chain and 
determines to manoeuvre by the Lower Adige upon the Austrian 
communications. He gets forty-eight hours' start, and wins 
Arcola ; in 1814 he deserved equal success, but bad luck and 
treachery turned the scale. The battle of Arcola lasted seventy- 
two hours, and for forty-eight hours was in favour of the 
Austrians. Pending the arrival of the promised reinforcements, 
the battle was bought too dear, and weakened Bonaparte more 
than the Austrians, who received new troops almost daily. He 
replaced Vaubois by Joubert. 

No. 1 8. 

" The 2()th." But he is at Milan from November 27th to 
December i6th. Most people know, from some print or other, the 
picture by Gros of Bonaparte, flag in hand, leading his men across 
the murderous bridge of Arcola. It was during this visit to Milan 
that his portrait was taken, and Lavalette has preserved for us the 
domestic rather than the dignified manner of the sitting accorded. 
He refused to give a fixed time, and the artist was in despair, 

NOTES 221 

until Josephine came to his aid by taking her husband on her 
knees every morning after breakfast, and keeping him there a 
short time. Lavalette assisted at three of these sittings ap- 
parently to remove the bashful embarrassment of the young 
painter. St. Amand suggests that Gros taking the portrait of 
Bonaparte at Milan, just after Arcola, would, especially under 
such novel conditions, prove a fitting theme for our artists to-day ! 
From December i6th to 2ist Bonaparte is at Verona, whence he 
returns to Milan. There is perhaps a veiled innuendo in Barras' 
letter of December 3<Dth. Clarke had advised the Directory that 
Alvinzi was planning an attack, which Barras mentions, but 
adds : " Your return to Milan shows that you consider another 
attack in favour of Wurmser unlikely, or, at least, not imminent." 
He is at Milan till January yth, whence he goes to Bologna, the 
city which, he says, " of all the Italian cities has constantly shown 
the greatest energy and the most considerable share of real infor- 

No. 20. 

General Brune. This incident fixes the date of this letter to 
be 23 Nivose (January 12), and not 23 Messidor (July il), as 
hitherto published in the French editions of this letter. On 
January 12, 1797, he wrote General Clarke from Verona (No. 
1375 of the Correspondence] almost an exact duplicate of this 
letter a very rare coincidence in the epistles of Napoleon. 
" Scarcely set out from Roverbella, I learnt that the enemy had 
appeared at Verona. Massena made his dispositions, which have 
been very successful ; we have made 600 prisoners, and we have 
taken three pieces of cannon. General Brune has had seven 
bullets in his clothes, without having been touched by one of 
them ; this is what it is to be lucky. We have had only ten 
men killed, and a hundred wounded." Bonaparte had left 
Bologna on January 10, reaching Verona via Roverbella on 
the i 2th. 

No. 21. 

February yd. u / wrote you this morning." This and probably 
other letters describing Rivoli, La Favorite, and the imminent 

222 NOTES 

fall of Mantua, are missing. In summing up the campaign 
Thiers declares that in ten months 55,000 French (all told, in- 
cluding reinforcements) had beaten more than 200,000 Austrians, 
taken 80,000 of them prisoners, killed and wounded 20,000. 
They had fought twelve pitched battles, and sixty actions. These 
figures are probably as much above the mark as those of Napoleon's 
detractors are below it. 

One does not know which to admire most, Bonaparte's 
absence from Marshal Wurmser's humiliation, or his abstention 
from entering Rome as a conqueror. The first was the act of a 
perfect gentleman, worthy of the best traditions of chivalry, the 
second was the very quintessence of far-seeing sagacity, not 
" baulking the end half-won, for an instant dole of praise." As 
he told Mdme. de Remusat at Passeriano, " I conquered the Pope 
better by not going to Rome than if I had burnt his capital." 
Scott has compared his treatment of Wurmser to that of the 
Black Prince with his royal prisoner, King John of France. 
Wurmser was an Alsatian on the list of emigres, and Bonaparte 
gave the Marshal his life by sending him back to Austria, a fact 
which Wurmser requited by warning Bonaparte of a conspiracy 
to poison him l in Romagna, which Napoleon thinks would other- 
wise have been successful. 

No. 24. 

"Perhaps I shall make peace with the Pope? On February 
1 2th the Pope had written to "his dear son, General Bonaparte," 
to depute plenipotentiaries for a peace, and ends by assuring him 
"of our highest esteem," and concluding with the paternal 
apostolic benediction. Meanwhile Napoleon, instead of sacking 
Faenza, has just invoked the monks and priests to follow the 
precepts of the Gospel. 

No. 25. 

" The unlimited power you hold over me." There seems no 
question that during the Italian campaigns he was absolutely 
faithful to Josephine, although there was scarcely a beauty in 

1 With aqua tofana, says Marmont, 

NOTES 223 

Milan who did not aspire to please him and to conquer him. In 
his fidelity there was, says St. Amand, much love and a little 
calculation. As Napoleon has said himself, his position was 
delicate in the extreme ; he commanded old generals ; every one 
of his movements was jealously watched ; his circumspection was 
extreme. His fortune lay in his wisdom. He would have to 
forget himself for one hour, and how many of his victories 
depended upon no more ! The celebrated singer, La Grassini, 
who had all Italy at her feet, cared only for the young general 
who would not at that time vouchsafe her a glance. 



Elected to the joint consulate by the events of the i8th 
Brumaire (November 9), 1799, Napoleon spent the first Christ- 
mas Day after his return from Egypt in writing personal letters 
to the King of England and Emperor of Austria, with a view to 
peace. He asks King George how it is that the two most 
enlightened nations of Europe do not realise that peace is the 
chief need as well as the chief glory . . . and concludes by 
asserting that the fate of all civilised nations is bound up in the 
conclusion of a war " which embraces the entire world." His 
efforts fail in both cases. On December ijth he makes the 
Moniteur the sole official journal. On February jth, 1800, he 
orders ten days' military mourning for the death of Washington 
that " great man who, like the French, had fought for equality 
and liberty." On April 22nd he urges Moreau to begin his 
campaign with the army ot the Rhine, an order reiterated on 
April 24th through Carnot, again made Minister of War. A 
diversion to save the army of Italy was now imperative. On 
May 5th he congratulated Moreau on the battle of Stockach, 
but informs him that Massena's position is critical, shut up in 
Genoa, and with food only till May 25th. He advises Massena 
the same day that he leaves Paris that night to join the Army of 

224 NOTES 

Reserve, that the cherished child of victory must hold out as 
long as possible, at least until May 3Oth. At Geneva he met 
M. Necker. On May I4th he writes General Mortier, com- 
mandant of Paris, to keep that city quiet, as he will have still to 
be away a few days longer, which he trusts "will not be in- 
different to M. de Melas." 

No. 3. 

This letter was written from Ivrea, May 29th, 1800. On 
the 3Oth Napoleon is at Vercelli, on June ist at Novara, and on 
June 2nd in Milan. Eugene served under Murat at the passage 
of the Ticino, May 3ist. 

M.'s ; probably " Maman," i.e. his mother. 

Cherries. This fruit had already tender associations. Las 
Cases tells us that when Napoleon was only sixteen he met at 
Valence Mademoiselle du Colombier, who was not insensible to 
his merits. It was the first love of both. ..." We were the 
most innocent creatures imaginable," the Emperor used to say ; 
"we contrived little meetings together. I well remember one 
which took place on a midsummer morning, just as daylight 
began to dawn. It will scarcely be believed that all our happi- 
ness consisted in eating cherries together" (vol. i. 81, 1836). 

No. 4. 

Milan. He arrived here on June 2nd, and met with a great 
reception. In his bulletin of June 5th we find him assisting at 
an improvised concert. It ends, somewhat quaintly for a bulletin, 
as follows : " Italian music has a charm ever new. The celebrated 
singers, Billington, 1 La Grassini, and Marchesi are expected at 
Milan. They say they are about to start for Paris to give 
concerts there." According to M. Frederic Masson, this Paris 
visit masked ulterior motives, and was arranged at a dejeuner on the 
same day, where La Grassini, Napoleon, and Berthier breakfasted 
together. Henceforward to Marengo Napoleon spends every 

1 On reaching London a few months later Mistress Billington was engaged 
simultaneously by Drury Lane and Covent Garden, and during the following year 
harvested 10,000 from these two engagements. 

NOTES 225 

spare day listening to the marvellous songstress, and as at Eylau, 
seven years later, runs great risks by admitting Venus into the 
camp of Mars. At St. Helena he declares that from June 3rd to 
8th he was busy " receiving deputations, and showing himself to 
people assembled from all parts of Lombardy to see their libe- 
rator." The Austrians had declared that he had died in Egypt. 
The date of No. 4 should probably be June 9th, on which day 
the rain was very heavy. He reached Stradella the next day. 


No. i. 

The date is doubtless 27 Messidor (July 16), and the fete 
alluded to that of July 14. The following day Napoleon signed 
the Concordat with the Pope, which paved the way for the 
restoration of the Roman Catholic religion in France (Sep- 
tember n). 

The blister. On July 7 he quaintly writes Talleyrand: 
"They have put a second blister on my arm, which prevented 
me giving audience yesterday. Time of sickness is an opportune 
moment for coming to terms with the priests." 

Some plants. No trait in Josephine's character is more charac- 
teristic than her love of flowers not the selfish love of a mere 
collector, 1 but the bountiful joy of one who wishes to share her 
treasures. Malmaison had become the " veritable Jardin des 
Plantes" of the epoch, 2 far better than its Paris namesake in 
those days. The splendid hothouses, constructed by M. Thibaut, 
had been modelled on those of Kew, and enabled Josephine to 
collect exotics from every clime, and especially from her beloved 
Martinique. No jewel was so precious to her as a rare and 
beautiful flower. The Minister of Marine never forgot to 

1 She was, however, no mere amateur, and knew, says Mile. d'Avrillon, the 
names of all her plants, the family to which they belonged, their native soil, and 
special properties. 

- Rueil, le chateau de Richelieu et la Malmaison, by Jacquin and Duesberg, 
p. 130 ; in Aubenas'y^/A/'wf, vol. i. 


226 NOTES 

instruct the deep-sea captains to bring back floral tributes from 
the far-off tropics. These often fell, together with the ships, 
into the hands of the British sea-dogs, but the Prince Regent 
always had them sent on from London, and thus rendered, says 
Aubenas, " the gallant homage of a courtly enemy to the charm- 
ing tastes and to the popularity already acquired by this universally 
beloved woman." Her curator, M. Aime Bonpland, was an 
accomplished naturalist, who had been with Humboldt in 
America, and brought thence 6000 new plants. On his return 
in 1804 he was nominated by Josephine manager of the gardens 
of Malmaison and Navarre. 

In the splendid work, Le Jardin de la Malmaison^ in three 
volumes, are plates, with descriptions of 184 plants, mostly new, 
collected there from Egypt, Arabia, the United States, the 
Antilles, Mexico, Madeira, the Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, 
the East Indies, New Caledonia, Australia, and China. To 
Josephine we owe the Camellia, and the Catalpa, from the flora 
of Peru, whilst her maiden name (La Pagerie) was perpetuated 
by Messrs. Pavon and Ruiz in the Lapageria. 

If the weather is as bad. As we shall see later, Bourrienne 
was invaluable to Josephine's court for his histrionic powers, and 
he seems to have been a prime favourite. On the present 
occasion he received the following " Account of the Journey to 
Plombieres. To the Inhabitants of Malmaison," probably the 
work of Count Rapp, touched up by Hortense (Bourrienne's 
Napoleon, vol. ii. 85. Bentley, 1836) : 

" The whole party left Malmaison in tears, which brought 
on such dreadful headaches that all the amiable company were 
quite overcome by the idea of the journey. Madame Bonaparte, 
mere, supported the fatigues of this memorable day with the 
greatest courage ; but Madame Bonaparte, consulesse, did not 
show any. The two young ladies who sat in the dormeuse, 
Mademoiselle Hortense and Madame Lavalette, were rival 
candidates for a bottle of Eau de Cologne ; and every now and 
then the amiable M. Rapp made the carriage stop for the 
comfort of his poor little sick heart, which overflowed with bile ; 
in fact, he was obliged to take to bed on arriving at Epernay, 
while the rest of the amiable party tried to drown their sorrows 

NOTES 227 

in champagne. The second day was more fortunate on the 
score of health and spirits, but provisions were wanting, and great 
were the sufferings of the stomach. The travellers lived on in 
the hope of a good supper at Toul, but despair was at its height 
when on arriving there they found only a wretched inn, and 
nothing in it. We saw some odd-looking folks there, which 
indemnified us a little for spinach dressed with lamp-oil, and red 
asparagus fried with curdled milk. Who would not have been 
amused to see the Malmaison gourmands seated at a table so 
shockingly served ! 

" In no record of history is there to be found a day passed in 
distress so dreadful as that on which we arrived at Plombieres. 
On departing from Toul we intended to breakfast at Nancy, for 
every stomach had been empty for two days, but the civil and 
military authorities came out to meet us, and prevented us from 
executing our plan. We continued our route, wasting away, so 
that you might see us growing thinner every moment. To 
complete our misfortune, the dormeuse, which seemed to have 
taken a fancy to embark on the Moselle for Metz, barely escaped 
an overturn. But at Plombieres we have been well compensated 
for this unlucky journey, for on our arrival we were received 
with all kinds of rejoicings. The town was illuminated, the 
cannon fired, and the faces of handsome women at all the windows 
gave us reason to hope that we shall bear our absence from 
Malmaison with the less regret. 

" With the exception of some anecdotes, which we reserve 
for chit-chat on our return, you have here a correct account of 
our journey, which we, the undersigned, hereby certify. 


" The company ask pardon for the blots." 

"21 Messidor (July 10). 

" It is requested that the person who receives this journal will 
show it to all who take an interest in the fair travellers," 

228 NOTES 

At this time Hortense was madly in love with Napoleon's 
favourite general, Duroc, who, however, loved his master more, 
and preferred not to interfere with his projects, especially as a 
marriage with Hortense would mean separation from Napoleon. 
Hortense and Bourrienne were both excellent billiard players, and 
the latter used this opportunity to carry letters from Hortense to 
her lukewarm lover. 

Afalmaisoriy without you, is toe dreary. Although Madame la 
Grassini had been specially summoned to sing at the Fete de la 
Concorde the day before. 

No. 2. 

This is the third pilgrimage Josephine has made, under the 
doctor's orders, to Plombieres ; but the longed-for heir will have 
to be sought for elsewhere, by fair means or foul. Lucien, who 
as Spanish Ambassador had vainly spent the previous year in 
arranging the divorce and remarriage of Napoleon to a daughter 
of the King of Spain, suggests adultery at Plombieres, or a 
" warming-pan conspiracy," as the last alternatives. 1 Josephine 
complains to Napoleon of his brother's "poisonous" sugges- 
tions, and Lucien is again disgraced. In a few months an 
heir is found in Hortense's first-born, Napoleon Charles, born 
October 10. 

The fat Eugene had come partly to be near his sister in her 
mother's absence, and partly to receive his colonelcy. Josephine 
is wretched to be absent, and writes to Hortense (June 1 6) : " I 
am utterly wretched, my dear Hortense, to be separated from 
you, and my mind is as sick as my body. I feel that I was not 
born, my dear child, for so much grandeur. . . . By now 
Eugene should be with you ; that thought consoles me." Aubenas 
has found in the Tascher archives a charming letter from 

1 Lucien declares that Napoleon said to his wife, in his presence and that of 
Joseph, " Imit?te Livia, and you will find me Augustus." (Jung, vol. ii. 206.) 
Lucien evidently suspects an occult sinister allusion here, but Napoleon is only 
alluding to the succession devolving on the first child of their joint families. 
Lucien refused Hortense, but Louis was more amenable to his brother's wishes. 
On her triumphal entry into Muhlberg (November 1805), the Empress reads on 
a column a hundred feet high " Josephinae, Galliarum Augustae." 

NOTES 229 

Josephine to her mother in Martinique, announcing how soon 
she may hope to find herself a great-grandmother. 

No. 3. 

Tour letter has come. Possibly the one to Hortense quoted 
above, as Josephine was not fond of writing many letters. 

Injured whilst shooting a boar. Constant was not aware of 
this occurrence, and was therefore somewhat incredulous of Las 
Cases (vol. i. 289). The account in the " Memorial of St. 
Helena " is as follows : " Another time, while hunting the 
wild boar at Marly, all his suite were put to flight ; it was like 
the rout of an army. The Emperor, with Soult and Berthier, 1 
maintained their ground against three enormous boars. * We 
killed all three, but I received a hurt from my adversary, and 
nearly lost this finger,' said the Emperor, pointing to the third 
finger of his left hand, which indeed bore the mark of a severe 
wound. c But the most laughable circumstance of all was to see 
the multitude of men, surrounded by their dogs, screening them- 
selves behind the three heroes, and calling out lustily " Save the 
Emperor ! 2 save the Emperor ! " while not one advanced to my 
assistance'" (vol. ii. 202. Colburn, 1836). 

" The Barber of Seville." This was their best piece, and 
spectators (except Lucien) agree that in it the little theatre at 
Malmaison and its actors were unsurpassed in Paris. Bourrienne 
as Bartholo, Hortense as Rosina, carried off the palm. According 
to the Duchesse d'Abrantes, Wednesday was the usual day of 
representation, when the First Consul was wont to ask forty 
persons to dinner, and a hundred and fifty for the evening. As 
the Duchess had reason to know, Bonaparte was the severest of 
critics. "Lauriston made a noble lover," says the Duchess 
" rather heavy "" being Bourrienne's more professional comment. 
Eugene, says Meneval, excelled in footman's parts.* Michot, 
from the Theatre Francais, was stage manager ; and Bonaparte 

1 Made Grand Huntsman in 

1 An anachronism ; he was at this time First Consul. 

* An euphuistic way of saying he could not learn longer ones. In war time 
Napoleon had to insist on Eugene keeping his letters with him and constantly 
re-reading them. 

230 NOTES 

provided what Constant has called "the Malmaison Troupe," 
with their dresses and a collection of dramas. He was always 
spurring them on to more ambitious flights, and by complimenting 
Bourrienne on his prodigious memory, would stimulate him to 
learn the longest parts. Lucien, who refused to act, declares 
that Bonaparte quoted the saying of Louis XVI. concerning 
Marie Antoinette and her company, that the performances " were 
royally badly played." Junot, however, even in these days 
played the part of a drunkard only too well (Jung, vol. ii. 256). 

No. 4. 

The Sevres Manufactory. After his visit, he wrote Duroc : 
" This morning I gave, in the form of gratuity, a week's wages 
to the workmen of the Sevres manufactory. Have the amount 
given to the director. It should not exceed a thousand ecus." 

No. 5. 

Your lover ^ who is tired of being alone. So much so that he got 
up at five o'clock in the morning to read his letters in a young 
bride's bed-chamber. The story is brightly told by the lady in 
question, Madame d'Abrantes (vol. ii. ch. 19). A few days before 
the Marly hunt, mentioned in No. 3, the young wife of seven- 
teen, whom Bonaparte had known from infancy, and whose 
mother (Madame Permon) he had wished to marry, found the 
First Consul seated by her bedside with a thick packet of letters, 
which he was carefully opening and making marginal notes upon. 
At six he went off singing, pinching the lady's foot through the 
bed-clothes as he went. The next day the same thing happened, 
and the third day she locked herself in, and prevented her maid 
from finding the key. In vain the unwelcome visitor fetched a 
master-key. As a last resource, she wheedled her husband, 
General Junot, into breaking orders and spending the night with 
her ; and the next day (June 22) Bonaparte came in to proclaim 
the hunting morning, but by her side found his old comrade of 
Toulon, fast asleep. The latter dreamily but good-humouredly 
asked, " Why, General, what are you doing in a lady's chamber 

NOTES 231 

at this hour ? " and the former replied, " I came to awake 
Madame Junot for the chase, but I find her provided with an 
alarum still earlier than myself. I might scold, for you are 
contraband here, M. Junot." He then withdrew, after offering 
Junot a horse for the hunt. The husband jumped up, exclaim- 
ing, " Faith ! that is an amiable man ! What goodness ! Instead 
of scolding, instead of sending me sneaking back to my duty in 
Paris! Confess, my Laura, that he is not only an admirable 
being, but above the sphere of human nature." Laura, however, 
was still dubious. Later in the day she was taken to task by the 
First Consul, who was astounded when she told him that his 
action might compromise her. " I shall never forget," she says, 
" Napoleon's expression of countenance at this moment ; it dis- 
played a rapid succession of emotions, none of them evil." 
Josephine heard of the affair, and was jealous for some little time 
to come. 

General Ney. Bonaparte had instructed Josephine to find 
him a nice wife, and she had chosen Mile. Aglae-Louise Augui, 
the intimate friend and schoolfellow of Hortense, and daughter 
of a former Receveur-General des Finances. To the latter Ney 
goes fortified with a charming letter from Josephine, dated May 
30 the month which the Encyclopaedia Britannica has erroneously 
given for that of the marriage, which seems to have taken place 
at the end of July (Biographie Universelle^ Michaud, vol. xxx.). 
Napoleon (who stood godfather to all the children of his generals) 
and Hortense were sponsors for the firstborn of this union, 
Napoleon Joseph, born May 8, 1803. The Duchess d'Abrantes 
describes her first meeting with Madame Ney at the Boulogne 
fete of August 15, 1802. Her simplicity and timidity "were the 
more attractive inasmuch as they formed a contrast to most of the 
ladies by whom she was surrounded at the court of France. . . . 
The softness and benevolence of Madame Ney's smile, together 
with the intelligent expression of her large dark eyes, rendered 
her a very beautiful woman, and her lively manners and accom- 
plishments enhanced her personal graces" (vol. iii. 31). The 
brave way in which she bore her husband's execution won the 
admiration of Napoleon, who at St. Helena coupled her with 
Mdme. de Lavalette and Mdme. Labedoyere. 

2 3 2 NOTES 


No. i. 

Madame. Napoleon became Emperor on May i8th, and 
this was the first letter to his wife since Imperial etiquette had 
become de rigueur, and the first letter to Josephine signed Napoleon. 
Meneval gives a somewhat amusing description of the fine grada- 
tions of instructions he received on this head from his master. 
This would seem to be a reason for this uncommon form of 
salutation ; but, per contra, Las Cases (vol. i. 276) mentions some 
so-called letters beginning Madame et chere tpouse y which Napoleon 
declares to be spurious. 

Pont de Briquet, a little village about a mile from Boulogne. 
On his first visit to the latter he was met by a deputation of 
farmers, of whom one read out the following address : " General, 
here we are, twenty farmers, and we offer you a score of big, 
sturdy lads, who are, and always shall be, at your service. Take 
them along with you, General ; they will help you to give 
England a good thrashing. As for ourselves, we have another 
duty to fulfil : with our arms we will till the ground, so that 
bread be not wanting to the brave fellows who are destined to 
destroy the English." Napoleon thanked the honest yeomen, 
and determined to make the only habitable dwelling there his 
headquarters. The place is called from the foundations of bricks 
found there the remains of one of Caesar's camps. 

The wind having considerably freshened. Constant tells a good 
story of the Emperor's obstinacy, but also of his bravery, a few 
days later. Napoleon had ordered a review of his ships, which 
Admiral Bruix had ignored, seeing a storm imminent. Napoleon 
sends off Bruix to Holland in disgrace, and orders the review to 
take place ; but when, amid the wild storm, he sees " more than 
twenty gunboats run aground," and no succour vouchsafed to the 
drowning men, he springs into the nearest lifeboat, crying, " We 
must save them somehow." A wave breaks over the boat ; he 
is drenched and nearly carried overboard, losing the hat he had 
worn at Marengo. Such pluck begets enthusiasm ; but, in spite 

NOTES 233 

of all they could do, two hundred lives were lost. This is 
Constant's version ; probably his loss is exaggerated. The 
Emperor, writing Talleyrand on August ist, speaks only of three 
or four ships lost, and " une quinzaine d'hommes." 

No. 2. 

The waters. Mile. d'Avrillon describes them and their effect 
the sulphur baths giving erysipelas to people in poor health. 
Corvisart had accompanied the Empress, to superintend their 
effect, which was as usual nil. 

All the vexations. Constant (vol. i. 230, &c., 1896) is of 
use to explain what these were having obtained possession of a 
diary of the tour by one of Josephine's ladies-in-waiting, which 
had fallen into Napoleon's hands. In the first place, the roads 
(where there were any 1 ) were frightful, especially in the Ardennes 
forest, and the diary for August ist concludes by stating "that 
some of the carriages were so battered that they had to be bound 
together with ropes. One ought not to expect women to travel 
about like a lot of dragoons." The writer of the diary, however, 
preferred to stay in the carriage, and let Josephine and the rest get 
wet feet, thinking the risk she ran the least. Another vexation 
to Josephine was the published report of her gift to the Mayoress 
of Rheims of a malachite medallion set in brilliants, and of her 
saying as she did so, " It is the colour of Hope." Although she 
had really used this expression, it was the last thing she would 
like to see in print, taking into consideration the reason for her 
yearly peregrinations to Plombieres, and now to Aix, and their 
invariable inefficiency. Under the date August I4th, the writer 
of the diary gives a severe criticism of Josephine. " She is 
exactly like a ten-year-old child good-natured, frivolous, im- 
pressionable ; in tears at one moment, and comforted the next. 
. . . She has just wit enough not to be an utter idiot. Igno- 
rant as are most Creoles she has learned nothing, or next 
to nothing, except by conversation ; but, having passed her life 
in good society, she has got good manners, grace, and a mastery 

1 The Emperor had himself planned the Itinerary, and had mistaken a pro- 
jected road for a completed one, between Rethel and Marche. 

234 NOTES 

of that sort of jargon which, in society, sometimes passes for wit. 
Social events constitute the canvas which she embroiders, which 
she arranges, and which give her a subject for conversation. She 
is witty for quite a whole quarter of an hour every day. . . . Her 
diffidence is charming . . . her temper very sweet and even ; it is 
impossible not to be fond of her. I fear that . . . this need of 
unbosoming, of communicating all her thoughts and impressions, 
of telling all that passes between herself and the Emperor, keeps 
the latter from taking her into his confidence. . . . She told me 
this morning that, during all the years she had spent with him, 
never once had she seen him let himself go." 

Eugene has started for Blois, where he became the head of the 
electoral college of Loir et Cher, having just been made Colonel- 
General of the Chasseurs by Napoleon. The Beauharnais family 
were originally natives of Blois. 

No. 3. 

Aix-la-Chapette. In this, the first Imperial pilgrimage to take 
the waters, great preparations had been made, forty-seven horses 
bought at an average cost of 60 apiece ; and eight carriages, 
which are not dear at 1000 for the lot, with ^400 additional 
for harness and fittings. 

At Aix they had fox-hunting and hare-coursing so called, but 
probably the final tragedy was consummated with a gun. Lord 
Rosebery reminds us that at St. Helena the Emperor actually 
shot a cow ! They explored coal mines, and examined all the 
local manufactories, including the relics of Charlemagne of 
which great warrior and statesman Josephine refused an arm, 
as having a still more puissant one ever at hand for her pro- 

When tidings come that the Emperor will arrive on September 
2, and prolong their stay from Paris, there is general lamentation 
among Josephine's womenkind, especially on the part of that 
perennial wet blanket and busybody, Madame de Laroche- 
foucauld, who will make herself a still greater nuisance at May- 
ence two years later. 

NOTES 235 

No. 4. 

During the past week. As a matter of fact he only reached 
Ostend on April I2th from Boulogne, having left Dunkirk on 
the nth. 

The day after to-morrow. This fete was the distribution of 
the Legion of Honour at Boulogne and a review of 80,000 men. 
The decorations were enshrined in the helmet of Bertrand du 
Guesclin, which in its turn was supported on the shield of the 
Chevalier Bayard. 

Hortense arrived at Boulogne, with her son, and the Prince 
and Princess Murat, a few days later, and saw the Emperor. 
Josephine received a letter from Hortense soon after Napoleon 
joined her (September 2nd), to which she replied on September 
8th. " The Emperor has read your letter ; he has been rather 
vexed not to hear from you occasionally. He would not doubt 
your kind heart if he knew it as well as I, but appearances are 
against you. Since he can think you are neglecting him, lose no 
time in repairing the wrongs which are not real," for " Bonaparte 
loves you like his own child, which adds much to my affection 
for him." 

/ am very well satisfied . . . with the flotillas. The descent 
upon England was to have taken place in September, when the 
death of Admiral Latouche-Treville at Toulon, August igth, 
altered all Napoleon's plans. Just about this time also Fulton 
submitted his steamship invention to Bonaparte. The latter, 
however, had recently been heavily mulcted in other valueless 
discoveries, and refers Fulton to the savants of the Institute, who 
report it chimerical and impracticable. The fate of England 
probably lay in the balance at this moment, more than in 1588 
or 1798. 

Napoleon and Josephine leave Aix for Cologne on September 
12, and it is now the ladies' turn to institute a hunt the "real 
chamois hunt " ; for each country inn swarms with this pestilence 
that walketh in darkness, and which, alas ! is no respecter of 

236 NOTES 

No. 5. 

Two points are noteworthy in this letter (i) that like No. I 
of this series (see note thereto) it commences Madame and dear 
Wife ; and (2) it is signed Bonaparte and not Napoleon, which 
somewhat militates against its authenticity. 

ArraSy August 2<)th. Early on this day he had been at St. 
Cloud. On the 3Oth he writes Cambaceres from Arras that he 
is "satisfied with the spirit of this department." On the same 
day he writes thence to the King of Prussia and Fouch. To 
his Minister of Police he writes : " That detestable journal, Le 
Citoyen fran^ais, seems only to wish to wallow in blood. For 
eight days running we have been entertained with nothing but 
the Saint Bartholomew. Who on earth is the editor (redacteur] 
of this paper ? With what gusto this wretch relishes the crimes 
and misfortunes of our fathers ! My intention is that you 
should put a stop to it. Have the editor (directeur) of this paper 
changed, or suppress it." On Friday he is at Mons (writing in- 
teresting letters respecting the removal of church ruins), and 
reaches his wife on the Sunday (September 2nd) as his letter 

/ am rather impatient to see you. The past few months had 
been an anxious time for Josephine. Talleyrand (who, having 
insulted her in 1799, thought her his enemy) was scheming for 
her divorce, and wished Napoleon to marry the Princess Wil- 
helmina of Baden, and thus cement an alliance with Bavaria and 
Russia (Constant, vol. i. 240). The Bonaparte family were very 
anxious that Josephine should not be crowned. Napoleon had 
too great a contempt for the weaknesses of average human nature 
to expect much honesty from Talleyrand. But he was not as 
yet case-hardened to ingratitude, and was always highly sensitive 
to caricature and hostile criticism. Talleyrand had been the 
main cause of the death of the Due d'Enghien, and was now 
trying to show that he had wished to prevent it ; but possibly 
the crowning offence was contained in a lady's diary, that fell 
into the emperor's hands, where Talleyrand is said to have called 
his master " a regular little Nero " in his system of espionage. 
The diary in question is in Constant's " Memoirs," vol. i., and 

NOTES 237 

this letter helps to fix the error in the dates, probably caused by 
confusion between the Revolutionary and Gregorian Calendars. 

No. 6. 

T. This may be Talleyrand, whom Mdme. de Remusat in a 
letter to her husband (September 2ist) at Aix, hinted to be on 
bad terms with the Emperor a fact confirmed and explained by 
Mdneval. It may also have been Tallien, who returned to 
France in 1802, where he had been divorced from his unfaithful 

B. Doubtlessly Bourrienne, who was in disgrace with 
Napoleon, and who was always trying to impose on Josephine's 
good nature. No sooner had Napoleon left for Boulogne on July 
1 4th than his former secretary inflicts himself on the wife at 

Napoleon joins Josephine at St. Cloud on or before October 
1 3th, where preparations are already being made for the Corona- 
tion by the Pope the first ceremony of the kind for eight cen- 


No. i. 

To Josephine. She was at Plombieres from August 2 to Sep- 
tember 10, but no letter is available for the period, neither to 
Hortense nor from Napoleon. 

Strasburg. She is in the former Episcopal Palace, at the foot 
of the cathedral. 

Stuttgard. He is driven over from Ludwigsburg on October 
4th, and hears the German opera of " Don Juan." 

/ am well placed. On the same day Napoleon writes his 
brother Joseph that he has already won two great victories 
(i) by having no sick or deserters, but many new conscripts; 
and (2) because the Badenese army and those of Bavaria and 
Wurtemberg had joined him, and all Germany well disposed. 

238 NOTES 

No. 2. 

Louisburg. Ludwigsburg. 

In a few days. To Talleyrand he wrote from Strasburg on 
September 27 : "Within a fortnight we shall see several things." 

A new bride. This letter, in the collection of his Correspond- 
ence ordered by Napoleon III., concludes at this point. 

E/ectress. The Princess Charlotte- Auguste-Mathilde (1766- 
1828), daughter of George III., our Princess Royal, who married 
Frederick I. Napoleon says she is " not well treated by the 
Elector, to whom, nevertheless, she seems much attached " 
(Brotonne, No. in). She was equally pleased with Napoleon, 
and wrote home how astonished she was to find him so polite 
and agreeable a person. 

No. 3. 

/ have assisted at a marriage. The bride was the Princess of 
Saxe-Hildburghhausen, who was marrying the second son of the 

No. 5. 

Written at Augsburg. On October I5th he reaches the 
abbey of Elchingen, which is situated on a height, from whence 
a wide view is obtained, and establishes his headquarters there. 

No. 6. 

Spent the whole of to-day indoors. This is also mentioned in his 
Seventh Bulletin (dated the same day), which adds, "But repose 
is not compatible with the direction of this immense army." 

Vicenza. Massena did not, however, reach this place till 
November 3rd. The French editions have Vienna, but Vicenza 
is evidently meant. 

No. 7. 

He is still at Elchingen, but at Augsburg the next day. On 
the 2ist he issues a decree to his army that Vend^miaire, 1 of 
1 The first month of the Republican calendar. 

NOTES 239 

which this was the last day but one, should be counted as a 
campaign for pensions and military services. 

Elchingen. Meneval speaks of this village "rising in an 
amphitheatre above the Danube, surrounded by walled gardens, 
and houses rising one above the other." From it Napoleon saw 
the city of Ulm below, commanded by his cannon. Marshal 
Ney won his title of Duke of Elchingen by capturing it on 
October I4th, and fully deserved it. The Emperor used to 
leave the abbey every morning to go to the camp before Ulm, 
where he used to spend the day, and sometimes the night. The 
rain was so heavy that, until a plank was found, Napoleon sat in 
a tent with his feet in water (Savary, vol. ii. 196). 

Such a catastrophe. At Ulm General Mack, with eight field- 
marshals, seven lieutenant-generals, and 33,000 men surrender. 
Napoleon had despised Mack even in 1800, when he told Bour- 
rienne at Malmaison, " Mack is a man of the lowest mediocrity I 
ever saw in my life ; he is full of self-sufficiency and conceit, and 
believes himself equal to anything. He has no talent. I should 
like to see him some day opposed to one of our good generals ; 
we should then see fine work. He is a boaster, and that is all. 
He is really one of the most silly men existing, and besides all 
that, he is unlucky " (vol. i. 304). Napoleon stipulated for 
Mack's life in one of the articles of the Treaty of Presburg. 

No. 9. 

Munich. Napoleon arrived here on October 24th. 

Lemarois. A trusty aide-de-camp, who had witnessed Napo- 
leon's civil marriage in March 1796, at 10 P.M. 

/ was grieved. They had no news from October I2th to 
2ist in Paris, where they learnt daily that Strasburg was in the 
same predicament. Mdme. de Remusat, at Paris, was equally 
anxious, and such women, in the Emperor's absence, tended by 
their presence or even by their correspondence to increase the 
alarms of Josephine. 

Amuse yourself. M. Masson (Josephine, Imperatrice et Reine, p. 
424) has an interesting note of how she used to attend lodge at 

2 4 o NOTES 

the Orient in Strasburg, to preside at a " loge d'adoption sous la 
direction de Madame de Dietrich, grand maitresse titulaire." 

Talleyrand has come. He was urgently needed to help in the 
correspondence with the King of Prussia (concerning the French 
violation of his Anspach territory), with whom Napoleon's 
relations were becoming more strained. 

No. 10. 

We are always in forests. Baron Lejeune, with his artist's 
eye, describes his impressions of the Amstetten forest as he 
travelled through it with Murat the following morning (Novem- 
ber 4th). "Those of us who came from the south of Europe 
had never before realised how beautiful Nature can be in the 
winter. In this particular instance everything was robed in the 
most gleaming attire ; the silvery rime softening the rich colours 
of the decaying oak leaves, and the sombre vegetation of the 
pines. The frozen drapery, combined with the mist, in which 
everything was more or less enveloped, gave a soft, mysterious 
charm to the surrounding objects, producing a most beautiful 
picture. Lit up by the sunshine, thousands of long icicles, such 
as those which sometimes droop from our fountains and water- 
wheels, hung like shining lustres from the trees. Never did ball- 
room shine with so many diamonds ; the long branches of the 
oaks, pines, and other forest trees were weighed down by the 
masses of hoar-frost, while the snow converted their summits 
into rounded roofs, forming beneath them grottoes resembling 
those of the Pyrenean mountains, with their shining . .alactites 
and graceful columns " (vol. i. 24). 

My enemies. Later in the day Napoleon writes from Lam- 
bach to the Emperor of Austria a pacific letter, which contains 
the paragraph, u My ambition is wholly concentrated on the re- 
establishment of my commerce and of my marine, and England 
grievously opposes itself to both." 

No. ii. 

Written from Lintz, the capital of Upper Austria, where 
Napoleon was on the 4th. 


No. 12. 

Napoleon took up his abode at the palace of Schoenbrunn on 
the 1 4th, and proves his " two-o^clock-in-the-morning courage " 
by passing through Vienna at that time the following morning. 

No. 13. 

They owe eveything to you. Aubenas quotes this, and remarks 
(vol. ii. 326) : " No one had pride in France more than Napo- 
leon, stronger even than his conviction of her superiority in the 
presence of other contemporary sovereigns and courts. He 
wishes that in Germany, where she will meet families with all 
the pride and sometimes all the haughtiness of their ancestry, 
Josephine will not forget that she is Empress of the French, 
superior to those who are about to receive her, and who owe full 
respect and homage to her." 

No. 14. 

Austerlitz. Never was a victory more needful ; but never 
was the Emperor more confident. Savary says that it would 
take a volume to contain all that emanated from his mind during 
that twenty-four hours (December 1-2). Nor was it confined 
to military considerations. General Segur describes how he spent 
his evening meal with his marshals, discussing with Junot the 
last new tragedy (Les Templiers, by Raynouard), and from it to 
Racine, Corneille, and the fatalism of our ancestors. 

December 2nd was a veritable Black Monday for the Coalition 
in general, and for Russia in particular, where Monday is always 
looked upon as an unlucky day. Their forebodings increased 
when, on the eve of the battle, the Emperor Alexander was 
thrown from his horse (Czartoriski, vol. ii. 106). 

No. 17. 

A long time since I had news of you. Josephine was always a 
bad correspondent, but at this juncture was reading that stilted 
but sensational romance " Caleb Williams ; " or hearing the 



"Achilles" of Paer, or the "Romeo and Juliet " of Zingarelli in the 
intervals of her imperial progress through Germany. M. Masson, 
not often too indulgent to Josephine, thinks her conduct excusable 
at this period paying and receiving visits, dressing and redressing, 
always in gala costume, and without a moment's solitude. 

No. 19. 

/ await events. A phrase usually attributed to Talleyrand in 
1815. However, the Treaty of Presburg was soon signed (De- 
cember 2nd), and the same day Napoleon met the Archduke 
Charles at Stamersdorf, a meeting arranged from mutual esteem. 
Napoleon had an unswerving admiration for this past and future 
foe, and said to Madame d'Abrantes, " That man has a soul, a 
golden heart." * Napoleon, however, did not wish to discuss 
politics, and only arranged for an interview of two hours, " one 
of which," he wrote Talleyrand, " will be employed in dining, 
the other in talking war and in mutual protestations." 

/, for my party am sufficiently busy. No part of Napoleon's 
career is more wonderful than the way in which he conducts the 
affairs of France and of Europe from a hostile capital. This was 
his first experience of the kind, and perhaps the easiest, although 
Prussian diplomacy had needed very delicate and astute handling. 
But when Napoleon determined, without even consulting his wife, 
to cement political alliances by matrimonial ones with his and her 
relatives, he was treading on somewhat new and difficult ground. 
First and foremost, he wanted a princess for his ideal young man, 
Josephine's son Eugene, and he preferred Auguste, the daughter 
of the King of Bavaria, to the offered Austrian Archduchess. But 
the young Hereditary Prince of Baden was in love and accepted 
by his beautiful cousin Auguste ; so, to compensate him for his 
loss, the handsome and vivacious Stephanie Beauharnais, fresh 
from Madame Campan's finishing touches, was sent for. For 
his brother Jerome a bride is found by Napoleon in the daughter 
of the King of Wurtemberg. Baden, Bavaria, and Wurtemberg 
were too much indebted to France for the spoils they were get- 
ting from Austria to object, provided the ladies and their mammas 

1 Memoirs, vol. ii. 165. 

NOTES 243 

were agreeable ; but the conqueror of Austerlitz found this part 
the most difficult, and had to be so attentive to the Queen of 
Bavaria that Josephine was jealous. However, all the matches 
came off, and still more remarkable, all turned out happily, a fact 
which certainly redounds to Napoleon's credit as a match-maker. 
On December 3ist, at 1.45 A.M., he entered Munich by 
torchlight and under a triumphal arch. His chamberlain, M. de 
Thiard, assured him that if he left Munich the marriage with 
Eugene would fall through, and he agrees to stay, although he 
declared that his absence, which accentuated the Bank crisis, is 
costing him 1,500,000 francs a day. The marriage took place 
on January I4th, four days after Eugene arrived at Munich and 
three days after that young Bayard had been bereft of his cherished 
moustache. Henceforth the bridegroom is called " Mon fils " in 
Napoleon's correspondence, and in the contract of marriage 
Napoleon-Eugene de France. The Emperor and Empress 
reached the Tuileries on January 2yth. The marriage of 
Stephanie was even more difficult to manage, for, as St. Amand 
points out, the Prince of Baden had for brothers-in-law the 
Emperor of Russia, the King of Sweden, and the King of Bavaria 
two of whom at least were friends of England. Josephine 
had once an uncle-in-law, the Count Beauharnais, whose wife 
Fanny was a well-known literary character of the time, but ot 
whom the poet Lebrun made the epigram 

" Elle fait son visage, et ne fait pas ses vers." 

Stephanie was the grand-daughter of this couple, and as Grand- 
Duchess of Baden was beloved and respected, and lived on until 


No. i. 

Napoleon left St. Cloud with Josephine on September 25th, 
and had reached Mayence on the a8th, where his Foot Guard were 
awaiting him. He left Mayence on October ist, and reached 

244 NOTES 

Wurzburg the next day, whence this letter was written, just 
before starting for Bamberg. Josephine was installed in the 
Teutonic palace at Mayence. 

Princess of Baden, Stephanie Beauharnais. (For her marriage, 
see note, end of Series F.) 

Hortense was by no means happy with her husband at the 
best of times, and she cordially hated Holland. She was said to 
be very frightened of Napoleon, but (like most people) could 
easily influence her mother. Napoleon's letter to her of this 
date (October 5th) is certainly not a severe one : "I have re- 
ceived yours of September I4th. I am sending to the Chief 
Justice in order to accord pardon to the individual in whom you 
are interested. Your news always gives me pleasure. I trust 
you will keep well, and never doubt my great friendship for 

The Grand Duke^ i.e. of Wurzburg. The castle where 
Napoleon was staying seemed to him sufficiently strong to be 
armed and provisioned, and he made a great depot in the city. 
" Volumes," says Meneval, " would not suffice to describe the 
multitude of his military and administrative measures here, and 
the precautions which he took against even the most improbable 
hazards of war." 

Florence. Probably September 1796, when Napoleon was 
hard pressed, and Josephine had to fetch a compass from Verona 
to regain Milan, and thus evade Wurmser's troops. 

No. 2. 

Bamberg. Arriving at Bamberg on the 6th, Napoleon issued 
a proclamation to his army which concluded " Let the Prussian 
army experience the same fate that it experienced fourteen years 
ago. Let it learn that, if it is easy to acquire increase of territory 
and power by means of the friendship of the great people, their 
enmity, which can be provoked only by the abandonment of all 
spirit of wisdom and sense, is more terrible than the tempests of 
the ocean." 

Eugene. Napoleon wrote him on the 5th, and twice on the 

NOTES 245 

yth, on which date we have eighteen letters in the Correspon- 

Her husband. The Hereditary Grand Duke of Baden, to 
whom Napoleon had written from Mayence on September 3Oth, 
accepting his services, and fixing the rendezvous at Bamberg for 
October 4th or 5th. 

On this day Napoleon invaded Prussian territory by entering 
Bayreuth, having preceded by one day the date of their ulti- 
matum a rhapsody of twenty pages, which Napoleon in his 
First Bulletin compares to "one of those which the English 
Cabinet pay their literary men 500 per annum to write." It is 
in this Bulletin where he describes the Queen of Prussia (dressed 
as an Amazon, in the uniform of her regiment of dragoons, and 
writing twenty letters a day) to be like Armida in her frenzy, 
setting fire to her own palace. 

No. 3. 

By this time the Prussian army is already in a tight corner, 
with its back on the Rhine, which, as Napoleon says in his Third 
Bulletin written on this day, is " assez bizarre, from which very 
important events should ensue." On the previous day he con- 
cludes a letter to Talleyrand " One cannot conceive how the 
Duke of Brunswick, to whom one allows some talent, can direct 
the operations of this army in so ridiculous a manner." 

Erfurt. Here endless discussions, but, as Napoleon says in 
his bulletin of this day " Consternation is at Erfurt, . . . but 
while they deliberate, the French army is marching. . . . Still 
the wishes of the King of Prussia have been executed ; he wished 
that by October 8th the French army should have evacuated the 
territory of the Confederation which has been evacuated, but in 
place of repassing the Rhine, it has passed the Saal." 

If she wants to see a battle. Queen Louise, great-grandmother 
of the present Emperor William, and in 1806 aged thirty. St. 
Amand says that " when she rode on horseback before her troops, 
with her helmet of polished steel, shaded by a plume, her gleaming 
golden cuirass, her tunic of cloth of silver, her red buskins with 
golden spurs," she resembled, as the bulletin said, one of the 

246 NOTES 

heroines of Tasso. She hated France, and especially Napoleon, 
as the child of the French Revolution. 

No. 4. 

/ nearly captured him and the Queen. They escaped only by 
an hour, Napoleon writes Berthier. Blucher aided their escape 
by telling a French General about an imaginary armistice, which 
the latter was severely reprimanded by Napoleon for believing. 

No battle was more beautifully worked out than the battle of 
Jena Davoust performing specially well his move in the combi- 
nations by which the Prussian army was hopelessly entangled, as 
Mack at Ulm a year before. Bernadotte alone, and as usual, 
gave cause for dissatisfaction. He had a personal hatred for his 
chief, caused by the knowledge that his wife (Desiree Clary) had 
never ceased to regret that she had missed her opportunity of 
being the wife of Napoleon. Bernadotte, therefore, was loth 
to give initial impetus to the victories of the French Emperor, 
though, when success was no longer doubtful, he would prove 
that it was not want of capacity but want of will that had kept 
him back. He was the Talleyrand of the camp, and had an 
equal aptitude for fishing in troubled waters. 

/ have bivouacked. Whether the issue of a battle was decisive, 
or, as at Eylau, only partially so, Napoleon never shunned the 
disagreeable part of battle the tending of the wounded and the 
burial of the dead. Savary tells us that at Jena, as at Austerlitz, 
the Emperor rode round the field of battle, alighting from his 
horse with a little brandy flask (constantly refilled), putting his 
hand to each unconscious soldier's breast, and when he found 
unexpected life, giving way to a joy "impossible to describe" 
(vol. ii. 184). Mneval also speaks of his performing this 
" pious duty, in the fulfilment of which nothing was allowed to 
stand in his way." 

No. 5. 

Fatigues, bivouacs . . . have made me fat. The Austerlitz 
campaign had the same effect. See a remarkable letter to Count 
Miot de Melito on January 30th, 1806 : "The campaign I have 

NOTES 247 

just terminated, the movement, the excitement have made me 
stout. I believe that if all the kings of Europe were to coalesce 
against me I should have a ridiculous paunch." And it was so ! 

The great M. Napoleon, aged four, and the younger, aged two, 
are with Hortense and their grandmother at Mayence, where a 
Court had assembled, including most of the wives of Napoleon's 
generals, burning for news. A look-out had been placed by the 
Empress some two miles on the main-road beyond Mayence, 
whence sight of a courier was signalled in advance. 

No. 7. 

Potsdam. As a reward for Auerstadt, Napoleon orders 
Davoust and his famous Third Corps to be the first to enter 
Berlin the following day. 

No. 8. 

Written from Berlin, where he is from October 28th to 
November 25th. 

You do nothing but cry. Josephine spent her evenings gauging 
futurity with a card-pack, and although it announced Jena and 
Auerstadt before the messenger, it may possibly, thinks M. 
Masson, have been less propitious for the future and behind all 
was the sinister portion of the spae-wife's prophecy still un- 

No. QA. 

Madame Tallien had been in her time, especially in the years 
1795-99, one of the most beautiful and witty women in France. 
Madame d'Abrantes calls her the Venus of the Capitol ; and 
Lucien Bonaparte speaks of the court of the voluptuous Director, 
Barras, where the beautiful Tallien was the veritable Calypso. 
The people, however, could not forget her second husband, 
Tallien, from whom she was divorced in 1802 (having had three 
children born while he was in Egypt, 1798-1802); and whilst 
they called Josephine " Notre Dame des Victoires," they called 
Madame Tallien " Notre Dame de Septembre," 

248 NOTES 

The latter was, however, celebrated both for her beauty and 
her intrigues; 1 and when, in 1799, Bonaparte seized supreme 
power the fair lady' 2 invaded Barras in his bath to inform him of 
it ; but found her indolent Ulysses only capable of ejaculating, 
" What can be done ? that man has taken us all in ! " Napoleon 
probably remembered this, and may refer to her rather than to 
the Queen of Prussia in the next letter, where he makes severe 
strictures on intriguing women. Moreover, Napoleon in his 
early campaigns had played a ridiculous part in some of Gillray's 
most indecent cartoons, where Mmes. Tallien and Josephine took 
with Barras the leading roles ; and as Madame Tallien was not 
considered respectable in 1796, she was hardly a fit friend for the 
Empress of the French ten years later. In the interval this lady, 
divorced a second time, had married the Prince de Chimay 
(Caraman). Napoleon knew also that she had been the mistress 
of Ouvrard, the banker, who in his Spanish speculations a few 
months earlier had involved the Bank of France to the tune of 
four millions sterling, and forced Napoleon to make a premature 
peace after Austerlitz. The Emperor had returned at white 
heat to Paris, and wished he could build a gallows for Ouvrard 
high enough for him to be on view throughout France. Madame 
Tallien's own father, M. de Cabarrus, was a French banker in 
Spain, and probably in close relation with Ouvrard. 

No. 10. 

Written from Berlin. 

The bad things I say about women. Napoleon looked upon 
this as a woman's war, and his temper occasionally gets the 
mastery of him. No war had ever been so distasteful to him or 
so personal. Prussia, whose alliance he had been courting for 
nearly ten years, was now worthless to him, and all because of 
petticoat government at Berlin. In the Fifteenth Bulletin (dated 

1 Bouillet, Dictionnaire Universelle, &c. 

2 "The Queen of that Court was the fair Madame Tallien. All that 
imagination can conceive will scarcely approach the reality ; beautiful after the 
antique fashion, she had at once grace and dignity ; without being endowed 
with a superior wit, she possessed the art of making the best of it, and won 
people's hearts by her great kindness." Memoirs of Marmont, vol. i. 5 p. 887. 

NOTES 249 

Wittenburg, October 23rd) he states that the Queen had accused 
her husband of cowardice in order to bring about the war. But it 
is doubtless the Sixteenth Bulletin (dated Potsdam, October 25th) 
to which Josephine refers, and which refers to the oath of alliance 
of the Emperor Alexander and the King of Prussia in the death 
chamber of Frederick the Great. " It is from this moment that 
the Queen quitted the care of her domestic concerns and the 
serious occupations of the toilet in order to meddle with the 
affairs of State." He refers to a Berlin caricature of the scene 
which was at the time in all the shops, " exciting even the 
laughter of clodhoppers." The handsome Emperor of Russia 
was portrayed, by his side the Queen, and on his other side the 
King of Prussia with his hand raised above the tomb of the Great 
Frederick ; the Queen herself, draped in a shawl nearly as the 
London engravings represent Lady Hamilton, pressing her hand 
on her heart, and apparently gazing upon the Emperor of Russia." 
In the Eighteenth Bulletin (October 26th) it is said the Prussian 
people did not want war, that a handful of women and young 
officers had alone made this " tapage," and that the Queen, " for- 
merly a timid and modest woman looking after her domestic 
concerns," had become turbulent and warlike, and had "con- 
ducted the monarchy within a few days to the brink of the 

As the Queen of Prussia was a beautiful woman, she has had 
nearly as many partisans as Mary Stuart or Marie Antoinette, 
but with far less cause. Napoleon, who was the incarnation of 
practical common sense, saw in her the first cause of the war, and 
considered that so far as verbal flagellation could punish her, she 
should have it. He had neither time nor sympathy for the 
" Please you, do not hurt us " attitude of a bellicose new woman, 
who, as Imogen or Ida, have played with edged tools from the 
time of Shakespeare to that of Sullivan. 

As an antidote, however, to his severe words against women 
he put, perhaps somewhat ostentatiously, the Princess d'Hatzfeld 
episode in his Twenty-second Bulletin (Berlin, October 29th). A 
year later (November 26th, 1807), when his Old Guard return to 
Paris and free performances are given at all the theatres, there is 
the " Triumph of Trajan " at the Opera, where Trajan, burning 

2 5 o NOTES 

with his own hand the papers enclosing the secrets of a conspi- 
racy, is a somewhat skilful allusion to the present episode. 

No. n. 

Magdeburg had surrendered on November 8th, with 20 gene- 
rals, 800 officers and 22,000 men, 800 pieces of cannon, and 
immense stores. 

Lubeck. This capitulation was that of Blucher, who had 
escaped after Jena through a rather dishonourable ruse. It had 
taken three army corps to hem him in. 

No. 13. 

Written from Berlin, but not included in the Correspondence. 

Madame L , i.e. Madame de la Rochefoucauld, a third or 

fourth cousin (by her first marriage) of Josephine, and her chief 
lady of honour. She was an incorrigible Royalist, and hated 
Napoleon ; but as she had been useful at the Tuileries in estab- 
lishing the Court, Napoleon, as usual, could not make up his mind 
to cause her dismissal. In 1806, however, she made Josephine 
miserable and Mayence unbearable. She foretold that the Prus- 
sians would win every battle, and even after Jena she (to use an 
expression of M. Masson), " continued her music on the sly " (en 
sourdine}. See Letters 19 and 26 of this Series. 

No. 17. 

December 2, the anniversary of Austerlitz (1805) and of 
Napoleon's coronation (1804). He now announces to his soldiers 
the Polish campaign. 

No. 1 8. 

Not in the Correspondence. 

Jealousy. If Josephine's letters and conduct had been a little 
more worthy of her position, she might have saved herself. 
Madame Walewski, who had not yet appeared on the scene. 

NOTES 251 

No. 19. 

Desir de femme est un feu qui devore. The quotation is given 
in Jung's " Memoirs of Lucien " (vol. ii. 62). " Ce qu'une 
femme desire est un feu qui consume, celui d'une reine un vulcane 
qui devore." 

No. 23. 

/ am dependent on events. He says the same at St. Helena. 
" Throughout my whole reign I was the keystone of an edifice 
entirely new, and resting on the most slender foundations. Its 
duration depended on the issue of my battles. I was never, in 
truth, master of my own movements ; I was never at my own 

No. 26. 

The fair ones of Great Poland. If Berthier and other regular 
correspondents of Josephine were like Savary in their enthusiasm, 
no wonder the Mayence coterie began to stir up jealousy. Here 
is the description of the Duke of Rovigo (vol. ii. 17) : "The stay 
at Warsaw had for us something of witchery ; even with regard 
to amusements it was practically the same life as at Paris : the 
Emperor had his concert twice a week, at the end of which he held 
a reception, where many of the leading people met. A great 
number of ladies from the best families were admired alike for the 
brilliancy of their beauty, and for their wonderful amiability. One 
may rightly say that the Polish ladies inspired with jealousy the 
charming women of every other civilised clime. They united, for 
the most part, to the manners of good society a fund of informa- 
tion which is not commonly found even among Frenchwomen, 
and is very far above anything we see in towns, where the custom 
of meeting in public has become a necessity. It seemed to us that 
the Polish ladies, compelled to spend the greater part of the year 
in their country-houses, applied themselves there to reading as 
well as to the cultivation of their talents, and it was thus that in 
the chief towns, where they went to pass the winter, they ap- 
peared successful over all their rivals." St. Amand says : " In 
the intoxication of their enthusiasm and admiration, the most 
beautiful among them and Poland is the country of beauty 

2 5 2 NOTES 

lavished on him, like sirens, their most seducing smiles." . . . 
Josephine was right to be jealous, for, as the artist Baron Lejeune 
adds, " They were, moreover, as graceful as the Creole women so 
often are." 

A wretched barn, reached over still more wretched roads. 
The Emperor and his horse had nearly been lost in the mud, and 
Marshal Duroc had a shoulder put out by his carriage being upset. 

Such things become common property. So was another event, 
much to Josephine's chagrin. On this date Napoleon heard of a 
son (Lon) born to him by Eleanore, a former schoolfellow of 
Madame Murat. M. Masson thinks this event epoch-making in 
the life of Napoleon. " Henceforth the charm is broken, and the 
Emperor assured of having an heir of his own blood." 

No. 27. 

Warsaw^ January 3. On his way from Pultusk on January I, 
he had received a Polish ovation at Bronie, where he first met 
Madame Walewski. The whole story is well told by M. Masson 
in Napoleon et les Femmes ; but here we must content ourselves 
with the mere facts, and first, for the sake of comparison, cite his 
love-letters to the lady in question : (i.) " I have seen only you, 
I have admired only you, I desire only you. A very prompt 
answer to calm the impatient ardour of N." (2.) u Have I dis- 
pleased you ? I have still the right to hope the contrary. Have 
I been mistaken ? Your eagerness diminishes, while mine aug- 
ments. You take away my rest ! Oh, give a little joy, a little 
happiness to a poor heart all ready to worship you. Is it so 
difficult to get a reply ? You owe me one. N." (3.) "There 
are moments when too high rank is a burden, and that is what I 
feel. How can I satisfy the needs of a heart hopelessly in love, 
which would fling itself at your feet, and which finds itself stopped 
by the weight of lofty considerations paralysing the most lively 
desires ? Oh, if you would ! Only you could remove the 
obstacles that lie between us. My friend Duroc will clear the 
way. Oh, come ! come ! All your wishes shall be gratified. 
Your native land will be dearer to me when you have had pity 
on my poor heart. N." (4.) " Marie, my sweet Marie ! My 

NOTES 253 

first thought is for you, my first desire to see you again. You 
will come again, will you not ? You promised me to do so. If 
not, the eagle will fly to you. I shall see you at dinner, a friend 
tells me. Deign, then, to accept this bouquet ; let it become a 
mysterious link which shall establish between us a secret union in 
the midst of the crowd surrounding us. Exposed to the glances 
of the crowd, we shall still understand each other. When my 
hand presses my heart, you will know that it is full of thoughts 
of you ; and in answer you will press closer your bouquet. Love 
me, my bonny Marie, and never let your hand leave your bou- 
quet. N." In this letter, in which he has substituted tu for 
vow, there is more passion than we have seen since 1796. The 
fair lady now leaves her decrepit old husband, nearly fifty years 
her senior, and takes up her abode in Finckenstein Castle, for 
nearly two months of the interval between Eylau and Friedland. 
" In order," says Pasquier, " that nothing should be lacking to 
characterise the calm state of his mind and the security of his 
position, it was soon known that he had seen fit to enjoy a 
pleasurable relaxation by calling to him a Polish gentlewoman of 
excellent birth, with whom he had contracted a liaison while 
passing through Warsaw, and who, as a consequence of this 
journey, had the honour of bearing him a son." Repudiated by 
her husband, she came to Paris, where she was very kindly treated 
by Josephine, who, having once seen her, found in her no rival, 
but an enthusiastic patriot, "sacrificed to Plutus," as Napoleon 
told Lucien at Mantua a few months later, adding that " her soul 
was as beautiful as her face." 

No. 28. 

Be cheerful gal. This adjective is a favourite one in letters 
to his wife, and dates from 1796. 

No. 29. 

Roads unsafe and detestable. The French troops used to say 
that the four following words constituted the whole language of 
the Poles : Kleba ? Niema. Vota ? Sara. (" Some bread ? 
There is none. Some water ? We will go and fetch it.' 1 ) 

254 NOTES 

Napoleon one day passed by a column of infantry suffering the 
greatest privations on account of the mud, which prevented the 
arrival of provisions. " Papa, kleba ? " exclaimed a soldier. 
" Niema," replied the Emperor. The whole column burst into 
a fit of laughter ; they asked for nothing more. Baron Lejeune, 
Constant, and Meneval have variants of the same story. 

No. 35. 

Written from Warsaw, and omitted from the Correspondence. 

I hope that you are at Paris. Madame Junot hints that her 
husband, as Governor of Paris, was being sounded by Bonaparte's 
sister, Murat's wife (with whom Junot was in love), if he would 
make Murat Napoleon's successor, in lieu of Eugene, if the 
Emperor were killed. If Napoleon had an inkling of this, he 
would wish Josephine to be on the spot. 

T. Is probably Tallien, who had misconducted himself in 
Egypt. Madame Junot met him at Madrid, but she and others 
had not forgotten the September massacres. " The wretch ! how 
did he drag on his loathsome existence ? " she exclaims. 

No. 36. 

Paris. Josephine arrived here January 3ist; Queen Hortense 
going to the Hague and the Princess Stephanie to Mannheim. 

No. 38. 

Probably written from Arensdorf, on the eve of the battle of 
Eylau (February 9th), on which day a great ball took place in 
Paris, given by the Minister of Marine. 

No. 39. 

Eylau. The battle of Preussich-Eylau was splendidly fought 
on both sides, but the Russian general, Beningsen, had all the luck. 
(i) His Cossacks capture Napoleon's letter to Bernadotte, which 
enables him to escape all Napoleon's plans, which otherwise would 
have destroyed half the Russian army. (2) A snowstorm in 
the middle of the day in the faces of the French ruins Augereau's 

NOTES 255 

corps and saves the Russians from a total rout. (3) The arrival 
of a Prussian army corps, under General Lestocq, robbed Davoust 
of his glorious victory on the right, and much of the ground 
gained including the village of Kuschnitten. (4) The night 
came on just in time to save the rest of the Russian army, and 
to prevent Ney taking any decisive part in the battle. Berna- 
dotte, as usual, failed to march to the sound of the guns, but, as 
Napoleon's orders to do so were captured by Cossacks, he might 
have had an excuse rather better than usual, had not General 
Hautpoult, 1 in touch both with him and Napoleon, advised him 
of his own orders and an imminent battle. Under such circum- 
stances, no general save the Prince of Ponte-Corvo, says Bignon, 
would have remained inactive, " but it was the destiny of this 
marshal to have a role apart in all the great battles fought by the 
Emperor. His conduct was at least strange at Jena, it will not 
be less so, in 1809, at Wagram." The forces, according to 
Matthieu Dumas (Precis des Evenements Militaires, volume 1 8), 
were approximately 65,000 French against 80,000 allies 2 the 
latter in a strong chosen position. Napoleon saved 1500, the 
wreckage of Augereau's 3 corps, that went astray in the blizzard 
(costing the French more than half their loss in the two days' 
fight), by a charge of his Horse Guard, but his Foot Guard never 
fired a shot. The allies lost 5000 to 6000 dead and 20,000 
wounded. Napoleon told Montholon that his loss at Eylau was 
18,000, which probably included 2000 dead, and 15,000 to 
16,000 wounded and prisoners. As the French remained masters 
of the field of battle, the slightly wounded were evidently not 
counted by Napoleon, who in his bulletin gives 1900 dead and 
5700 wounded. The list of wounded inmates of the hospital a 
month later, March 8th, totalled only 4600, which astonished 
Napoleon, who sent back for a recount. On receipt of this he 

1 This brave general was mortally wounded in the cavalry charge which saved 
the battle, and the friends of Bernadotte assert that the message was never given 
an assertion more credible if the future king's record had been better on other 

2 Alison says 75,000 allies, 85,000 French, but admits allies had 100 more 

3 Augereau, says Meneval, went out of his mind during this battle, and had to 
be sent back to France. 

256 NOTES 

wrote Daru (March 15): " From your advices to hand, I see we 
are not far out of count. There were at the battle of Eylau 
4000 or 5000 wounded, and 1000 in the combats preceding the 

No. 40. 

Corbineau. Mile. d'Avrillon (vol. ii. 101) tells how, in haste 
to join his regiment at Paris, Corbineau had asked for a seat in 
her carriage from St. Cloud. She was delighted, as he was a 
charming man, " with no side on like Lauriston and Lemarois." 
He had just been made general, and said, " Either I will get 
killed or deserve the favour which the Emperor has granted me. 
M'selle, you shall hear me spoken of; if I am not killed I will 
perform some startling deed." 

Dahlmann. General Nicholas Dahlmann, commanding the 
chasseurs of the guard, was killed in the charge on the Russian 
infantry which saved the battle. On April 22nd Napoleon wrote 
Vice-Admiral Decres to have three frigates put on the stocks 
to be called Dahlmann, Corbineau, and Hautpoul, and in each 
captain's cabin a marble inscription recounting their brave deeds. 

No. 41. 

Young Tascher. The third of Josephine's cousins-germain 
of that name. He was afterwards aide-de-camp of Prince 
Eugene, and later major-domo of the Empress Eugenie. 

No. 42. 

After this letter St. Amand declares that Napoleon's letters 
to his wife become " cold, short, banal, absolutely insignifi- 
cant." "They consisted of a few remarks about the rain 
or the fine weather, and always the same refrain the invitation 
to be cheerful . . . Napoleon, occupied elsewhere, wrote no 
longer to his legitimate wife, but as a duty, as paying a debt of 
conscience." He was occupied, indeed, but barely as the author 
supposes. It is Bingham (vol. ii. 281) who reminds us that in 
the first three months of 1807 we have 1715 letters and despatches 

NOTES 257 

preserved of his work during that period, while he often rode forty 
leagues a day, and had instructed his librarian to send him by 
each morning's courier two or three new books from Paris. 
Aubenas is more just than St. Amand. " If his style is no longer 
that of the First Consul, still less of the General of Italy, he was 
solicitous, punctilious, attentive, affectionate even although laconic, 
in that correspondence (with Josephine) which, in the midst of 
his much greater preoccupations, seems for him as much a plea- 
sure as a duty." 

No. 43. 

/ am still at Eylau. It took Napoleon and his army eight 
days to bury the dead and remove the wounded. Lejeune says, 
" His whole time was given up now to seeing that the wounded 
received proper care, and he insisted on the Russians being as 
well treated as the French " (vol. i. 48). The Emperor wrote 
Daru that if more surgeons had been on the spot he could have 
saved at least 200 lives ; although, to look at the surgical instru- 
ments used on these fields, and now preserved in the museum of 
Les Invalides, it is wonderful that the men survived operations 
with such ghastly implements of torture. A few days later 
Napoleon tells Daru on no account to begrudge money for 
medicines, and especially for quinine. 

This country is covered with dead and wounded. " Napoleon," 
says Dumas (vol. i. 18, 41), "having given order that the succour 
to the wounded on both sides might be multiplied, rode over the 
field of battle, which all eye-witnesses agree to have been the 
most horrible field of carnage which war has ever offered. In a 
space of less than a square league, the ground covered with snow, 
and the frozen lakes, were heaped up with 10,000 dead, and 3000 
to 4000 dead horses, debris of artillery, arms of all kinds, cannon- 
balls, and shells. Six thousand Russians, expiring of their wounds, 
and of hunger and thirst, were left abandoned to the generosity 
of the conqueror." 

No. 50. 

Osterode. "A wretched village, where I shall pass a con- 
siderable time." Owing to the messenger to Bernadotte being 


2 5 8 NOTES 

captured by Cossacks, the Emperor, if not surprised at Eylau on 
the second day, found at least all his own intentions anticipated. 
He could not risk the same misfortune again, and at Osterode all 
his army were within easy hailing distance, " within two marches 
at most " (Dumas). Savary speaks of him there, " working, 
eating, giving audience, and sleeping all in the same room," 
alone keeping head against the storm of his marshals, who wished 
him to retire across the Vistula. He remained over five weeks 
at Osterode, and more than two months at Finckenstein Castle, 
interesting himself in the affairs of Teheran and Monte Video, 
offering prizes for discoveries in electricity and medicine, giving 
advice as to the most scientific modes of teaching history and 
geography, while objecting to the creation of poet-laureates or 
Caesarians whose exaggerated praises would be sure to awaken 
the ridicule of the French people, even if it attained its object of 
finding a place of emolument for poets. Bignon says (vol. vi. 
227) : " From Osterode or from Finckenstein he supervised, as 
from Paris or St. Cloud, the needs of France ; he sought means 
to alleviate the hindrances to commerce, discussed the best ways 
to encourage literature and art, corresponded with all his ministers, 
and while awaiting the renewal of the fray, having a war of 
figures with his Chancellor of Exchequer." 

// is not as good as the great city. The day before he had 
written his brother Joseph that neither his officers nor his staff 
had taken their clothes off for two months ; that he had not 
taken his boots off for a fortnight ; that the wounded had to be 
moved 120 miles in sledges, in the open air ; that bread was 
unprocurable ; that the Emperor had been living for weeks upon 
potatoes, and the officers upon mere meat. "After having 
destroyed the Prussian monarchy, we are fighting against the 
remnant of the Prussians, against Russians, Cossacks, and Kal- 
mucks, those roving tribes of the north, who formerly invaded 
the Roman Empire." 

/ have ordered what you wish for Malmaison. About this time 
he also gave orders for what afterwards became the Bourse and 
the Madeleine, and gave hints for a new journal (March yth), 
whose "criticism should be enlightened, well-intentioned, im- 
partial, and robbed of that noxious brutality which characterises 

NOTES 259 

the discussions of existing journals, and which is so at variance 
with the true sentiments of the nation." 

No. 54. 

Minerva. In a letter of March yth Josephine writes to 
Hortense : " A few days ago I saw a frightful accident at the 
Opera. The actress who represented Minerva in the ballet of 
* Ulysses ' fell twenty feet and broke her arm. As she is poor, 
and has a family to support, I have sent her fifty louis." This 
was probably the ballet, "The Return of Ulysses," a subject 
given by Napoleon to Fouche as a suitable subject for represen- 
tation. In the same letter Josephine writes : " All the private 
letters I have received agree in saying that the Emperor was very 
much exposed at the battle of Eylau. I get news of him very often, 
sometimes two letters a day, but that does not replace him." 
This special danger at Eylau is told by Las Cases, who heard it 
from Bertrand. Napoleon was on foot, with only a few officers 
of his staff; a column of four to five thousand Russians came 
almost in contact with him. Berthier instantly ordered up the 
horses. The Emperor gave him a reproachful look ; then sent 
orders to a battalion of his guard to advance, which was a good 
way behind, and standing still. As the Russians advanced he 
repeated several times, " What audacity, what audacity ! " At 
the sight of his Grenadiers of the Guard the Russians stopped 
short. It was high time for them to do so, as Bertrand said. 
The Emperor had never stirred ; all who surrounded him had 
been much alarmed. 

No. 55. 

" It is the first and only time," says Aubenas, " that, in these 
two volumes of letters (Collection Didot\ Napoleon says vous to 
his wife. But his vexation does not last more than a few lines, 
and this short letter ends, ' Tout a toi? Not content with this 
softening, and convinced how grieved Josephine will be at this 
language of cold etiquette, he writes to her the same day, at ten 
o'clock at night, before going to bed, a second letter in his old 

260 NOTES 

style, which ends, 4 Milk et mille amities.'' " It is a later letter 
(March 25th) which ends as described, but No. 56 is, neverthe- 
less, a kind letter. 

No. 56. 

Dupuis. Former principal of the Brienne Military School. 
Napoleon, always solicitous for the happiness of those whom he 
had known in his youth, had made Dupuis his own librarian at 
Malmaison. His brother, who died in 1809, was the learned 

No. 58. 

M. de T , i.e. M. de Thiard. In Lettres Inedites de 

Napoleon I. (Brotonne), No. 176, to Talleyrand, March 22nd, the 
Emperor writes : " I have had M. de Thiard effaced from the list 
of officers. I have sent him away, after having testified all my 
displeasure, and told him to stay on his estate. He is a man 
without military honour and civic fidelity. . . . My intention is 
that he shall also be struck off from the number of my chamber- 
lains. I have been poignantly grieved at such black ingratitude, 
but I think myself fortunate to have found out such a wicked 
man in time." De Thiard seems to have been corresponding 
with the enemy from Warsaw. 

No. 60. 

Marshal Bessieres. His chateau of Grignon, now destroyed, 
was one of the most beautiful of Provence. Madame de Sevign 
lived and was buried in the town of Grignon. 

No. 63. 

This was printed April 24th in the French editions, but April 
1 4th is evidently the correct date. 

No. 67. 

" Sweet y pouting, and capricious" Aubenas speaks of these 
lines " in the style of the Italian period, which seemed in fact to 
calm the fears of the Empress." 

NOTES 261 

No. 68. 

Madame . His own sister, Madame Murat, afterwards 

Queen of Naples. See note to Letter 35 for her influence over 
Junot. The latter was severely reprimanded by Napoleon on his 
return and banished from Paris. " Why, for example, does the 
Grand Duchess occupy your boxes at the theatres ? Why does 
she go thither in your carriage ? Hey ! M. Junot ! you are 
surprised that I am so well acquainted with your affairs and those 
of that little fool, Madame Murat ? " (" Memoirs of the Duchess 
d'Abrantes," vol. iii. 328.) 

Measles. As the poor child was ill four days, it was probably 
larnygitis from which he died an ailment hardly distinguishable 
from croup, and one of the commonest sequelae of measles. He 
died on May 5th. 

The best account is the Memoirs of Stanislaus Giraudin. 
They had applied leeches to the child's chest, and had finally 
recourse to some English powders of unknown composition, which 
caused a rally, followed by the final collapse. King Louis said 
the child's death was caused by the Dutch damp climate, which 
was bad for his own health. Josephine hastens to join her 
daughter, but breaks down at Lacken, where Hortense, more 
dead than alive, joins her, and returns to Paris with her. 

No. 69. 

/ trust I may hear you have been rational in your sorrow. As a 
matter of fact he had heard the opposite, for the following day 
(May 1 5th) he writes to his brother Jerome : " Napoleon died in 
three days at the Hague ; I know not if the King has advised 
you of it. This event gives me the more pain insomuch as his 
father and mother are not rational, and are giving themselves up 
to all the transports of their grief." To Fouch6 he writes three 
days later : " I have been very much afflicted by the misfortune 
which has befallen me. I had hoped for a more brilliant destiny 
for that poor child ; " and on May 2Oth, " I have felt the loss of 
the little Napoleon very acutely. I would have wished that his 
father and mother should have received from their temperament 

262 NOTES 

as much courage as I for knowing how to bear all the ills of 
life. But they are younger, and have reflected less on the frailty 
of our worldly possessions." It is typical of Napoleon that the 
only man to whom, as far as we know, he unbosomed his sorrow 
should be one of his early friends, even though that friend should 
be the false and faithless Fouche, who requited his confidence 
later by vile and baseless allegations respecting the parentage of 
this very child. In one respect only did Napoleon resemble 
David in his supposititious sin, which was, that when the child was 
dead, he had neither time nor temperament to waste in futile 
regrets. As he said on another occasion, if his wife had died 
during the Austerlitz Campaign it would not have delayed his 
operations a quarter of an hour. But he considers practical succour 
to the living as the most fitting memorial to the dead, and writes 
on June 4th to De Champagny : " Twenty years ago a malady 
called croup showed itself in the north of Europe. Some years 
ago it spread into France. I require you to offer a prize of 500 
(12,000 francs), to be given to the doctor who writes the best 
essay on this malady and its mode of treatment." Commenting 
on this letter Bignon (vol. vi. p. 262) adds, " It is, however, for- 
tunate when, on the eve of battles, warlike princes are pondering 
over ways of preserving the population of their states." 

No. 71. 

May 2Oth. On this date he writes Hortense : " My daughter, 
all the news I get from the Hague tells me that you are not 
rational. However legitimate your .grief, it must have limits : 
never impair your health ; seek distractions, and know that life 
is strewn with so many rocks, and may be the source of so many 
miseries, that death is not the greatest of all. Your affectionate 
father, NAPOLEON." 

No. 74. 

/ am vexed with Hortense. The same day he encloses with 
this a letter to Hortense. " My daughter, you have not written 
me a line during your great and righteous grief. You have 
forgotten everything, as if you had nothing more to lose. They 

NOTES 263 

say you care no longer for any one, that you are callous about 
everything ; I note the truth of it by your silence. This is not 
well, Hortense, it is not what you promised me. Your son was 
everything for you. Are your mother and myself nothing ? 
Had I been at Malmaison I should have shared your grief, but I 
should have wished you at the same time to turn to your best 
friends. Good-bye, my daughter, be cheerful ; it is necessary to 
be resigned ; keep well, in order to fulfil all your duties. My 
wife is utterly miserable about your condition ; do not increase 
her sorrow. Your affectionate father, NAPOLEON." 

Hortense had been on such bad terms with her husband for 
several months past that Napoleon evidently thinks it wiser not 
to allude to him, although he had written Louis a very strong 
letter on his treatment of his wife two months earlier (see letter 
12,294 of the Correspondence, April 4th). There is, however, a 
temporary reunion between husband and wife in their common 

No. 78. 

Fried/and. On this day he wrote a further letter to the 
Queen of Holland (No. 12,761 of the Correspondence): "My 
daughter, I have your letter dated Orleans. Your grief pains me, 
but I should like you to possess more courage ; to live is to 
suffer, and the true man is always fighting for mastery over him- 
self. I do not like to see you unjust towards the little Napoleon 
Louis, and towards all your friends. Your mother and I had 
hoped to be more to you than we are." She had been sent to 
take the waters of Cauterets, and had left her child Napoleon 
Louis (who died at Forli, 1831) with Josephine, who writes 
to her daughter (June nth) : "He amuses me much ; he is so 
gentle. I find he has all the ways of that poor child that we 
mourn." And a few days later : " There remains to you a 
husband, an interesting child, and a mother whose love you 
know." Josephine had with women the same tact that her 
husband had with men, but the Bonaparte family, with all its 
good qualities, strained the tact and tempers of both to the 

264 NOTES 

No. 79. 

Tilsit. Referring to Napoleon and Alexander at Tilsit, 
Michaud says : " Both full of wiles and devices, they affected 
nevertheless the most perfect sentiments of generosity, which at 
the bottom they scarcely dreamed of practising. Reunited, they 
were the masters of the world, but such a union seemed impos- 
sible ; they would rather share it among themselves. Allies and 
rivals, friends and enemies, all were sacrificed ; henceforth there 
were to be only two powers, that of the East and that of the 
West. Bonaparte at this time actually ruled from the Niemen 
to the Straits of Gibraltar, from the North Sea to the base of the 
Italian Peninsula." 


No. i. 

Milan. Magnificent public works were set on foot by 
Napoleon at Milan, and the Cathedral daily adorned with 
fresh marvels of sculpture. Arriving here on the morning of 
the 22nd, Napoleon goes first to hear the Te Deum at the 
Cathedral, then to see Eugene's wife at the Monza Palace ; in 
the evening to the La Scala Theatre, and finishes the day (to 
use an Irishism) by working most of the night. 

Mont Cents. "The roads of the Simplon and Mont Cenis 
were kept in the finest order, and daily attracted fresh crowds of 
strangers to the Italian plains." So says Alison, but on the 
present occasion Napoleon was overtaken by a storm which put 
his life in danger. He was fortunate enough to reach a cave in 
which he took refuge. This cave appeared to him, as he after- 
wards said, " a cave of diamonds " (Meneval). 

Eugene. The writer in Biog. Univ. (art. Josephine) says : 
" During a journey that Napoleon made in Italy (November 
1807) he wished, while loading Eugene with favours, to prepare 
his mind for his mother's divorce. The Decree of Milan, by 
which, in default of male and legitimate children 1 of the direct 

1 The Decree itself says " nos enfants et descendants males, legitimes et 

NOTES 265 

line, he adopted Eugene for his son and his successor to the 
throne of Italy, gave to those who knew how to read the secret 
thoughts of the Emperor in his patent acts the proof that he had 
excluded him from all inheritance in the Imperial Crown of 
France, and that he dreamed seriously of a new alliance himself." 

No. 2. 

Venice. The Venetians gave Napoleon a wonderful ovation 
many nobles spending a year's income on the ftes. " Innum- 
erable gondolas glittering with a thousand colours and resounding 
with the harmony of instruments, escorted the barges which bore, 
together with the master of the world, the Viceroy and the 
Vice-Queen of Italy, the King and Queen of Bavaria, the 
Princess of Lucca, the King of Naples (Joseph, who stayed six 
days with his brother), the Grand Duke of Berg, the Prince of 
Neufchatel, and the greater part of the generals of the old army 
of Italy" (Thiers). While at Venice Napoleon was in easy 
touch with the Porte, of which he doubtless made full use, while, 
per contra^ he was expected to give Greece her independence. 

November ^oth. Leaving Milan, Napoleon came straight 
through Brescia to Verona, where he supped with the King and 
Queen of Bavaria. The next morning he started for Vicenza 
through avenues of vine-encircled poplars and broad yellow 
wheat-fields which "lay all golden in the sunlight and the 
breeze " (Constant). The Emperor went to the theatre at 
Vicenza, and left again at 2 A.M. Spending the night at Stra, 
he met the Venetian authorities early the next morning at 

No. 3. 

Udine. He is here on the I2th, and then hastens to meet 
his brother Lucien at Mantua the main but secret object of his 
journey to Italy. It is most difficult to gauge the details was it 
a political or a conjugal question that made the interview a 
failure ? Madame D'Abrantes, voicing the rumours of the day, 
thinks the former ; Lucien, writing Memoirs for his wife and chil- 
dren, declares it to be the latter. Napoleon was prepared to legalise 

266 NOTES 

the children of his first wife, and marry the eldest to Prince 
Ferdinand, the heir to the Spanish crown ; but Lucien considers 
the Bourbons to be enemies of France and of the Bonapartes. 
These Memoirs of Lucien are not perhaps very trustworthy, 
especially where his prejudices overlap his memory or his judg- 
ment, but always instructive and very readable. When the 
account of this interview was written (early in 1812), Lucien 
was an English prisoner, furious that his brother has just refused 
to exchange him for "some English Lords." Speaking of 
Josephine, the Emperor tells him that in spite of her reputation 
for good-nature, she is more malicious than generally supposed, 
although for her husband " she has no nails " ; but he adds that 
rumours of impending divorce have made life between them very 
constrained. " Only imagine," continued the Emperor, " that 
wife of mine weeps every time she has indigestion, because she 
says she thinks herself poisoned by those who wish me to marry 
some one else. It is perfectly hateful." He said that Joseph 
also thought of a divorce, as his wife gave him only daughters, 
and that the three brothers might be remarried on the same day. 
The Emperor regretted not having taken the Princess Augusta, 
daughter of his " best friend, the King of Bavaria," for himself, 
instead of for Eugene, who did not know how to appreciate her 
and was unfaithful. He was convinced that Russia by invading 
India would overthrow England, and that his own soldiers were 
ready to follow him to the antipodes. He ends by offering 
Lucien his choice of thrones Naples, Italy, "the brightest jewel 
of my Imperial crown," or Spain l (Madame D'Abrantes adds 
Prussia), if he will give way about Madame Jouberthon and her 
children. "Tout pour Lucien divorce, rien pour Lucien sans 
divorce." When Napoleon finds his brother obdurate he makes 
Eugene Prince of Venice, and his eldest daughter Princess of 
Bologna, with a large appanage. Lucien is in fresh disgrace 
within less than three months of the Mantuan interview, for on 
March n, 1808, Napoleon writes brother Joseph, "Lucien is 
misconducting himself at Rome . . . and is more Roman than 

1 On October llth Prince Ferdinand had written Napoleon for " the honour 
of allying himself to a Princess of his august family " ; and Lucien's eldest daughter 
was Napoleon's only choice. 

NOTES 267 

the Pope himself. His conduct has been scandalous ; he is my 
open enemy, and that of France. ... I will not permit a 
Frenchman, and one of my own brothers, to be the first to 
conspire and act against me, with a rabble of priests." 

/ may soon be in Paris. After leaving Milan he visits the 
fortifications at Alessandria, and is met by a torchlight procession 
at Marengo. Letters for two days (December 27-28th) are 
dated Turin, although Constant says he did not stop there. 
Crossing Mont Cenis on December 3Oth he reaches the Tuileries 
on the evening of New Year's Day (1808). 


No. i. 

Bayonne is half-way between Paris and Madrid, nearly 600 
miles from each. Napoleon arrived here April I5th, and left 
July 2ist, returning with Josephine via Pau, Tarbes, Auch, 
Montauban, Agen, Bordeaux, Rochefort, Nantes. Everywhere 
he received a hearty welcome, even, and especially, in La 
Vendee. He arrives at Paris August I4th, hearing on August 3rd 
at Bordeaux of (what he calls) the " horrible catastrophe " of 
General Dupont at Baylen. 

No. 2. 

A country-house. The Chateau of Marrac. Marbot had stayed 
there in 1803 with Augereau. Bausset informs us that this 
chateau had been built either for the Infanta Marie Victoire 
engaged to Louis XV., or for the Dowager Queen of Charles II., 
"the bewitched," when she was packed off from Madrid to 
Bayonne (see Hume's Spain, 1479-1788). 

Everything is still most primitive. Nevertheless he enjoyed the 
parnperruque which was danced before the chateau by seven men 
and ten maidens, gaily dressed the women armed with tam- 
bourines and the men with castanets. Saint-Amand speaks of 
thirteen performers (seven men and six maidens) chosen from 

268 NOTES 

the leading families of the town, to render what for time im- 
memorial had been considered fit homage for the most illustrious 

No. 3. 

Prince of the Asturias. The Emperor had received him at the 
chateau of Marrac, paid him all the honours due to royalty, while 
evading the word " Majesty," and insisting the same day on his 
giving up all claim to the Crown of Spain. Constant says he 
was heavy of gait, and rarely spoke. 

The Queen. A woman of violent passions. The Prince of 
the Asturias had designs on his mother's life, while the Queen 
openly begged Napoleon to put the Prince to death. On May gth 
Napoleon writes Talleyrand to prepare to take charge of Ferdi- 
nand at Valencay, adding that if the latter were "to become 
attached to some pretty woman, whom we are sure of, it would 
be no disadvantage." A new experience for a Montmorency 
to become the keeper of a Bourbon, rather than his Constable. 
Pasquier, with his usual Malvolian decorum, gives fuller details. 
Napoleon, he says, "enumerates with care (to Talleyrand) all 
the precautions that are to be taken to prevent his escape, and 
even goes so far as to busy himself with the distractions which 
may be permitted him. And, be it noted, the principal one 
thrown in his way was given him by a young person who lived 
at the time under M. De Talleyrand's roof. This liaison, of 
which Ferdinand soon became distrustful, did not last as long 
as it was desired to." 

No. 4. 

A son has been born. By a plebiscite of the year XII. (1804-5), 
the children of Louis and Hortense were to be the heirs of 
Napoleon, and in conformity with this the child born on April aoth 
at 1 7 Rue Lafitte (now the residence of the Turkish Ambassador), 
was inscribed on the register of the Civil List destined for princes 
of the blood. His two elder brothers had not been so honoured, 
but in due course the King of Rome was entered thereon. Had 
Louis accepted the Crown of Spain which Napoleon had in vain 

NOTES 269 

offered to him, and of which Hortense would have made an ideal 
Queen, the chances are that Napoleon would never have divorced 
Josephine. St. Amand shows at length that the future 
Napoleon III. is truly the child of Louis, and neither of Admiral 
Verhuell nor of the Duke Decazes. Louis and Hortense in the 
present case are sufficiently agreed to insist that the father's name 
be preserved by the child, who is called Charles Louis Napoleon, 
and not Charles Napoleon, which was the Emperor's first choice. 
In either case the name of the croup-stricken firstborn had 
been preserved. On April 23rd Josephine had already two 
letters from Cambacres respecting mother and child, and on this 
day the Empress writes her daughter : " I know that Napoleon 
is consoled for not having a sister." 

Arrive on the 2Jth. Josephine, always wishful to humour her 
husband's love of punctuality, duly arrived on the day fixed, and 
took up her abode with her husband in the chateau of Marrac. 
Ferdinand wrote to his uncle in Madrid to beware of the cursed 
Frenchmen, telling him also that Josephine had been badly re- 
ceived at Bayonne. The letter was intercepted, and Napoleon 
wrote Murat that the writer was a liar, a fool, and a hypocrite. 
The Emperor, in fact, never trusted the Prince henceforward. 
Bausset, who translated the letter, tells how the Emperor could 
scarcely believe that the Prince would use so strong an adjective, 
but was convinced on seeing the word ma/dittos, which he 
remarked was almost the Italian maledetto. 


Leaving St. Cloud September 22nd, Napoleon is at Metz 
on the 23rd, at Kaiserlautern on the 24th, where he sends a 
message to the Empress in a letter to Cambace'res, and on the 
2yth is at Erfurt On the 28th the Emperors of France and 
Russia sign a Convention of Alliance. Napoleon leaves Erfurt 
October I4th (the anniversary of Jena), travels incognito, and 
arrives St. Cloud October i8th. 

270 NOTES 

No. i. 

/ have rather a cold. Napoleon had insisted on going to ex- 
plore a new road he had ordered between Metz and Mayence, 
and which no one had ventured to say was not complete. The 
road was so bad that the carriage of the maitre des requetes, 
who had been summoned to account for the faulty work, was 
precipitated a hundred feet down a ravine near Kaiserlautern. 

/ am pleased with the Emperor and every one here. Which in- 
cluded what he had promised Talma for his audience a parterre 
of kings. Besides the two Emperors, the King of Prussia was 
represented by his brother Prince William, Austria by General 
Vincent, and there were also the Kings of Saxony, Bavaria, 
Wurtemberg, Westphalia, and Naples, the Prince Primate, the 
Princes of Anhalt, Coburg, Saxe-Weimar, Darmstadt, Baden, 
and Nassau. Talleyrand, Champagny, Maret, Duroc, Berthier, 
and Caulaincourt, with Generals Oudinot, Soult, and Lauriston 
accompanied Napoleon. Literature was represented by Goethe, 
Wieland, Miiller ; and feminine attractions by the Duchess of 
Saxe-Weimar and the wily Princess of Tour and Taxis, sister 
of the Queen of Prussia. Pasquier and others have proved that 
at Erfurt Talleyrand did far more harm than good to his master's 
cause, and in fact intended to do so. On his arrival he spent 
his first evening with the Princess of Tour and Taxis, in order 
to meet the Emperor Alexander, and said : " Sire ... It is 
for you to save Europe, and the only way of attaining this object 
is by resisting Napoleon. The French people are civilised, their 
Emperor is not : the sovereign of Russia is civilised, his people 
are not. It is therefore for the sovereign of Russia to be the 
ally of the French people," of whom Talleyrand declared 
himself to be the representative. By squaring Alexander this 
transcendental (unfrocked) Vicar of Bray, " with an oar in every 
boat," is once more hedging, or, to use his own phrase, guar- 
anteeing the future, and at the same time securing the daughter 
of the Duchess of Courland for his nephew, Edmond de Perigord. 
" The Arch-apostate " carried his treason so far as to advise 
Alexander of Napoleon's ulterior views, and thus enabled the former 
to forestall them no easy matter in conversations with Napoleon 

NOTES 271 

" lasting whole days " (see Letter No. 3, this Series). Talleyrand 
had also a grievance. He had been replaced as Foreign Minister 
by Champagny. He had accepted the surrender of his portfolio 
gladly, as now, becoming Vice-Grand Elector, he ranked with 
Cambaceres and Maret. But when he found that Napoleon, 
who liked to have credit for his own diplomacy, seldom consulted 
him, or allowed Champagny to do so, jealousy and ill-will naturally 

No. 2. 

Shooting over the battlefield of Jena. The presence of the 
Emperor Alexander on this occasion was considered a great 
affront to his recent ally, the King of Prussia, and is severely 
commented on by Von Moltke in one of his Essays. In fairness 
to Alexander, we must remember that their host, the Duke of 
Saxe-Weimar, had married his sister. Von Moltke, by the way, 
speaks of hares forming the sport in question, but Savary of a 
second battle of Jena fought against the partridges. The fact 
seems to be that all kinds of game, including stags and deer, were 
driven by the beaters to the royal sportsmen in their huts, and 
the Emperor Alexander, albeit short-sighted, succeeded in killing 
a stag, at eight feet distance, at the first shot. 

The Weimar ball. This followed the Jena shoot, and the 
dancing lasted all night. The Russian courtiers were scandalised 
at their Emperor dancing, but while he was present the dancing 
was conventional enough, consisting of promenading two and two 
to the strains of a Polish march. " Imperial Waltz, imported 
from the Rhine," was already the rage in Germany, and Napoleon, 
in order to be more worthy of his Austrian princess, tried next 
year to master this new science of tactics, but after a trial with the 
Princess Stephanie, the lady declared that her pupil should always 
give lessons, and never receive them. He was rather more success- 
ful at billiards, pursued under the same praiseworthy incentive. 

A few trifling ailments. Mainly a fearful nightmare ; a new 
experience, in which he imagines his vitals torn out by a bear. 
" Significant of much ! " As when also the Russian Emperor 
finds himself without a sword and accepts that of Napoleon as 

272 NOTES 

a gift : and when, on the last night, the latter orders his 
comedians to play " Bajazet," little thinking the appointed 
Tamerlane was by his side. 

No. 3. 

/ am pleased with Alexander. For the time being Josephine 
had most reason to be pleased with Alexander, who failed to 
secure his sister's hand for Napoleon. 

He ought to be with me. He might have been, had not 
Napoleon purposely evaded the Eastern Question. On this sub- 
ject Savary writes (vol. ii. 297) : " Since Tilsit, Napoleon had 
sounded the personal views of his ambassador at Constantinople, 
General Sebastiani, as to this proposition of the Emperor of 
Russia (i.e. the partition of Turkey). This ambassador was 
utterly opposed to this project, and in a long report that he 
sent to the Emperor on his return from Constantinople, he 
demonstrated to him that it was absolutely necessary for 
France never to consent to the dismemberment of the Turkish 
Empire ; the Emperor Napoleon adopted his views." And 
these Talleyrand knew. The whirligig of time brings about 
its revenges, and in less than fifty years Lord Palmerston 
had to seek an alliance with France and the house of Napoleon 
in order to maintain the fixed policy that sent Napoleon I. to 
Moscow and to St. Helena. " Alexander, with justice," says 
Alison, "looked upon Constantinople as the back-door of his 
empire, and was earnest that its key should be placed in his 
hands." " Alexander," Napoleon told O'Meara, " wanted to 
get Constantinople, which I would not allow, as it would 
have destroyed the equilibrium of power in Europe. I reflected 
that France would gain Egypt, Syria, and the islands, which 
would have been nothing in comparison with what Russia would 
have obtained. I considered that the barbarians of the north 
were already too powerful, and probably in the course of time 
would overwhelm all Europe, as I now think they will. Austria 
already trembles : Russia and Prussia united, Austria falls, and 
England cannot prevent it." 

NOTES 273 

Erfurt is the meridian of Napoleon's first thirteen years 
(1796-1808) each more glorious; henceforward (1809-1821) 
ever faster he " rolls, darkling, down the torrent of his fate." 


No. 5. 
Written from Aranda. 

No. 6. 

Written from the Imperial Camp outside Madrid. Neither 
Napoleon l nor Joseph entered the capital, but King Joseph took 
up his abode at the Prado, the castle of the Kings of Spain, two 
miles away ; while the Emperor was generally at Chamartin, 
some five miles distant. He had arrived on the heights surround- 
ing Madrid on his Coronation Day (December 2nd), and does 
not fail to remind his soldiers and his people of this auspicious 
coincidence. The bulletin concludes with a tirade against 
England, whose conduct is " shameful," but her troops " well 
disciplined and superb." It declares that Spain has been treated 
by them as they have treated Holland, Sardinia, Austria, Russia, 
and Sweden. " They foment war everywhere ; they distribute 
weapons like poison ; but they shed their blood only for their 
direct and personal interests." 

Parisian weather of the last fortnight in May. In his bulletin of 
the 1 3th, he says : " Never has such a month of December been 
known in this country ; one would think it the beginning of 
spring." But ten days later all was changed, and the storm of 
Guadarrama undoubtedly saved Moore and the English army. 
" Was it then decreed," groans Thiers, " that we, who were 
always successful against combined Europe, should on no single 
occasion prevail against those implacable foes ? " 

1 Napoleon visited Madrid and its Palais Royal incognito, and (like Vienna) 
by night (Bausset). 


274 NOTES 

No. 8. 

Other letters of this date are headed Madrid. 

Kourakin. Alexander Kourakin was the new Russian Am- 
bassador at Paris, removed thence from Vienna to please Napoleon, 
and to replace Tolstoi, who, according to Savary, was always 
quarrelling with French officers on military points, but who could 
hardly be so narrow-minded a novice on these points as his name- 
sake of to-day. This matter had been arranged at Erfurt. 

No. 9. 

The English appear to have received reinforcements. Imagine a 
Transvaal with a population of ten millions, and one has a fair 
idea of the French difficulties in Spain, even without Portugal. 
The Spaniards could not fight a scientific battle like Jena or 
Friedland, but they were incomparable at guerilla warfare. The 
Memoirs of Barons Marbot and Lejeune have well demonstrated 
this. The latter, an accomplished linguist, sent to locate Moore's 
army, found that to pass as an Englishman the magic words 
" Damn it," won him complete success. 

No. 10. 

Benavente. Here they found 600 horses, which had been 
hamstrung by the English. 

The English flee panic-stricken. The next day Napoleon writes 
Fouch6 to have songs written, and caricatures made of them, 
which are also to be translated into German and Italian, and 
circulated in Germany and Italy. 

The weather is very bad. Including 1 8 degrees of frost. 
Savary says they had never felt the cold so severe in Poland 
and that they ran a risk of being buried in the snow. The 
Emperor had to march on foot and was very much tired. " On 
these occasions," adds Savary, "the Emperor was not selfish, as 
people would have us believe ... he shared his supper x and his 
fire with all who accompanied him : he went so far as to make 
1 With Lejeune on one occasion. 

NOTES 275 

those eat whom he saw in need of it." Napier gives other details : 
" Napoleon, on December 22nd, has 50,000 men at the foot of 
the Guadarrama. A deep snow choked the passes of the Sierra, 
and after twelve hours' toil the advanced guards were still on 
the wrong side : the general commanding reported the road im- 
practicable, but Napoleon, dismounting, placed himself at the 
head of the column, and amidst storms of hail and driving snow, 
led his soldiers over the mountain." At the passage of the Esla 
Moore escapes Napoleon by twelve hours. Marbot, as usual, 
gives picturesque details. Officers and men marched with locked 
arms, the Emperor between Lannes and Duroc. Half-way up, 
the marshals and generals, who wore jack-boots, could go no 
further. Napoleon, however, got hoisted on to a gun, and 
bestrode it : the marshals and generals did the same, and in this 
grotesque order they reached, after four hours' toil, the convent 
at the summit. 

Lefebvre. As they neared Benavente the slush became fright- 
ful, and the artillery could not keep pace. General Lefebvre- 
Desnouette went forward, with the horse regiment of the Guard, 
forded the Esla with four squadrons, was outnumbered by the 
English (3000 to 300), but he and sixty (Lejeune, who escaped, 
says a hundred) of his chasseurs were captured. He was brought 
in great triumph to Sir John Moore. "That general," says 
Thiers, " possessed the courtesy characteristic of all great nations ; 
he received with the greatest respect the brilliant general who 
commanded Napoleon's light cavalry, seated him at his table, and 
presented him with a magnificent Indian sabre." 

No. ii. 

Probably written from Astorga, where he arrived on January 
ist, having brought 50,000 men two hundred miles in ten days. 

Tour letters. These probably, and others received by a courier, 
decided him to let Soult follow the English to Corunna especi- 
ally as he knew that transports were awaiting the enemy there. 
He himself prepares to return, for Fouch and Talleyrand are 
in league, the slim and slippery Metternich is ambassador at Paris, 
Austria is arming, and the whole political horizon, apparently 

276 NOTES 

bright at Erfurt, completely overcast. Murat, balked of the 
Crown of Spain, is now hoping for that of France if Napoleon 
is killed or assassinated. It is Talleyrand and Fouch6 who have 
decided on Murat, and on the ultimate overthrow of the Beau- 
harnais. Unfortunately for their plans Eugene is apprised by 
Lavalette, and an incriminating letter to Murat captured and 
sent post-haste to Napoleon. This, says Pasquier, undoubtedly 
hastened the Emperor's return. Ignoring the complicity of 
Fouche, the whole weight of his anger falls on Talleyrand, who 
loses the post of High Chamberlain, which he had enjoyed since 
1804. For half-an-hour this "arch-apostate," as Lord Rosebery 
calls him, receives a torrent of invectives. " You are a thief, a 
coward, a man without honour ; you do not believe in God ; you 
have all your life been a traitor to your duties ; you have deceived 
and betrayed everybody : nothing is sacred to you ; you would 
sell your own father. I have loaded you down with gifts, and 
there is nothing that you would not undertake against me. Thus, 
for the past ten months, you have been shameless enough, because 
you supposed, rightly or wrongly, that my affairs in Spain were 
going astray, to say to all who would listen to you that you 
always blamed my undertaking there, whereas it was yourself 
who first put it into my head, and who persistently urged it. 
And that man, that unfortunate (he was thus designating the Due 
d'Enghien), by whom was I advised of the place of his residence ? 
Who drove me to deal cruelly with him ? What then are you 
aiming at ? What do you wish for ? What do you hope ? Do 
you dare to say ? You deserve that I should smash you like a 
wine-glass. I can do it, but I despise you too much to take the 
trouble." This we are assured by the impartial Pasquier, who 
heard it from an ear-witness, and second-hand from Talleyrand, 
is an abstract of what Napoleon said, and to which the ex- 
Bishop made no reply. 

No. 12. 

The English are in utter rout. Still little but dead men and 
horses fell into his hands. Savary adds the interesting fact that 
all the (800) dead cavalry horses had a foot missing, which the 

NOTES 277 

English had to show their officers to prove that they had not sold 
their horses. Scott, on barely sufficient evidence perhaps, states, 
" The very treasure-chests of the army were thrown away and 
abandoned. There was never so complete an example of a disas- 
trous retreat." The fact seems to have been that the soldiership 
was bad, but Moore's generalship excellent. Napier writes, " No 
wild horde of Tartars ever fell with more license upon their rich 
effeminate neighbours than did the English troops upon the 
Spanish towns taken by storm." What could be expected of 
such men in retreat, when even Lord Melville had just said in 
extenuation of our army that the worst men make the best 
soldiers ? 

Nos. 13 AND 14. 

Written at Valladolid. Here he received a deputation asking 
that his brother may reside in Madrid, to which he agrees, and 
awaits its arrangement before setting out for Paris. 

At Valladolid he met De Pradt, whom he mistrusted ; but 
who, like Talleyrand, always amused him. In the present case 
the Abbe told him that " the Spaniards would never thank him for 
interfering in their behalf, and that they were like Sganarelle in 
the farce, who quarrelled with a stranger for interfering with her 
husband when he was beating her " (Scott's " Napoleon "). 

He leaves Valladolid January I7th, and is in Paris on January 
24th. He rode the first seventy miles, to Burgos, in five and a 
half hours, stopping only to change horses. 1 Well might Savary 
say, " Never had a sovereign ridden at such a speed." 

Eugene has a daughter. The Princess Eugnie-Hortense, 
born December 23rd at Milan ; married the hereditary Prince of 
Hohenzollern Hechingen. 

They are foolish in Paris if not worse. Talleyrand, Fouche, 
and others were forming what amounted to a conspiracy, and 
the Empress herself, wittingly or unwittingly, had served as 
their tool. For the first time she answers a deputation of the 
Corps Legislatif, who come to congratulate her on her hus- 

1 Biographie Univcrselle. Michaud says ponies. 

278 NOTES 

band's victories, and says that doubtless his Majesty would be 
very sensible of the homage of an assembly which represents the 
nation. Napoleon sees in this remark a germ of aggression on 
behalf of his House of Commons, more especially when empha- 
sised by 125 blackballs against a Government Bill. He takes 
the effective but somewhat severe step of contradicting his wife 
in the Monlteur^ or rather declaring that the Empress knew the 
laws too well not to know that the Emperor was the chief 
representative of the People, then the Senate, and last the Corps 

" It would be a wild and even criminal assertion to try to 
represent the nation before the Emperor." 

All through the first half of 1809 another dangerous plot, of 
which the centre was the Princess of Tour and Taxis, had its 
threads far and wide. Many of Soult's generals were implicated, 
and in communication with the English, preventing their com- 
mander getting news of Wellesley's movements (Napier). When 
they find Soult cannot be traduced, they lend a willing ear to 
stirring up strife between the Emperor and Soult, by suggesting 
that the latter should be made King of Portugal. Madame 
d'Abrantes, who heard in 1814 that the idea had found favour 
with English statesmen, thinks such a step would have seriously 
injured Napoleon (vol. iv. 53). 



The dangers surrounding Napoleon were immense. The 
Austrian army, 320,000 strong (with her Landwehr, 544,000 
men) and 800 cannon, had never been so great, never so fitted 
for war. Prussia was already seething with secret societies, of 
which as yet the only formidable one was the Tugendbund, whose 
headquarters were Konigsburg, and whose chief members were 
Stein, Stadion, Blucher, Jahn. Perhaps their most sensible 
scheme was to form a united German empire, with the Archduke 

NOTES 279 

Charles 1 as its head. The Archduke Ferdinand invaded the 
Duchy of Warsaw, and had he taken Thorn with its park of 100 
cannon, Prussia was to join Austria. In Italy the Carbonari and 
Adelphes 2 only waited for the French troops to go north to meet 
the Austrians to spread revolt in Italy. Of the former the head 
lodge was at Capua and its constitutions written in English, since 
England was aiding this chouanerie religieuse as a lever against 
Napoleon. England had an army of 40,000 men ready to em- 
bark in any direction to Holland, Belgium, Naples, or Biscay, 
while the French troops in Portugal were being tampered with to 
receive Moreau as their leader, and to march with Spaniards and 
English for the Pyrenees. At Paris Talleyrand was in partial 
disgrace, but he and Fouche were still plotting the latter, says 
Pelet, forwarding daily a copy of the private bulletin (prepared 
for Napoleon's eye alone) to the Bourbons. After Essling and 
the breaking of the Danube bridge, he hesitated between seizing 
supreme power himself or offering it to Bernadotte. 

Up to the last up to March 2Jth the Correspondence proves 
that Napoleon had hoped that war would be averted through the 
influence of Russia. " All initiative," he declared, " rested on the 
heads of the court of Austria." " Menaced on all sides ; warned 
of the intentions of his enemies by their movements and by their 
intercepted correspondence ; seeing from that moment hostilities 
imminent, he wishes to prove to France and Europe that all the 
wrongs are on their side, and awaits in his capital the news of an 
aggression that nothing justifies, nothing warrants. Vain pru- 
dence ! Europe will accuse him of having been the instigator on 
every occasion, even in this." 3 On April 8th the Austrians 
violated Bavarian territory, and during his supreme command for 

1 This Archduke was the "international man" at this juncture. Louis 
Bonaparte speaks of a society at Saragossa, of which the object was to make 
the Archduke Charles king of Spain. 

3 These Adelphes or Philadelphes were the socialists or educated anarchists of 
that day. They wished for the itatu qiM before Napoleon became supreme ruler. 
They had members in his army, and it seems quite probable that Bernadotte 
gave them passive support. General Oudet was their recognised head, and he 
died under suspicious circumstances after Wagram. The society was, unlike the 
Carbonari, anti-Catholic. 

3 Pelet, vol. i. 127. 

280 NOTES 

the next five days Berthier endangered the safety of the French 
empire in spite of the most elaborate and lucid instructions from 
Napoleon, which he failed to comprehend. " Never," says Pelet, 
" was so much written, never so little done. Each of his letters 
(Berthier's) attests the great difference which existed between his 
own correspondence and that which was dictated to him." An 
ideal chief of staff, he utterly lacked the decision necessary for 
a commander-in-chief. The arrival of Napoleon changed in a 
moment the position of affairs. " The sudden apparition of the 
Emperor produced the effect of the head of Medusa, and paralysed 
the enemy." 1 Within five days the Austrians were four times 
defeated, and Ratisbon, the passe-partout of Southern Germany 
and half-way house between Strasburg and Vienna, is once more 
in the hands of France and her allies. Pelet considers these 
operations as the finest which have been executed either in 
ancient or modern times, at any rate those of which the projects 
are authentically proved. He foretells that military men from 
every country of Europe, but specially young Frenchmen, will 
religiously visit the fields of the Laber. They will visit, with 
Napoleon's Correspondence in their hands, " much more precious 
than every other commentary, the hills of Pfaffenhofen, the bridge 
of Landshut, and that of Eckmuhl, the mill of Stangl, and the 
woods of Roking." A few days later the Archduke Charles 
writes a letter to Napoleon, which is a fair type of those charm- 
ing yet stately manners which made him at that moment the 
most popular man in Europe. " Sire," he writes, " your Majesty's 
arrival was announced to me by the thunder of artillery, without 
giving me time to compliment you thereon. Scarcely advised of 
your presence, I was made sensible of it by the losses which you 
have caused me. You have taken many of my men, Sire ; my 
troops also have made some thousands of prisoners in places 
where you did not direct the operations. I propose to your 
Majesty to exchange them man for man, grade for grade, and if 
that offer is agreeable to you, please let me know your intentions 
for the place destined for the exchange. I feel flattered, sire, in 
fighting against the greatest captain of the age. I should be 
more happy if destiny had chosen me to procure for my country 
1 Pelet, vol. i. 282. 

NOTES 281 

the benefit of a lasting peace. Whichsoever they be, the events 
of war or the approach of peace, I beg your Majesty to believe 
that my desires always carry me to meet you, and that I hold 
myself equally honoured in finding the sword, or the olive branch, 
in the hand of your Majesty." 

No. i. 

Donauwerth. On the same day Napoleon writes almost an 
identical letter to Cambaceres, adding, however, the news that 
the Tyrolese are in full revolt. 

On April 2Oth he placed himself at the head of the Wurtem- 
bergers and Bavarians at Abensburg. He made a stirring 
speech (No. 15,099 of Correspondence), and Lejeune tells us 
that the Prince Royal of Bavaria translated into German one 
sentence after another as the Emperor spoke, and officers re- 
peated the translations throughout the ranks. 

On April 24th is issued from Ratisbon his proclamation to 
the army : "Soldiers, you have justified my expectations. You 
have made up for your number by your bravery. You have 
gloriously marked the difference between the soldiers of Caesar 
and the armed cohorts of Xerxes. In a few days we have 
triumphed in the pitched battles of Thann, Abensberg, and 
Eckmuhl, and in the combats of Peising, Landshut, and Ratisbon. 
A hundred cannon, forty flags, fifty thousand prisoners. . . . 
Before a month we shall be at Vienna." It was within three 
weeks ! He was specially proud of Eckmuhl, and we are pro- 
bably indebted to a remark of Pasquier for his chief but never 
divulged reason. "A noteworthy fact in connection with this 
battle was that the triumphant army was composed principally of 
Bavarians and Wurtembergers. Under his direction, these allies 
were as greatly to be feared as the French themselves." At St. 
Helena was written : " The battle of Abensberg, the manoeuvres of 
Landshut, and the battle of Eckmuhl were the most brilliant and 
the most skilful manoeuvres of Napoleon." Eckmuhl ended with 
a fine exhibition of a " white arm " melee by moonlight, in which 
the French proved the superiority of their double cuirasses over 

282 NOTES 

the breastplates of the Austrians. Pelet gives this useful abstract 
of the Campaign of Five Days : 

April igth. Union of the French army whilst fighting the 
Archduke, whose base is already menaced. 

April 2Oth. Napoleon, at Abensburg and on the banks of 
the Laber, breaks the Austrian line, totally separating the centre 
from the left, which he causes to be turned by Massena. 

April 2.1st. He destroys their left wing at Landshut, and 
captures the magazines, artillery, and train, as well as the com- 
munications of the enemy's grand army, fixing definitely his own 
line of operations, which he already directs on Vienna. 

April 22nd. He descends the Laber to Eckmiihl, gives the last 
blow to the Archduke's army, of which the remnant takes refuge 
in Ratisbon. 

April 2yd. He takes that strong place, and forces the Arch- 
duke to take refuge in the mountains of Bohemia. 

No. 2. 

May 6th. On May 1st Napoleon was still at Braunau, wait- 
ing for news from Davoust. Travelling by night at his usual 
speed he reached Lambach at noon on May 2nd, and Wels on 
the 3rd. The next morning he heard Massena's cannon at 
Ebersberg, but reaches the field at the fall of night too late to 
save the heavy cost of Massena's frontal attack. The French lost 
at least 1500 killed and wounded ; the Austrians (under Hiller) 
the same number killed and 7000 prisoners. Pelet defends 
Massena, and quotes the bulletin of May 4th (omitted from the 
Correspondence) : " It is one of the finest feats of arms of which 
history can preserve the memory ! The traveller will stop and 
say, ' It is here, it is here, in these superb positions, that an army 
of 35,000 Austrians was routed by two French divisions' " (Pelet, 
ii. 225). Lejeune, and most writers, blame Massena, referring 
to the Emperor's letter of May ist in Pelet's Appendix (vol. ii.), 
but not in the Correspondence. 

Between April iyth and May 6th there is no letter to 
Josephine preserved, but plenty to Eugene, and all severe not 
so much for incapacity as for not keeping the Emperor advised 

NOTES 283 

of what was really happening. On May 6th he had received no 
news for over a week. 

The ball that touched me i.e. at Ratisbon. This was the second 
time Napoleon had been wounded in battle the first time by an 
English bayonet at Toulon. On the present occasion (April 
23rd) Meneval seems to be the best authority : " Napoleon was 
seated on a spot from which he could see the attack on the town 
of Ratisbon. He was beating the ground with his riding-whip, 1 
when a bullet, supposed to have been fired from a Tyrolean 
carbine, struck him on the big toe (Marbot says * right ankle, 1 
which is correct). The news of his wound spread rapidly 2 from 
file to file, and he was forced to mount on horseback to show 
himself to his troops. Although his boot had not been cut the 
contusion was a very painful one," and in the first house he went 
to for a moment's rest, he fainted. The next day, however, 
he saw the wounded and reviewed his troops as usual, and 
Lejeune has preserved a highly characteristic story, somewhat 
similar to an experience of the Great Frederick's : " When he 
had reached the seventh or eighth sergeant the Emperor noticed 
a handsome young fellow with fine but stern-looking eyes and 
of resolute and martial bearing, who made his musket ring again 
as he presented arms. * How many wounds ? ' inquired the 
Emperor. * Thirty,' replied the sergeant. * I am not asking you 
your age,' said the Emperor graciously ; ' I am asking how many 
wounds you have received.' Raising his voice, the sergeant 
again replied with the one word, * Thirty.' Annoyed at this 
reply, the Emperor turned to the colonel and said, l The man 
does not understand ; he thinks I am asking about his age.' 
' He understands well enough, sire,' was the reply ; l he has 
been wounded thirty times.' ' What ! ' exclaimed the Emperor, 
4 you have been wounded so often and have not got the cross ! ' 
The sergeant looked down at his chest, and seeing that the strap 
of his cartridge-pouch hid his decoration, he raised it so as to 
show the cross. He said to the Emperor, with great earnestness, 
* Yes, I've got one ; but I've merited a dozen ! ' The Emperor, 
who was always pleased to meet spirited fellows such as this, 

1 " Gaily asking his staff to breakfast with him " (Pelet). 

2 Lejeune says " some hours afterwards." 

284 NOTES 

pronounced the sacramental words, ' I make you an officer ! ' 
' That's right, Emperor,' said the new sub-lieutenant as he proudly 
drew himself up ; ' you couldn't have done better ! ' ' 

No. 3. 

Almost an exact duplicate of this letter goes on to Paris to 
Cambaceres, as also of No. 4. The moment the Emperor had 
heard that the Archduke had left Budweiss and was going by the 
circuitous route via Krems to Vienna, he left Enns (May yth) 
and reached Moelk the same evening. Seeing a camp of the 
enemy on the other side of the river he sends Marbot with a 
sergeant and six picked men to kidnap a few Austrians during 
the night. The foray is successful, and three are brought before 
Napoleon, one weeping bitterly. The Emperor asked the reason, 
and found it was because he had charge of his master's girdle, 
and would be thought to have robbed him. The Emperor had 
him set free and ferried across the river, saying, " We must 
honour and aid virtue wherever it shows itself." The next day he 
started for Saint-Polten (already evacuated by Hiller). On his 
way he saw the ruins of Dirnstein Castle, where Richard Coeur 
de Lion had been imprisoned. The Emperor's comments were 
interesting, but are now hackneyed, and are in most histories and 
memoirs the parent source being Pelet (vol. ii. 246). 

No. 4. 

Schoenbrunn, situated a mile from Vienna, across the little 
river of that name. Constant thus describes it : "Built in 1754 
by the Empress Marie Therese, Schoenbrunn had an admirable 
position ; its architecture, if defective and irregular, was yet of a 
majestic, imposing type. To reach it one has to cross the bridge 
across the little river Vienna. Four stone sphinxes ornament 
this bridge, which is very large and well built. Facing the bridge 
there is a handsome gate opening on to a large courtyard, spacious 
enough for seven or eight thousand men to manoeuvre in. The 
courtyard is in the form of a quadrangle surrounded by covered 
galleries and ornamented with two large basins, in which are 

NOTES 285 

marble statues. On both sides of the gateway are two huge 
obelisks of pink stone surmounted by gilt eagles. 

" In German, Schoenbrunn means ' fair spring, 1 and the name 
is derived from a fresh and sparkling spring which is situated in 
the park. It wells forth from a little mound on which a tiny 
grotto has been built, carved within so as to resemble stalactites. 
Inside the grotto is a recumbent naiad holding a horn, from 
which the water falls down into a marble basin. In summer this 
little nook is deliciously cool. 

" The interior of the palace merits nothing but praise. The 
furniture is sumptuous, and in taste both original and dis- 
tinguished. The Emperor's bedroom (the only place in the 
whole edifice where there was a chimney) was upholstered in 
Chinese lacquer-wood of great antiquity, yet the painting and 
gilding were still quite fresh. The study adjoining was decorated 
in a like way. All these apartments, except the bedroom, were 
heated in winter by immense stoves, which sadly spoilt the effect 
of the other furniture. Between the study and the bedroom 
there was a strange apparatus called a * flying chair,' a sort of 
mechanical seat, which had been constructed for the Empress 
Marie Th^rese, and which served to transport her from one floor 
to another, so that she was not obliged to go up and down the 
staircase like every one else. The machine was worked in the 
same way as at theatres, by cords, pulleys, and a counter-weight." 
The Emperor drank a glassful from the beautiful spring, Schoen 
Brunn, every morning. Napoleon found the people of Vienna 
less favourable to the French than in 1805 ; and Count Rapp 
told him "the people were everywhere tired of us and of our 
victories." " He did not like these sort of reflections." 

May 12th. On May I3th is dated the seventh bulletin of the 
army of Germany, but none of the Bulletins 2 to 6 are in the 
Correspondence. It states that on the loth he is before Vienna ; 
the Archduke Maximilian refuses to surrender ; on the nth, at 
9 P.M., the bombardment commences, and by daybreak the city 
capitulated, and the Archduke fled. In his proclamation Napoleon 
blamed him and the house of Austria for the bombardment. 
"While fleeing from the city, their adieux to the inhabitants 
have been murder and arson ; like Medea, they have with their 

286 NOTES 

own hands slain their children." The Viennese had sworn to 
emulate their ancestors in 1683, and the heroes of Saragossa. 
But Alison (than whom none can do the " big bow-wow " style 
better) has a thoughtful comment on what really occurred. " All 
history demonstrates that there is one stage of civilisation when 
the inhabitants of a metropolis are capable of such a sacrifice in 
defence of their country, and only one ; and that when passed, 
it is never recovered. The event has proved that the Russians, 
in 1812, were in the state of progress when such a heroic act was 
possible, but that the inhabitants of Vienna and Paris had passed 
it. Most certainly the citizens of London would never have 
buried themselves under the ruins of the Bank, the Treasury, or 
Leadenhall Street before capitulating to Napoleon." 1870 and 
the siege of Paris modify this judgment ; but the Prussian bom- 
bardment came only at the last, and barely reached the centre 
of the city. 

No. 5. 

Ebersdorf. Written five days after the murderous battle of 
Essling. Montgaillard, whose temper and judgment, as Alison 
remarks, are not equal to his talents, cannot resist a covert sneer 
(writing under the Bourbons) at Napoleon's generalship on this 
occasion, although he adds a veneer by reminding us that Caesar 
was defeated at Dyrrachium, Turenne at Marienthal, Eugene at 
Denain, Frederick the Great at Kolin. The crossing of the river 
was one which none but a victorious army, with another l about 
to join it, could afford to risk, but which having effected, the 
French had to make the best of. As Napoleon said in his tenth 
bulletin, " The passage of a river like the Danube, in front of an 
enemy knowing perfectly the localities, and having the inhabit- 
ants on its side, is one of the greatest operations of war which it 
is possible to conceive." The Danube hereabouts is a thousand 
yards broad, and thirty feet deep. But the rising of its water 
fourteen feet in three days was what no one had expected. At 
Ebersdorf the first branch of the Danube was 500 yards across 
to an islet, thence 340 yards across the main current to Lobau, 
the vast island three miles broad and nearly three miles long, 

1 Eugene's. 

NOTES 287 

separated from the farther bank by another 150 yards of Danube. 
Bertrand had made excellent bridges, but on the 22nd the main 
one was carried away by a floating mill. 

Eugene . . . has completely performed the task. At the com- 
mencement of the campaign the Viceroy was taken unprepared. 
The Archduke John, exactly his own age (twenty-seven), was 
burning with hatred of France. Eugene had the impudence, 
with far inferior forces, to attack him at Sacile on April i6th, 
but was repulsed with a loss (including prisoners) of 6000 men. It 
is now necessary to retire, and the Archduke follows him leisurely, 
almost within sight of Verona. By the end of April the news of 
Eckmuhl has reached both armies, and by May ist the Austrians 
are in full retreat. As usual, Napoleon has already divined their 
altered plan of campaign, and writes from Braunau on this very 
day, " I doubt not that the enemy may have retired before you ; 
it is necessary to pursue him with activity, whilst coming to join 
me as soon as possible vid Carinthia. The junction with my 
army will probably take place beyond Bruck. It is probable I 
shall be at Vienna by the loth to the i$th of May." It is the 
successful performance of this task of joining him and of driving 
back the enemy to which Napoleon alludes in the letter. The 
Viceroy had been reproved for fighting at Sacile without his 
cavalry, for his precipitous retreat on Verona ; and only two days 
earlier the Emperor had told him that if affairs went worse he 
was to send for the King of Naples (Murat) to take command. 
"I am no longer grieved at the blunders you have committed, 
but because you do not write to me, and give me no chance of 
advising you, and even of regulating my own affairs here con- 
formably." On May 8th Eugene defeats the Austrians on the 
Piave, and the Archduke John loses nearly 10,000 men and 15 
cannon. Harassed in their retreat, they regain their own terri- 
tory on May I4th the day after the capitulation of Vienna. 
Henceforward Eugene with part of the army, and Macdonald 
with the rest, force their way past all difficulties, so that when the 
junction with the Grand Army occurs at Bruck, Napoleon sends 
(May 2yth) the following proclamation : "Soldiers of the army 
of Italy, you have gloriously attained the goal that I marked out 
for you. . . . Surprised by a perfidious enemy before your 

288 NOTES 

columns were united, you had to retreat to the Adige. But 
when you received the order to advance, you were on the memor- 
able fields of Arcola, and there you swore on the manes of our 
heroes to triumph. You have kept your word at the battle of 
the Piave, at the combats of San-Daniel, Tarvis, and Goritz ; 
you have taken by assault the forts of Malborghetto, of Prediel, 
and made the enemy's divisions, entrenched in Prewald and Lay- 
bach, surrender. You had not then passed the Drave, and already 
25,000 prisoners, 60 cannon, and 10 flags signalised your valour." 
This is the proclamation alluded to in this letter to Josephine. 

No. 6. 

May 2()th. The date is wrong ; it should be May i Qth or 
24th, probably the latter. It sets at rest the vexed question how 
the Danube bridge was broken, and seems to confirm Marbot's 
version of a floating mill on fire, purposely sent down by an 
Austrian officer of Jagers, who won the rare order of Maria 
Theresa thereby for performing more than his duty. Bertrand 
gained his Emperor's lifelong admiration by his expedients at this 
time. Everything had to be utilised anchors for the boat bridges 
were made by filling fishermen's baskets with bullets ; and a naval 
contingent of 1200 bluejackets from Antwerp proved invaluable. 

No. 7. 

/ have ordered the two princes to re-enter France. After so 
critical a battle as the battle of Essling the Emperor's first 
thoughts were concerning his succession had he been killed or 
captured. He was therefore seriously annoyed that the heir- 
apparent and his younger brother had both been taken out of the 
country without his permission. He therefore writes the Queen 
of Holland on May 28th from Ebersdorf : "My daughter, I am 
seriously annoyed that you have left France without my per- 
mission, and especially that you have taken my nephews out of 
it. Since you are at Baden stay there, but an hour after re- 
ceiving the present letter send my two nephews back to Strasburg 
to be near the Empress they ought never to go out of France. 

NOTES 289 

It is the first time I have had reason to be annoyed with you, but 
you should not dispose of my nephews without my permission, 
you should realise what a bad effect it will have. Since the 
waters at Baden are doing you good you can stay there a few 
days, but, I repeat, lose not a moment in sending my nephews 
back to Strasburg. If the Empress is going to the waters at 
Plombieres they may accompany her there, but they must never 
pass the bridge of Strasburg. Your affectionate father, Napoleon." 
This letter passed through the hands of Josephine at Strasburg, 
who was so unhappy at not having heard from her husband that 
she opened it, and writes to Hortense on June ist when forward- 
ing the letter : " I advise you to write to him immediately that 
you have anticipated his intentions, and that your children are 
with me : that you have only had them a few days in order to 
see them, and to give them a change of air. The page who is 
announced in Meneval's letter has not yet arrived. I hope he 
will bring me a letter from the Emperor, and that at least he 
will not be as vexed with me for your being at Baden. Your 
children have arrived in excellent health." 

The Duke of Montebello, who died this morning. The same day 
he writes to La Marechale as follows : 

" Ma Cousine^ The Marshal died this morning of the wounds 
that he received on the field of honour. My sorrow equals yours. 
I lose the most distinguished general in my whole army, my 
comrade-in-arms for sixteen years, he whom I looked upon as my 
best friend. His family and children will always have a special 
claim on my protection. It is to give you this assurance that I 
wished to write you this letter, for I feel that nothing can 
alleviate the righteous sorrow that you will experience." The 
following year he bestowed the highest honour on the Marechale 
that she could receive. 

Thus everything ends. The fourteenth bulletin says that the 
end was caused by a pernicious fever, and in spite of Dr. Franck, 
one of the best physicians in Europe. "Thus ends one of the 
most distinguished soldiers France ever possessed." 1 He had 
received thirteen wounds. The death of Lannes, and the whole 

1 "What a loss for France and for me," groaned Napoleon, as he left his 
dead friend. 


290 NOTES 

of the Essling period, is best told by Marbot. The loss of Lannes 
was a more serious one to Napoleon than the whole 20,000 men 
lost in this battle. The master himself has told us that " in war 
men are nothing, a man is everything." They could be replaced : 
Lannes never. Like Kleber and Desaix, he stood on a higher 
platform than the older Marshals except Massena, who had 
serious drawbacks, and who was the only one of Napoleon's best 
generals that Wellington met in the Peninsula. Lannes had 
always the ear of the Emperor, and always told him facts, not 
flattery. His life had been specially crowded the last few weeks. 
Rebuked by Napoleon for tardiness in supporting Massena at 
Ebersberg, his life was saved by Napoleon himself when he was 
thrown from his horse into the flooded Danube ; and finally, on 
the field of Essling, he had under his orders Bessieres, the man 
who had a dozen years before prevented his engagement to 
Caroline Bonaparte by tittle-tattling to Napoleon. 

No. 9. 

Eugene won a battle. The remnant of the Archduke John's 
army, together with Hungarian levies, in all 31,000 men, hold 
the entrenched camp and banks of the Raab. Eugene defeats it, 
with a loss of 6000 men, of whom 3700 were prisoners. Napoleon, 
in commemoration of the anniversary of Marengo (and Fried- 
land) calls it the little granddaughter of Marengo. 

No. ii. 

The curtain of the war's final act was rung up in the twenty- 
fourth bulletin. " At length there exists no longer the Danube 
for the French army ; General Count Bertrand has completed 
works which excite astonishment and inspire admiration. For 
800 yards over the most rapid river in the world he has, in a 
fortnight, constructed a bridge of sixteen arches where three 
carriages can pass abreast." 

Wagram is, according to Pelet, the masterpiece of tactical 
battles, while the five days' campaign (Thann to Ratisbon) was 
one long strategic battle. Nevertheless, respecting Wagram, had 

NOTES 291 

the Archduke John, with his 40,000 men, turned up, as the 
Archduke had more right to expect than Wellington had to 
expect Blucher, Waterloo might have been antedated six years. 

Lasalle was a prime favourite of Napoleon, for his sure eye 
and active bearing. His capture of Stettin with two regiments 
of hussars was specially noteworthy. Like Lannes he had a 
strong premonition of his death. Marbot tells a story of how 
Napoleon gave him 200,000 francs to get married with. A week 
later the Emperor asked, "When is the wedding?" "As soon 
as I have got some money to furnish with, sire." "Why, I gave 
you 200,000 francs to furnish with last week ! What have you 
done with them ? " "Paid my debts with half, and lost the other 
half at cards." Such an admission would have ruined any other 
general. The Emperor laughed, and merely giving a sharp tug 
at Lasalle's moustache, ordered Duroc to give him another 

/ am sunburnt^ and, as he writes Cambaceres the same day, 
tired out, having been sixty out of the previous seventy-two 
hours in the saddle. 

No. 12. 

IVolkendorf. On July 8th he writes General Clarke : " I 
have the headquarters lately occupied by the craven Francis II., 
who contented himself with watching the whole affair from the 
top of a tower, ten miles from the scene of battle." On this 
day also he dictated his twenty-fifth bulletin, of which the last 
portion is so skilfully utilised in the last scene of Act V. in 
L'Aiglon. One concluding sentence is all that can here be 
quoted : " Such is the recital of the battle of Wagram, a decisive 
and ever illustrious battle, where three to four hundred thousand 
men, twelve to fifteen hundred guns, fought for great stakes on 
a field of battle, studied, meditated on, and fortified by the enemy 
for many months." 

A surfeit of bile. His usual source of relief after extra work or 
worry. In this case both. Bernadotte had behaved so badly at 
Wagram, that Napoleon sent him to Paris with the stern rebuke, 
" A bungler like you is no good to me." But as usual his anger 
against an old comrade is short-lived, and he gives General Clarke 

292 NOTES 

permission to send Bernadotte to command at Antwerp against 
the English. 

No. 1 6. 

My affairs follow my wishes. In Austria, possibly, but not 
elsewhere. Prussia was seething with conspiracy, Russia with 
ill-concealed hatred, the English had just landed in Belgium, and 
Wellesley had just won Talavera. Souk was apparently no 
longer trustworthy, Bernadotte a conceited boaster, who had to 
be publicly snubbed (see The Order of the Day, August 5th, No. 
15,614). Clarke and Cambaceres are so slow that Napoleon 
writes them (August loth) "not to let the English come and 
take you in bed." Fouche shows more energy than every one 
else put together, calls out National Guards, and sends them off 
to meet the northern invasion. The Minister of the Interior, 
M. Cretet, had just died, and the Emperor had wisely put 
Fouch6, the most competent man available, into his place for the 
time being. 

No. 17. 

August 2ist. The list of birthday honours (August I5th) 
had been a fairly long one, Berthier becoming Prince of Wagram, 
Massena of Essling, Davoust of Eckmuhl. Marshals Oudinot 
and Macdonald, Generals Clarke, Reynier, Gaudin and Cham- 
pagny, as also M. Maret, became Dukes. Marmont had already, 
says Savary, been made delirious with the joy of possessing a 

No. 1 8. 

Comedians. Napoleon found relaxation more after his own heart 
in conversing with the savants of Germany, including the great 
mechanic MSelzel, with whose automaton chess-player he played 
a game. Constant gives a highly-coloured picture of the sequel : 
" The automaton was seated before a chess-board, and the 
Emperor, taking a chair opposite the figure, said laughingly, 
4 Now, my friend, we'll have a game.' The automaton, bowing, 
made signs for the Emperor to begin. After two or three moves 
the Emperor made a wrong one on purpose ; the automaton 

NOTES 293 

bowed and replaced the piece on the board. His Majesty cheated 
again, when the automaton bowed again, but this time took the 
pawn. * Quite right,' said his Majesty, as he promptly cheated 
for the third time. The automaton then shook its head, and 
with one sweep of its hand knocked all the chessmen down." 
Women . . . not having been presented. One woman, how- 
ever, the mistress of Lord Paget, was quite willing to be presented 
at a late hour and to murder him at the same time at least 
so says Constant. 

No. 19. 

All this is very suspicious. For perfectly natural reasons Caesar's 
wife was now above suspicion, but Caesar himself was not so. 
Madame Walewski had been more than a month at Schoenbrunn, 
and on May 4th, 1810, Napoleon has a second son born, who 
fifty years later helped to edit his father's Correspondence. 

No. 20. 

Krems. He left here to review Davoust's corps on the field 
of Austerlitz. Afterwards all the generals dined with him, and 
the Emperor said, " This is the second time I come upon the 
field of Austerlitz ; shall I come to it a third time ? " " Sire," 
replied one, " from what we see every day none dare wager that 
you will not ! " It was this suppressed hatred that probably 
determined the Emperor to dismantle the fortifications of Vienna, 
an act that intensified the hatred of the Viennese more than his 
allowing the poor people to help themselves to wood for the 
winter in the imperial forests had mollified them. 

My health has never been better. His reason for this remark is 
found in his letter to Cambaceres of the same date, " They have 
spread in Paris the rumour that I was ill, I know not why ; I 
was never better." The reason of the rumour was that Corvi- 
sart had been sent for to Vienna, as there had been an outbreak 
of dysentery among the troops. This was kept a profound secret 
from France, and Napoleon even allowed Josephine to think that 
Corvisart had attended him (see Letter 22). 

294 NOTES 

No. 23. 

October i^th. Two days before, Stabs, the young Tugend- 
bundist and an admirer of Joan of Arc, had attempted to assassinate 
Napoleon on parade with a carving-knife. The Emperor's letter 
to Fouche of the I2th October gives the most succinct account : 

" A youth of seventeen, son of a Lutheran minister of Erfurt, 
sought to approach me on parade to-day. He was arrested by 
the officers, and as the little man's agitation had been noticed, 
suspicion was aroused ; he was searched, and a dagger found 
upon him. I had him brought before me, and the little wretch, 
who seemed to me fairly well educated, told me that he wished 
to assassinate me to deliver Austria from the presence of the 
French. I could distinguish in him neither religious nor political 
fanaticism. He did not appear to know exactly who or what 
Brutus was. The fever of excitement he was in prevented our 
knowing more. He will be examined when he has cooled down 
and fasted. It is possible that it will come to nothing. He will 
be arraigned before a military commission. 

" I wished to inform you of this circumstance in order that it 
may not be made out more important than it appears to be. I 
hope it will not leak out ; if it does, we shall have to represent 
the fellow as a madman. If it is not spoken of at all, keep it to 
yourself. The whole affair made no disturbance at the parade ; 
I myself saw nothing of it. 

" P.S. I repeat once more, and you understand clearly, that 
there is to be no discussion of this occurrence." 

Count Rapp saved the Emperor's life on this occasion, and 
he, Savary, and Constant, all give detailed accounts. Their 
narratives are a remarkable object-lesson of the carelessness of the 
average contemporary spectator in recording dates. Savary gives 
vaguely the end of September, Constant October I3th, and Count 
Rapp October 23rd. In the present case the date of this other- 
wise trivial incident is important, for careless historians assert that 
it influenced Napoleon in concluding peace. In any case it 
would have taken twenty such occurrences to affect Napoleon 
one hairbreadth, and in the present instance his letter of October 
loth to the Russian Emperor proves that the Peace was already 
settled all but the signing. 

NOTES 295 

No. 24. 

Stuttgard. General Rapp describes this journey as follows : 
" Peace was ratified. We left Nymphenburg and arrived at 
Stuttgard. Napoleon was received in a style of magnificence, 
and was lodged in the palace together with his suite. The King 
was laying out a spacious garden, and men who had been con- 
demned to the galleys were employed to labour in it. The 
Emperor asked the King who the men were who worked in 
chains ; he replied that they were for the most part rebels who 
had been taken in his new possessions. We set out on the 
following day. On the way Napoleon alluded to the unfortunate 
wretches whom he had seen at Stuttgard. * The King of Wiir- 
temberg,' said he, ' is a very harsh man ; but he is very faithful. 
Of all the sovereigns in Europe he possesses the greatest share of 

" We stopped for an hour at Rastadt, where the Princess of 
Baden and Princess Stephanie had arrived for the purpose of 
paying their respects to the Emperor. The Grand Duke and 
Duchess accompanied him as far as Strasburg. On his arrival in 
that city he received despatches which again excited his displea- 
sure against the Faubourg St. Germain. We proceeded to Fon- 
tainebleau ; no preparations had been made for the Emperor's 
reception ; there was not even a guard on duty." 

This was on October 26th, at 10 A.M. Meneval asserts that 
Napoleon's subsequent bad temper was feigned. In any case, 
the meeting that moment so impatiently awaited was a very 
bad quart cTheure for Josephine, accentuated doubtless by Fouche's 
report of bad conduct on the part of the ladies of St. Germain. 


No. i. 

According to the Correspondence of Napoleon /., No. 16,058, 
the date of this letter is December ijth. It seems, however, 
possible that it is the letter written immediately after his arrival 

296 NOTES 

at Trianon, referred to by Meneval, who was, in fact, responsible 
for it. Thiers, working from unpublished memoirs of Hortense 
and Cambaceres, gives a most interesting account of the family 
council, held at 9 P.M. on Friday, December I5th, at the Tuileries. 
Constant also describes the scene, but gives the Empress credit 
for showing the most self-command of those chiefly interested. 
The next day, 1 1 A.M., Count Lacepede introduced the resolutions 
of the family council to the Senatus-Consultus. 1 " It is to-day 
that, more than ever before, the Emperor has proved that he 
wishes to reign only to serve his subjects, and that the Empress 
has merited that posterity should associate her name with that of 
Napoleon." He pointed out that thirteen of Napoleon's prede- 
cessors had broken the bonds of matrimony in order to fulfil 
better those of sovereign, and that among these were the most 
admired and beloved of French monarchs Charlemagne, Philip 
Augustus, Louis XII. and Henry IV. This speech and the 
Decrees (carried by 76 votes to 7) are found in the Monlteur of 
December I7th, which Napoleon considers sufficiently authentic 
to send to his brother Joseph as a full account of what occurred, 
and with no further comment of his own but that it was the 
step which he thought it his duty to take. The Decrees of the 
Committee of the Senate were : "(i) The marriage contracted 
between the Emperor Napoleon and the Empress Josephine is 
dissolved. (2) The Empress Josephine will retain the titles 
and rank of a crowned Empress-Queen. 2 (3) Her jointure is 
fixed at an annual revenue of 80,000 from the public treasury. 3 
(4) Every provision which may be made by the Emperor in 
favour of the Empress Josephine, out of the funds of the Civil 
List, shall be obligatory on his successors." They added 
separate addresses to the Emperor and Empress, and that to 
the latter seems worthy of quotation : " Your Imperial and 

1 By here subordinating himself to the Senate, the Emperor was preparing a 
rod for his own back hereafter. 

2 This clause gives considerable trouble to Lacepede and Regnauld. They 
cannot even find a precedent whether, if they met, Josephine or Marie Louise 
would take precedence of the other. 

3 In addition to this, Napoleon gives her ,40,000 a year from his privy purse, 
but keeps most of it back for the first two years to pay her I2O creditors. (For 
interesting details see Masson, Josephine Repudiite.) 

NOTES 297 

Royal Majesty is about to make for France the greatest of sacri- 
fices ; history will preserve the memory of it for ever. The 
august spouse of the greatest of monarchs cannot be united to his 
immortal glory by more heroic devotion. For long, Madame, 
the French people has revered your virtues ; it holds dear that 
loving kindness which inspires your every word, as it directs your 
every action ; it will admire your sublime devotion ; it will 
award for ever to your Majesty, Empress and Queen, the homage 
of gratitude, respect, and love." 

From a letter of Eugene's to his wife, quoted by Aubenas, 
it appears that he, with his mother, arrived at Malmaison on 
Saturday evening, 1 December i6th, and that it never ceased 
raining all the next day, which added to the general depression, 
in spite of, or because of, Eugene's bad puns. On the evening 
of the 1 6th Napoleon was at Trianon, writing letters, and we 
cannot think that if the Emperor had been to Malmaison on the 
Sunday, 2 Eugene would have included this without comment in 
the " some visits " they had received. The Emperor, as we see 
from the next letter, paid Josephine a visit on the Monday. 

No. 2. 

The date of this is Tuesday, December igth, while No. 3 is 
Wednesday the 2Oth. 

Savary, always unpopular with the Court ladies, has now 
nothing but kind words for Josephine. " She quitted the Court, 
but the Court did not quit her ; it had always loved her, for never 
had any one been so kind. . . . She never injured any one in the 
time of her power ; she protected even her enemies " such as 
Fouche at this juncture, and Lucien earlier. " During her stay 
at Malmaison, the highroad from Paris to this chateau was only 
one long procession, in spite of the bad weather ; every one 
considered it a duty to present themselves at least once a week." 

1 Which agrees with Madame d'Avrillon, who says they left the Tuileries at 
2.30. Meneval says Napoleon left for Trianon a few hours later. Savary writes 
erroneously that they left the following morning. 

2 M. Masson seems to indicate a visit on December i6th, but does not give 
his authority (Josephine Repudite, 1 14). 

298 NOTES 

Later, Marie Louise became jealous of this, and poor Josephine 
had to go to the chateau of Navarre, and finally to leave France. 

Queen of Naples. For some reason Napoleon had not wanted 
this sister at Paris this winter, and had written her to this effect 
from Schoenbrunn on October I5th. "If you were not so far 
off, and the season so advanced, I would have asked Murat to 
spend two months in Paris. But you cannot be there before 
December, which is a horrible season, especially for a Nea- 
politan." : But sister Caroline, " with the head of a Cromwell 
on the shoulders of a pretty woman," was not easy to lead ; and 
her husband had in consequence to bear the full weight of the 
Emperor's displeasure. Murat's finances were in disorder, and 
Napoleon wrote Champagny on December 3Oth to tell Murat 
plainly that if the borrowed money was not returned to France, 
it would be taken by main force. 2 

The hunt. In pouring rain, in the forest of St. Germain. 

No. 4. 

Thursday, December 2ist, is the date. 

The weather is very damp. Making Malmaison as unhealthy 
as its very name warranted, and rendering more difficult the task 
which Madame de Remusat had set herself of resting Josephine 
mentally by tiring her physically. This typical toady Napo- 
leon's Eavesdropper Extraordinary had arrived at Malmaison on 
December i8th. She writes on the Friday (December 22nd), 
beseeching her husband to advise the Emperor to moderate the 
tone of his letters, especially this one (Thursday, December 2ist), 
which had upset Josephine frightfully. Surely a more harmless 
letter was never penned. But it is the Remusat all over ; she 
lives in a chronic atmosphere of suspicion that all her letters are 
read by the Emperor, and therefore, like Stevenson's nursery 
rhymes, they are always written with " one eye on the grown-up 
person " 3 on the grown-up person par excellence of France and the 
century. The opening of letters by the government was doubt- 

1 Correspondence of Napoleon /., No. 15,952. 

2 New Letters of Napoleon, 1898. 

3 Canon Ainger's comparison. 

NOTES 299 

less a blemish, which, however, Napoleon tried to neutralise by 
entrusting the Post Office to his wife's relative, Lavalette, a man 
whose ever-kind heart prevented this necessary espionage de- 
generating into unnecessary interference with individual rights. 

No. 5. 

Date probably Sunday, December 24th. 

King of Bavaria. Eugene had gone to Meaux to meet his 
father-in-law, who had put off the " dog's humour" which he had 
shown since the i6th. 

No. 6. 

Josephine had gone by special invitation to dine at the 
little Trianon with Napoleon on Christmas Day, and Madame 
d'Avrillon says she had a very happy day there. " On her 
return she told me how kind the Emperor had been to her, that 
he had kept her all the evening, saying the kindest things to her." 
Aubenas says, " The repast was eaten in silence and gloom," 
but does not give his authority. Eugene, moreover, confirms 
Madame d'Avrillon in his letter to his wife of December 26th : 
" My dear Auguste, the Emperor came on Sunday to see the 
Empress. Yesterday she went to Trianon to see him, and 
stayed to dinner. The Emperor was very kind and amiable to 
her, and she seemed to be much better. Everything points to 
the Empress being more happy in her new position, and we 
also." On this Christmas Day Napoleon had his last meal 
with Josephine. 

No. 7. 

Tuileries. His return from Trianon to this, his official 
residence, made the divorce more apparent to every one. 

No. 8. 

A house vacant in Paris. This seems a hint for Josephine. 
She wishes to come to Paris, to the Elysee, and to try a little 
diplomacy of her own in favour of the Austrian match, and she 

300 NOTES 

sends secretly to Madame de Metternich whose husband was 
absent. Eugene more officially is approaching Prince Schwartzen- 
berg, the ambassador. Josephine, like Talleyrand, wished to 
heal the schism with Rome by an Austrian alliance ; while Cam- 
baceres, foreseeing a war with the power not allied by marriage, 
would have preferred the Russian match. 

No. 9. 

Thursday, January 4th. 

Hortense. Louis had tried to obtain a divorce. Cambaceres 
was ordered on December 22nd to summon a family council 
(New Letters of Napoleon /., No. 234) ; but the wish of the 
King was refused (verbally, says Louis in his Historical Docu- 
ments of Holland)^ whereupon he refused to agree to Josephine's 
divorce, but had to give way, and was present at what he calls 
the farewell festival given by the city of Paris to the Empress 
Josephine on January ist. The ecclesiastical divorce was pro- 
nounced on January I2th. 

No. 10. 
January 5th. He duly visits Josephine the next day. 

No. ii. 

January yth is the date. 

What charms your society has. Her repertoire of small talk and 
scandal. He had also lost in her his Agenda, his Journal of Paris. 
Still the visits are growing rarer. This long kind letter was 
doubtless intended to be specially so, for two days later the clergy 
of Paris pronounced the annulment of her marriage. This was 
far worse than the pronouncement by the Senate in December, 
as it meant to her that she and Napoleon had never been properly 
married at all. The Emperor, who hated divorces, and especially 
divorcees, had found great difficulty in breaking down the barriers 
he had helped to build, for which purpose he had to be subordi- 
nated to his own Senate, the Pope to his own bishops. Seven of 
them allowed the annulment of the marriage of 1804 on account 

NOTES 301 

of (i) its secrecy, (2) the insufficiency of consent of the contract- 
ing parties, and (3) the absence of the local parish priest at the 
ceremony. The last reason was merely a technical one ; but 
with respect to the first two it is only fair to admit that Napoleon 
had undoubtedly, and perhaps for the only time in his life, been 
completely " rushed," i.e. by the Pope and Josephine. The coro- 
nation ceremony was waiting, and the Pope, secretly solicited by 
Josephine, insisted on a religious marriage first and foremost. 
The Pope suffered forthwith, but the other bill of costs was 
not exacted till five years after date. 

No. 12. 

Wednesday, January I2th. 

King of Westphalia. Madame Durand (Napoleon and Marie 
Louise] says that, forced to abandon his wife (the beautiful and 
energetic Miss Paterson) and child, Jerome " had vowed he 
would never have any relations with a wife who had been thus 
forced upon him." For three years he lavished his attentions 
upon almost all the beauties of the Westphalian court. The 
queen, an eye-witness of this conduct, bore it with mild and 
forbearing dignity ; she seemed to see and hear nothing ; in 
short, her demeanour was perfect. The king, touched by her 
goodness, weary of his conquests, and repentant of his behaviour, 
was only anxious for an opportunity of altering the state of things. 
Happily the propitious moment presented itself. The right wing 
of the palace of Cassel, in which the queen's apartments were 
situated, took fire ; alarmed by the screams of her women the 
queen awoke and sprang out of her bed, to be caught in the arms 
of the king and carried to a place of safety. From that time 
forth the royal couple were united and happy. 

No. 13. 

Saturday, January I3th. 

Sensible. This was now possible after a month's mourning. 
In the early days, according to Madame Remusat, her mind often 
wandered, But Napoleon himself encouraged the Court to visit 

302 NOTES 

her, and the road to Malmaison was soon a crowded one. As 
the days passed, however, life became sadly monotonous. Read- 
ing palled on Josephine, as did whist and the daily feeding of her 
golden pheasants and guinea-fowls. Remained " Patience " ! 
Was it the " General " she played or the " Emperor," or did she 
find distraction in the " Demon " ? 

No. 14. 

D'Audenarde. Napoleon's handsome equerry, whom Mile. 
d'Avrillon calls " un homme superbe." His mother was Josephine's 
favourite dame du palats. Madame Lalaing, Viscountess d'Aude- 
narde, nie Peyrac, was one of the old regime who had been ruined 
by the Revolution. 

No. 1 6. 

Tuesday, January 23rd. 

On January 2ist a Privy Council was summoned to approve 
of Marie Louise as their " choice of a consort, who may give 
an heir to the throne " (Thiers). Cambaceres, Fouche, and 
Murat wished for the Russian princess ; Lebrun, Cardinal Fesch, 
and King Louis for a Saxon one ; but Talleyrand, Champagny, 
Maret, Berthier, Fontanes were for Austria. 

No. 17. 
Sunday, January 28th. 

No. 1 8. 

Josephine had heard she was to be banished from Paris, and 
so had asked to come to the Elysee to prove the truth or other- 
wise of the rumour. 

L'Elysle. St. Amand gives the following interesting prtcis : 
"Built by the Count d'Evreux in 1718, it had belonged in suc- 
cession to the Marchioness de Pompadour, to the financier 
Beaujon, a Croesus of the eighteenth century, and to the Duchesse 
de Bourbon. Having, under the Revolution, become national 
property, it had been hired by the caterers of public entertain- 

NOTES 303 

ments, who gave it the name of L'Elysde. In 1803 it became 
the property of Murat, who, becoming King of Naples, ceded it 
to Napoleon in 1808. Here Napoleon signed his second abdica- 
tion, here resided Alexander I. in 1815, and here Josephine's 
grandson effected the Coup cTEtat (1851). When the Senatus- 
Consultus fixed the revenue of Josephine, Napoleon not only 
gave her whatever rights he had in Malmaison, viz., at least 90 
per cent, of the total cost, but the palace of the Elysee, its gardens 
and dependencies, with the furniture then in use." The latter 
residence was, however, for her life only. 

No. 19. 

February 3rd is the date. 

U Ely see. After the first receptions the place is far worse 
than Malmaison. Schwartzenberg, Talleyrand, the Princess 
Pauline, Berthier, even her old friend Cambaceres are giving 
balls, 1 while the Emperor goes nearly every night to a theatre. 
The carriages pass by the Elysee, but do not stop. " It is as if 
the palace were in quarantine, with the yellow flag floating. 1 ' 

No. 20. 

Bessiere? country-house. M. Masson says Grignon, but unless 
this house is called after the chateau of that name in Provence, 
he must be mistaken. 

No. 21. 

Rambouillet. He had taken the Court with him, and was 
there from February igth to the 23rd, the date of this letter. 
While there he had been in the best of humours. On his return 
he finds it necessary to write his future wife and to her father 
and to pen a legible letter to the latter gives him far more trouble 
than winning a battle against the Austrians, if not assisted by 
General Danube. 

Adieu. Sick and weary, Josephine returns to Malmaison, 

1 See Baron Lejeune for an interesting account of a chess quadrille at a dance 
given by the Italian Minister, Marescalchi, 

3 o 4 NOTES 

Friday, March gth, and even this is not long to be hers, for the 
new Empress is almost already on her way. The marriage at 
Vienna took place on March nth, with her uncle Charles, 1 the 
hero of Essling, for Napoleon's proxy; on the I3th she leaves 
Vienna, and on the 23rd reaches Strasbourg. On the 2jth she 
meets Napoleon at Compiegne, spends three days with him in 
the chateau there, and arrives at St. Cloud on April ist, where 
the civil marriage is renewed, followed by the triumphal entry 
into Paris, and the religious ceremony on April 2nd. This day 
Josephine reaches the chateau of Navarre. 


Navarre, on the site of an old dwelling of Rollo the Sea-King, 
was built by Jeanne of France, Queen of Navarre, Countess of 
Evreux. At the time of the Revolution it belonged to the 
Dukes of Bouillon, and was confiscated. In February 1810, 
Napoleon determined to purchase it, and on March loth in- 
structed his secretary of state, Maret, to confer the Duchy of 
Navarre, purchased by letters patent, on Josephine and her heirs 
male. The old square building was, however, utterly unfit to 
be inhabited : not a window would shut, there was neither 
paper nor tapestry, all the wainscoting was rotten, draughts and 
damp everywhere, and no heating apparatus. 2 What solace to 
know its beautiful situation, its capabilities ? No wonder if her 
household, banished to such a place, sixty-five miles from the 
" capital of capitals," should rebel, and secessions headed by Madame 
Ney become for a time general. Whist and piquet soon grow 
stale in such a house and with such surroundings, and even 
trictrac with the old bishop of Evreux becomes tedious. 

1 On this occasion Baron Lejeune sees the Archduke Charles, and remarks : 
"There was nothing in his quiet face with its grave and gentle expression, or in 
his simple, modest, unassuming manner, to denote the mighty man of war ; but 
no one who met his eyes could doubt him to be a genius." 

2 " This gloomy and forsaken chateau," says St. Amand, " whose only attraction 
was the half- forgotten memory of its vanished splendours, was a fit image of the 
woman who came to seek sanctuary there." 

NOTES 305 

Eugene as usual brings sunshine in his path, and helps to dispel 
the gloom caused by the idle gossip imported from Paris that 
Josephine is not to return to Malmaison, and the like. 

No. i. 

This was Josephine's second letter, says D'Avrillon, the first 
being answered viva voce by Eugene. 

To Malmaison. Napoleon had promised Josephine permission 
to return to Malmaison, and would not recant : his new wife 
was, however, very jealous of Josephine, and very much hurt at 
her presence at Malmaison. Napoleon managed to be away 
from Paris for six weeks after Josephine's arrival at Malmaison. 

No. i A. 

// is written in a bad style. M. Masson, however, is loud in its 
praises, and adds, " Voila done le protocol du tutoiement " re- 
established between them in spite of the second marriage, and 
their correspondence re-established on the old terms. 

No. 2. 

This letter seems to have been taken by Eugene to Paris, 
and thence forwarded to the Emperor with a letter from that 
Prince in which he enumerates Josephine's suggestions and 
wishes (i) that she will not go to Aix-la-Chapelle if other waters 
are suggested by Corvisart ; (2) that after stopping a few days 
at Malmaison she will go in June for three months to the baths, 
and afterwards to the south of France ; visit Rome, Florence, 
and Naples incognito, spend the winter at Milan, and return to 
Malmaison and Navarre in the spring of 1811 ; (3) that in her 
absence Navarre shall be made habitable, for which fresh funds 
are required ; (4) that Josephine wishes her cousins the Taschers 
to marry, one a relative of King Joseph, the other the Princess 
Amelie de la Leyen, niece of the Prince Primate. To this 
Napoleon replies from Compiegne, April 26th, that the De 
Leyen match with Louis Tascher may take place, 1 but that he 

1 He endows the husband with 4000 a year, and the title of Count Tascher. 


306 NOTES 

will not interest himself in the other (Henry) Tascher, who is 
giddy-headed and bad-tempered. " I consent to whatever the 
Empress does, but I will not confer any mark of my regard on a 
person who has behaved ill to me. I am very glad that the 
Empress likes Navarre. I am giving orders to have .12,000 
which I owe her for 1810, and .12,000 for 1811 advanced to 
her. She will then have only the ^80,000 from the public 
treasury to come in. ... She is free to go to whatever spa she 
cares for, and even to return to Paris afterwards." He thinks, 
however, she would be happier in new scenes which they had 
never visited together, as they had Aix-la-Chapelle. If, however, 
the last are the best she may go to them, for " what I desire above 
all is that she may keep calm, and not allow herself to be excited 
by the gossip of Paris." This letter goes far to soothe the poor 
chatelaine of Navarre. 

No. 2A. 

Two letters. The other, now missing, may have some refer- 
ence to the pictures to which he refers in his letter to Fouche 
the next day. " Is it true that engravings are being published 
with the title of Josephine Beauharnais nee La Pagerie ? If this is 
true, have the prints seized, and let the engravers be punished " 
(New Letters, No. 253). 

No. 3. 

Probably written from Boulogne about the 25th. His 
northern tour with Marie Louise had been very similar to one 
taken in 1804, but his entourage found the new bride very cold 
and callous compared to Josephine. Leaving Paris on April 
29th Napoleon's Correspondence till June is dated Laeken (April 
3Oth) ; Antwerp (May 3rd) ; Bois-le-Duc ; Middleburg, Gand, 
Bruges, Ostend (May 2Oth) ; Lille, Boulogne, Dieppe, Le 
Havre, Rouen (May 3ist). He takes the Empress in a canal 
barge from Brussels to Malines and himself descends the 
subterranean vault of the Escaut-Oise canal, between St. 
Quentin and Cambrai. He is at St. Cloud on June 2nd. 

Josephine has felt his wanderings less, as she has the future 

NOTES 307 

Emperor, her favourite grandson, with her, the little Oui-Oui, 
as she calls him, and for whom the damp spring weather of 
Holland was dangerous. She was also at Malmaison from the 
middle of May to June i8th. The original collection of 
Letters (Didot Freres, 1833) heads the letter correctly to the 
Empress Josephine at Malmaison^ but the Correspondence^ pub- 
lished by order of Napoleon III., gives it erroneously, to the 
Empress Josephine, at the Chateau of Navarre (No. 16,537). 

/ will come to see you. He comes for two hours on June I3th, 
and makes himself thoroughly agreeable. Poor Josephine is 
light-headed with joy all the evening after. The meeting of 
the two Empresses is, however, indefinitely postponed, and 
Josephine had now no further reason to delay her departure. 
Leaving her little grandson Louis behind, she travels under the 
name of the Countess d'Arberg, and she is accompanied by 
Madame d'Audenarde and Mile, de Mackau, who left the 
Princess Stephanie to come to Navarre. M. Masson notes that 
Madame de Remusat needs the Aix waters, and will rejoin 
Josephine (within a week), under pretext of service, and thus 
obtain her cure gratuitously. They go via Lyons and Geneva 
to Aix-les-Bains. M. Masson, who has recently made a careful 
and complete study of this period, describes the daily round. 
" Josephine, on getting out of bed, takes conscientiously her 
baths and douches, then, as usual, lies down again until de- 
jeuner, 1 1 A.M., for which the whole of the little Court are 
assembled at The Palace wherever she lives, and however 
squalid the dwelling-place, her abode always bears this name. 
Afterwards she and her women-folk ply their interminable 
tapestry, while the latest novel or play (sent by Barbier from 
Paris) is read aloud. And so the day passes till five, when they 
dress for dinner at six ; after dinner a ride. At nine the Empress's 
friends assemble in her room, Mile, de Mackau sings ;.at eleven 
every one goes to bed." This programme, however, varies with 
the weather. Here is St. Amand's version (Dernieres Annees de 
I' Imperatrice Josephine, p. 237) : "A little reading in the morning, 
an airing (le promenade] afterwards, dinner at eight on account of 
the heat, games afterwards, and some little music ; so passed 

308 NOTES 

No. 4. 

July 8M. On July 5th, driving along the Chambery road, 
Josephine met the courier with a letter from Eugene describing 
the terrible fire at Prince Schwartzenberg's ball, where the 
Princess de la Leyen, mother of young Taschre's bride-elect, 
was burnt. It is noteworthy that the Emperor makes no 
allusion to the conflagration. As, however, this is the first 
letter since the end of May, others may have been lost or 

You will have seen Eugene i.e. on his way to Milan, who 
arrived at Aix on July loth. He had just been made heir to 
the Grand Duchy of Frankfort a broad hint to him and to 
Europe that Italy would be eventually united to France under 
Napoleon's dynasty. This was the nadir of the Beauharnais 
family Josephine repudiee, Hortense unqueened and unwed, 1 
and Eugene's expectations dissipated, and all within a few 
short months. Eugene had left his wife ill at Geneva, whither 
Josephine goes to visit her the next day, duly reporting her 
visit to Napoleon in her letter of July I4th (see No. 5). Geneva 
was always the home of the disaffected, and so the Empress had 
to be specially tactful, and the De Remusat reports : " She 
speaks of the Emperor as of a brother, of the new Empress 
as the one who will give children to France, and if the rumours 
of the latter's condition be correct, I am certain she will be 
delighted about it." 

That unfortunate daughter is coming to France i.e. to reside when 
she is not at St. Leu (given to her by Napoleon) or at the waters. 
On the present occasion she has been at Plombieres a month or 
more. On July loth Napoleon instructs the Countess de 
Boubers to bring the Grand Duke of Berg to Paris, "whom 
he awaits with impatience " (Brotonne, 625). 

No. 5. 

The conduct of the King of Holland has worried me. This was 
in March, and by May the crisis was still more acute and 

1 " Une epouse sans epoux, et une reine sans royaume " St. Amand. 

NOTES 309 

Napoleon's patience exhausted. On May 20th he writes : 
" Before all things be a Frenchman and the Emperor's brother, 
and then you may be sure you are in the path of the true 
interests of Holland. Good sense and policy are necessary to the 
government of states, not sour unhealthy bile." And three days 
later : " Write me no more of your customary twaddle ; three 
years now it has been going on, and every instant proves its 
falsehood ! This is the last letter I shall ever write you in my 

Louis at one time determined on war, and rather than 
surrender Amsterdam, to cut the dykes. The Emperor hears 
of this, summons his brother, and practically imprisons him until 
he countermands the defence of Amsterdam. 

On July ist Louis abdicated and fled to Toeplitz in 
Bohemia. Napoleon is terribly grieved at the conduct of his 
brother, who would never realise that the effective Continental 
blockade was Napoleon's last sheet-anchor to force peace upon 

No. 6. 

To die in a lake i.e. the Lake of Bourget, shut in by the 
Dent du Chat, where a white squall had nearly capsized the 
sailing boat. Josephine had been on July 26th to visit the 
abbey Haute-Combe, place of sepulture of the Princes of Savoy, 
and the storm had overtaken her on the return voyage. 

No. 8. 

Paris, this Friday. A very valuable note of M. Masson 
(Josephine Repudiee, 198) enables us to fix this letter at its correct 
date. He says : " It has to do with the exile of Madame de 

la T (viz., the Princess Louis de la Tremoille), which takes 

place on September 28th, 1810, and this 28th September is also 
a Friday : there is also the question of Mile, de Mackau being 
made a baroness " (and this lady had not joined the Court of 

Josephine till May 1810) ; "lastly, the B mentioned therein 

can only be Barante, the Prefect, whose dismissal (from Geneva) 

3 io NOTES 

almost coincides with this letter." It may be added that the La 
Tremoille family was one of the oldest in France, allied with 
the Condes, and consequently with the Bourbons. Barante's 
fault had been connivance at the letters and conduct of Madame 
de Stael. 

No. 9. 

The only suitable places . . . are either Milan or Navarre. 
Milan had been her own suggestion conveyed by Eugene, but 
Napoleon, two months later, had told her she could spend the 
winter in France, and in spite of danger signals (" inspired by 
diplomacy rather than devotion " J ) from Madame de Remusat (in 
her fulsome and tedious " despatch " sent from Paris in September, 
and probably inspired by the Emperor himself) she manages to 
get to Navarre, and even to spend the first fortnight of 
November at Malmaison. Before leaving Switzerland Josephine 
refuses to risk an interview with Madame de Stael. "In the 
first book she publishes she will not fail to report our con- 
versation, and heaven knows how many things she will make 
me say that I have never even thought of." 

No. 10. 

In spite of the heading Josephine was at Malmaison on this 
day, and Napoleon writes Cambaceres : " My cousin, the 
Empress Josephine not leaving for Navarre till Monday or 
Tuesday, I wish you to pay her a visit. You will let me 
know on your return how you find her" (Brotonne, 721). The 
real reason is to hasten her departure, and she gets to Navarre 
November 22nd (Thursday). 

The Empress progresses satisfactorily. Napoleon writes to this 
effect to her father, the Emperor of Austria, on the same day : 
"The Empress is very well. ... It is impossible that the wife 
for whom I am indebted to you should be more perfect. More- 
over, I beg your Majesty to rest assured that she and I are equally 
attached to you." 

1 Aubenas, 

NOTES 311 

No. i. 

The New Tear. On this occasion, instead of her usual gifts 
(etrennes) she organised a lottery of jewels, of which Madame 
Ducrest gives a full account. Needless to say, Josephine worked 
the oracle so that every one got a suitable gift including the 
old Bishop (see next note). 

More women than men. The Bishop of Evreux (Mgr. 
Bourlier) was the most welcome guest. He amused Josephine, 
and although eighty years of age, could play trictrac and talk 
well on any subject. Madame de Remusat wrote her husband 
concerning him, " We understand each other very well, he 
and I." 

Keep well. At Navarre Josephine lost her headaches, and put 
on flesh. 

No. 2. 

There is a full account of the birth of the King of Rome in 
Napoleon's letter to the Emperor of Austria on March 20 (No. 
17,496). The letter of this date to Josephine is missing, but is 
referred to by D'Avrillon. It began, "My dear Josephine, I 
have a son. I am au comble de bonheur." 

Eugene. Josephine much appreciated this allusion. " Is it 
possible," she said, " for any one to be kinder than the Emperor, 
and more anxious to mitigate whatever might be painful for me 
at the present moment, if I loved him less sincerely ? This 
association of my son with his own is well worthy of him who, 
when he likes, is the most fascinating of all men." She gave a 
costly ring to the page who brought the letter. 

On the previous day Eugene had arrived at Navarre, sent by 
the Emperor. " You are going to see your mother, Eugene ; tell 
her I am sure that she will rejoice more than any one at my 
happiness. I should have already written to her if I had not been 
absorbed by the pleasure of watching my boy. The moments I 
snatch from his side are only for matters of urgent necessity. 

312 NOTES 

This event, I shall acquit myself of the most pleasant of them all 
by writing to Josephine." 

No. 4. 

Written in November 1811. 

As fat as a good Normandy farmeress. Madame d'Abrantes, 
who saw her about this time, writes : " I observed that Josephine 
had grown very stout 1 since the time of my departure for Spain. 
This change was at once for the better and the worse. It 
imparted a more youthful appearance to her face ; but her slender 
and elegant figure, which had been one of her principal attrac- 
tions, had entirely disappeared. She had now decided ernbon- 
point^ and her figure had assumed that matronly air which we 
find in the statues of Agrippina, Cornelia, &c. Still, however, 
she looked uncommonly well, and she wore a dress which became 
her admirably. Her judicious taste in these matters contributed 
to make her appear young much longer than she otherwise would. 
The best proof of the admirable taste of Josephine is the marked 
absence of elegance shown by Marie Louise, though both 
Empresses employed the same milliners and dressmakers, and 
Marie Louise had a large sum allotted for the expenses of her 

St. Amand says that 1 8 1 1 was for Josephine a happy year, 
compared to those which followed. 


No. i. 

Written from Konigsberg (M. Masson, in Josephine Repudiee^ 
says Dantzig ; but on June nth Napoleon writes to Eugene, " I 
shall be at Konigsberg to-morrow," where his correspondence 
is dated from henceforward). A day or two later he writes the 

1 Mile. d'Avrillon says that during the Swiss voyage Josephine found it 
desirable, for the first time, to "wear whalebone in her corsets," 

NOTES 313 

King of Rome's governess that he trusts to hear soon that the 
fifteen months old child has cut his first four teeth. 

No. 2. 

Gumbinneri) June 2Oth. From this place and on this date goes 
forth the first bulletin of the Grande Armle. It gives a rhuml of 
the causes of the war, dating from the end of 1810, when English 
influence again gained ascendency. 

On July 2Qth he writes Hortense from Witepsk to congratu- 
late her on her eldest son's recovery from an illness. A week 
later he writes his librarian for some amusing novels new 
ones for choice, or old ones that he has not read or good 

Josephine meanwhile has permission to go to Italy. Owing 
to her grandson's illness she defers starting till July i6th. 
Through frightful weather she reaches Milan via Geneva on July 
28th, and has a splendid reception. On the 29th she writes to 
Hortense : " I have found the three letters from Eugene, the last 
one dated the I3th ; his health is excellent. He still pursues the 
Russians, without being able to overtake them. It is generally 
hoped the campaign may be a short one. May that hope be 
realised ! " Two days later she announces the birth of Eugene's 
daughter Amelia, afterwards Empress of Brazil. Towards the 
end of August Josephine goes to Aix and meets the Queen of 
Spain with her sister Desiree Bernadotte, the former " kind and 
amiable as usual," the latter " very gracious to me " rather a 
new experience. From Aix she goes to Pregny-la-Tour, on the 
Lake of Geneva, and shocks the good people in various ways, says 
M. Masson, especially by innuendoes against Napoleon ; and he 
adds, " if one traces back to their source the worst calumnies 
against the morals of the Emperor, it is Josephine that one 
encounters there." She gets to Malmaison October 24th. Soon 
after his return from Moscow Napoleon pays her a visit, and 
about this time she begins to see the King of Rome, whose 
mother has always thought more of her daily music and draw- 
ing lessons than of whether she was making her son happy 
or not, 


1812 closed in gloom, but 1813 was in itself terribly ominou 
to so superstitious a woman as Josephine. Thirteen is always 
unlucky, and moreover the numbers of 1813 add up to 13 ; also 
the doom-dealing year began on a Friday. Every one felt the 
hour approaching. As Napoleon said at St. Helena : " The star 
grew pale ; I felt the reins slipping from my hand, and I could 
do no more. A thunderbolt could alone have saved us, and 
every day, by some new fatality or other, our chances diminished. 
Sinister designs began to creep in among us ; fatigue and dis- 
couragement had won over the majority ; my lieutenants became 
lax, clumsy, careless, and consequently unfortunate ; they were 
no longer the men of the commencement of the Revolution, nor 
even of the time of my good fortune. The chief generals were 
sick of the war ; I had gorged them too much with my high 
esteem, with too many honours and too much wealth. They 
had drunk from the cup of pleasure, and wished to enjoy peace 
at any price. The sacred fire was quenched." 

Up to August Fortune had smiled again upon her favourite. 
With conscripts for infantry and without cavalry he had won 
Lutzen, Bautzen, and Dresden ; and even so late as September 
Byron was writing that " bar epilepsy and the elements he would 
back Napoleon against the field." But treachery and incompe- 
tence had undermined the Empire, and Leipsic (that battle of 
giants, where 110,000 soldiers were killed and wounded) made 
final success hopeless. In 1814 his brothers Lucien and Louis 
rallied to him, and Hortense was for the only time proud of her 
husband. She thinks if he had shown less suspicion and she less 
pride they might have been happy after all. " My husband is a 
good Frenchman ... he is an honest man." Meanwhile, 
Talleyrand is watching to guide the coup de grace. Napoleon 
makes a dash for Lorraine to gather his garrisons and cut off the 
enemy's supplies. The Allies hesitate and are about to follow 
him, as per the rules of war. Talleyrand, the only man who 
could ever divine Napoleon, sends them the message, " You can 
do everything, and you dare nothing; dare therefore once!" 
Hortense is the only man left in Paris, and in vain she tries to 
keep Marie Louise, whose presence would have stimulated the 
Parisians to hold the Allies at bay. It is in vain. Unlike Prussia 

NOTES 315 

or Austria who fought for months, or Spain who fought for 
years, after their capitals were taken : 

" Like Nineveh, Carthage, Babylon and Rome, 
France yields to the conqueror, vanquished at home." 

After Marmont's betrayal Napoleon attempts suicide, and 
when he believes death imminent sends a last message to 
Josephine by Caulaincourt, " You will tell Josephine that my 
thoughts were of her before life departed." 

It was on Monday, May 23rd, that Josephine's illness com- 
menced, after receiving at dinner the King of Prussia and his 
sons (one afterwards Wilhelm der Greise, first Emperor of Ger- 
many). Whether the sore throat which killed her was a 
quinsy or diphtheria l is difficult to prove, but the latter seems 
the more probable. Corvisart, who was himself ill and unable 
to attend, told Napoleon that she died of grief and worry. 
Before leaving for the Waterloo campaign Napoleon visited 
Malmaison, and there, as Lord Rosebery reminds us, allowed 
his only oblique reproach to Marie Louise to escape him : 
" Poor Josephine. Her death, of which the news took me by 
surprise at Elba, was one of the most acute griefs of that fatal 
year, 1814. She had her failings, of course ; but she y at any rate, 
would never have abandoned me" 

1 The same question may be asked respecting the death of Montaigne. 



FABLE. Composee a I' age de 13 ans, par NAPOLEON I. 

Cesar, chien d'arret renomme, 

Mais trop enfle de son merite, 

Tennait arrete dans son gite 
Un malheureux lapin de peur inanime. 
" Rends-toi ! " lui cria-t-il, d'une voix de tonerre 
Qui fit au loin trembler les peuplades des bois. 
" Je suis Cesar, connu par ses exploits, 
Et dont le nom remplit toute la terre." 

A ce grand nom, Jeannot Lapin, 
Recommandant a Dieu son ame penitente, 

Demande d'une voix tremblante : 

" Tres-serenissime matin, 
Si je me rends quel sera mon destin ? " 
" Tu mourras." " Je mourrai ! " dit la bete innocente. 
" Et si je fuis ? " " Ton trepas est certain." 
" Quoi ! " reprit 1' animal qui se nourrit de thym, 
" Des deux cotes je dois perdre la vie ! 

Que votre auguste seigneurie 
Veuille me pardonner, puisqu'il me faut mourir, 

Si j'ose tenter de m'enfuir." 
II dit, et fuit en heros de garenne. 
Caton 1'aurait blame 1 ; je dis qu'il n'eut pas tort. 

Car le chasseur le voit a peine 
Qu'il 1'ajuste, le tire et le chien tombe mort 
Que dirait de ceci notre bon La Fontaine ? 

Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera. 

I'approuve fort cette me'thode-la, 



MANY more or less fictitious genealogies of the Bonapartes have been 
published, some going back to mythical times. The first reliable record, 
however, seems to be that of a certain Bonaparte of Sarzana, in Northern 
Italy, an imperfal notary, who was living towards the end of the thirteenth 
century, and from whom both the Corsican and the Trevisan or Floren- 
tine Bonapartes claim their origin. From him in direct line was descended 
Francois de Sarzana, who was sent to Corsica in 1509 to fight for the 
Republic of Genoa. His son Gabriel, having sold his patrimony in 
Italy, settled in Ajaccio, where he bore the honourable title of Messire, 
and where, being left a widower, he assumed the tonsure and died Canon 
of the cathedral. 

From him an unbroken line of Bonapartes, all of whom in turn were 
elected to the dignity of Elder of Ajaccio, brings us to Charles Bonaparte 
Napoleon, father of the Emperor. 



THE author asked the advice of Monsieur Frederic Masson about these 
Letters, to which he at once received the courteous reply, " II faut 
absolument rejeter les Lettres publiees par Regnault Varin l et reproduites 
par Georgette Ducrest ; pas une n'est authentique." No one who has 
read much of Napoleon's correspondence can in fact believe for a moment 
in their authenticity. They are interesting, however, as showing the sort 
of stuff which went to form our grandfathers' fallacies about the relations 
of Napoleon and Josephine. Madame Ducrest occasionally played and 

1 Memoir es et Correspondance de F Imperatrice Josephine, par /. B. J. Innocert 
Philaddphe Regnault Varin. Paris, 1820, 8. This book is not in the British 
Museum Catalogue. 


sang for Josephine after the divorce. Her father was a nephew of 
Madame de Genlis. Madame Ducrest married a musical composer, 
M. Bochsa, the then celebrated author of Dansomanie and Noccs de 
Gamache. He afterwards deserted her, and her voice having completely 
failed, she was compelled to write her Memoirs to earn sustenance thereby. 
Of these Memoirs M. Masson has said, 1 that " in the midst of apocryphal 
documents, uncontroverted anecdotes, impossible situations, are yet to be 
found some first-hand personal observations." 

No. I. 1796. 

My first laurel, my love, must be for my country ; my second shall be for 
you. While beating Alvinzi I thought of France; when I had defeated 
him I thought of you. Your son will present to you a standard which 
he received from Colonel Morbach, whom he made prisoner with his own 
hands. Our Eugene, you see, is worthy of his father ; and I trust you 
do not think me an unworthy successor of the great and unfortunate 
general, under whom 1 should have been proud to learn to conquer. I 
embrace you. BONAPARTE. 

No. 2. 1804. 

I have read over your letter, my dear, perhaps for the tenth time, 
and I must confess that the astonishment it caused me has given way only 
to feelings of regret and alarm. You wish to raise up the throne of 
France, and that, not for the purpose of seating upon it those whom the 
Revolution overthrew, but to place yourself upon it. You say, how 
enterprising, how grand and, above all, useful is this design ; but I should 
say, how many obstacles oppose its execution, what sacrifices will its 
accomplishment demand, and when realised, how incalculable will be its 
results ? But let us suppose that your object were already attained, would 
you stop at the foundation of the new empire ? That new creation, being 
opposed by neighbouring states, would stir up war with them and perhaps 
entail their ruin. Their neighbours, in their turn, will not behold it 
without alarm or without endeavouring to gratify their revenge by check- 
ing it. And at home, how much envy and dissatisfaction will arise ; how 

1 Josephine Imptratrict et Reine, Paris, 1899. 


many plots must be put down, how many conspiracies punished ! Kings 
will despise you as an upstart, subjects will hate you as an usurper, and 
your equals will denounce you as a tyrant. None will understand the 
necessity of your elevation ; all will attribute it to ambition or pride. 
You will not want for slaves to crouch beneath your authority until, 
seconded by some more formidable power, they rise up to oppose you ; 
happy will it be if poison or the poignard ! . . . But how can a wife, a 
friend dwell on these dreadful anticipations ! 

This brings my thoughts back to myself, about whom I should care 
but little were my personal interests alone concerned. But will not the 
throne inspire you with the wish to contract new alliances ? Will you 
not seek to support your power by new family connections ? Alas ! what- 
ever those connections may be, will they compensate for those which were 
first knit by corresponding fitness, and which affection promised to per- 
petuate ? My thoughts linger on the picture which fear may I say love, 
traces in the future. Your ambitious project has excited my alarm ; 
console me by the assurance of your moderation. 

No. 3. December 1809. 

My forebodings are realised ! You have just pronounced the word 
which separates us for ever ; the rest is nothing more than mere formality. 
Such, then, is the result, I shall not say of so many sacrifices (they were 
light to me, since they had you for their object), but of an unbounded 
friendship on my part and of the most solemn oaths on yours ! It would 
be a consolation for me if the state which you allege as your motive were 
to repay my sacrifice by justifying your conduct ! But that public con- 
sideration which you urge as the ground for deserting me is a mere 
pretence on your part. Your mistaken ambition has ever been, and will 
continue to be, the guide of all your actions, a guide which has led you 
to conquests and to the assumption of a crown, and is now driving you 
on to disasters and to the brink of a precipice. 

You speak of the necessity of contracting an alliance, of giving an 
heir to your empire, of founding a dynasty ! But with whom are you 
about to form an alliance ? with the natural enemy of France, that artful 
house of Austria, whose detestation of our country has its rise in its 
innate feelings, in its system, in the laws of necessity. Do you believe 
that this hatred, of which she has given us such abundant proof, more 


particularly for the last fifty years, has not been transferred by her from 
the kingdom of France to the French empire ? That the children of 
Maria Theresa, that skilful sovereign, who purchased from Madame de 
Pompadour the fatal treaty of 1756, which you never mention without 
shuddering ; do you imagine, I repeat, that her posterity, when inherit- 
ing her power, has not also inherited her spirit ? I am merely repeating 
what you have so often said to me ; but at that time your ambition was 
satisfied with humbling a power which you now find it convenient to 
restore to its former rank. Believe me, as long as you shall exercise a 
sway over Europe, that power will be submissive to you ; but beware of 
reverses of fortune. 

As to the necessity of an heir, I must speak out, at the risk of appear- 
ing in the character of a mother prejudiced in favour of her son ; ought 
I, in fact, to be silent when I consider the interests of one who is my 
only delight, and upon whom alone you had built all your hopes ? That 
adoption of the I2th of January 1806 was then another political false- 
hood ! Nevertheless the talents, the virtues of my Eugene are no illu- 
sion. How often have you not spoken in his praise ? I may say more ; 
you thought it right to reward him by the gift of a throne, and have 
repeatedly said that he was deserving of greater favours. Well, then ! 
France has frequently re-echoed these praises ; but you are now indif- 
ferent to the wishes of France. 

I say nothing to you at present of the person who is destined to suc- 
ceed me, and you do not expect that I should make any allusion to this 
subject. You might suspect the feelings which dictated my language ; 
nevertheless, you can never doubt of the sincerity of my wishes for your 
happiness ; may it at least afford me some consolation for my sufferings. 
Great indeed will be that happiness if it should ever bear any proportion 
to them ! 

No. 4. 

"... On revisiting this spot, where I passed my youthful days, and 
contrasting the peaceful condition I then enjoyed with the state of terror 
and agitation to which my mind is now a prey, often have I addressed 
myself in these words : ' I have sought death in numberless engagements ; 
I can no longer dread its approach ; I should now hail it as a boon . . . 
nevertheless, I could still wish to see Josephine once more ! ' ' 


No. 5. 


Fontainelleau, l6th April 1814. 

My dear Josephine^ I wrote to you on the 8th instant (it was on a 
Friday). You have perhaps not received my letter; fighting was still 
going on ; it is possible that it may have been stopped on its way. The 
communications must now be re-established. My determination is taken ; 
I have no doubt of this note coming to your hands. 

I do not repeat what I have already told you. I then complained of 
my situation ; I now rejoice at it. My mind and attention are relieved 
from an enormous weight ; my downfall is great, but it is at least said to 
be productive of good. 

In my retreat I intend to substitute the pen for the sword. The 
history of my reign will gratify the cravings of curiosity. Hitherto, I 
have only been seen in profile ; I will now show myself in full to the 
world. What facts have I not to disclose! how many men are incor- 
rectly estimated ! I have heaped favours upon a countless number of 
wretches ; what have they latterly done for me ? 

They have all betrayed me, one and all, save and except the excellent 
Euge'ne, so worthy of you and of me. May he ever enjoy happiness 
under a sovereign fully competent to appreciate the feelings of nature and 
of honour! 

Adieu, my dear Josephine ; follow my example and be resigned. 
Never dismiss from your recollection one who has never forgotten, and 
never will forget you ! Farewell, Josephine. NAPOLEON. 

P. S. I expect to hear from you when I shall have reached the 
island of Elba. I am far from being in good health. 


Excluding NAPOLEON and JOSEPHINE, 'which occur on nearly every page. 

ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph, 49 

Abrantes, Mdme. Junot, Duchesse d', 
190, 199. 229, 230, 231, 242, 247, 
254, 261, 265, 266, 278, 312 

Achilla. (See Murat) 

Agrippina, 312 

Ainger, Canon, 298 

Albufera, Duke of. (See Suchet) 

Aldobrandini, Prince, 149 

Alexander the Great, 185 

Alison, Sir A. (historian), 74, 119, 255, 
264, 272, 286 

Alvinzi, Marshal, 30, 34, 35, 218, 221, 

Amand, Saint, see S. Imbert de (author), 
4, 172, 199, 212, 221, 223, 243, 245, 
251, 256, 257, 267, 269, 302, 304, 
307, 308, 312 

Amelia (daughter of Eugene), 313 

Angouleme, Due d', 190, 196, 197 

Anhalt, Prince of, 270 

Arberg, Mdme. d', 176 

Arch-Chancellor. [Set Cambaceres) 

Argenteau, D', 9 

Arnault (author), 212 

Artois, Comte d', 196, 197 

Aubenas, 172, 200, 201, 216, 225, 226, 
228, 241, 257, 259, 260, 297, 299 

Audenarde, D', 162, 302 

Madame Lalaing, Viscountess d', 

32, 307 
Augereau, Marshal, 24, 38, 57, 70, 90, 

154, 196, 214, 254, 255, 267 
Auguie, Mile. Aglae Louise, 231 
Auguste, Princess of Bavaria (then 

wife of Eugene). (See Beauharnais, 


Augustus, Emperor, 52, 228 

Austria, Emperor of, 186, 197, 218, 223, 


Empress of, 186 

Avrillon, Mile, d', 82, 174, 225, 233, 


BACCIOLI, Eliza (Bonaparte), 63, 122 
Baden, Princess Wilhelmina of, 77, 236, 


Grand Duchess of. (See Beauhar- 
nais, Stephanie) 

Prince of, 242, 243, 245, 270 

Bagration, General, 187, 

Baird, General Sir David, 42, 49, 143 

Bajazet, 272 

Barante, De (Prefect of Geneva), 309, 

Barbier (Napoleon's librarian), 307 

Barras, Count de, 6, 7, 8, 9, 15, 38, 
199, 205, 207, 221, 247, 248 

Bathurst, Benj., 154 

Bausset (Prefect of Imperial Palace), 
267, 269, 273 

Bavaria, Elector, then King of, 77, 
122, 144, 159, 161, 242, 243, 265, 
266, 270, 299 

Electress, then Queen of, 70, 161, 

243, 265 

Prince Royal of, 281 

Bayard, Chevalier, 235, 243 

Beauharnais, Eugene (Viceroy of Italy), 
6, 21, 31, 44, 51, 58, 59, 60, 63, 66, 
68, 78, 106, 121, 140, 143, 144, 145, 
146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 159, 
162, 164, 170, 171, 172, 179, 187, 
188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 




'95) 196, 197, 216, 224, 228, 229, 
234, 242, 243, 244, 254, 256, 264, 
265, 266, 276, 277, 282, 286, 287, 

290, 297, 299, 305, 308, 310, 311, 
312, 313, 318,320, 321 

Beauhatnais, Auguste(wife of Eugene), 
121, 186, 242, 264, 265, 266, 299 
Hortense, 6, 10, II, 12, 31, 44, 
So, 51, 52, 53, 59, 66, 68, 78, 79, 80, 

81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 93, 
in, 112, 113, 127, 137, 140, 144, 
H7, 149, 150, 151, 159, 1 60, 165, 

172, 173, 175, 176, 180, 216, 226, 
227, 228, 229, 231, 235, 237, 244, 
247, 254, 259, 261, 262, 263, 268, 
269, 288, 289, 296, 300, 308, 313, 

Stephanie, 78, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 

89, 242, 243, 244, 254, 271, 295 

Fanny (daughter of Count), 243 

Beaujon (financier), 302 

Beaulieu, General, 6, 7, 10, n, 38, 204, 
205, 208, 209 

Becker, General, 81 

Bellegarde, General, 49, 195, 197 

Bennigsen or Beningsen, General, 90, 
188, 193, 254 

Bentinck, General, 193 

Bentley, 227 

Berg, Napoleon Louis, Grand Duke of, 

82, 137, 144, 147, 148, 150, 172, 

173, 263, 308 

Bernadotte, Marshal, 38, 41, 57, 80, 
81,83, 95, I0 6, "3, 174, 185, 188, 
192 193, 246, 254, 255, 257, 279, 

291, 292 

Desiree (nee Clary), 38, 246, 313 
Berthier, Marshal, 33, 57, 141, 214, 

224, 229, 246, 251, 259, 265, 270, 

280, 292, 302, 303 

Bertrand, General, 259, 287, 288, 290 
Bessieres, Marshal, 57, 106, 128, 136, 

139, 149, 165, 190, 260, 290, 303 
Bignon, Baron (historian), 55, 75, 255, 

258, 262 

Billington, Mistress, 224 
Bingham, Captain D. A., 204, 208, 256 
Blake (Field - Marshal and Spanish 

General), 135, 136, 148, 181 
Blucher, Field-Marshal, 83, 192, 193, 

J 94, ! 95, 2 46. 250, 278, 291 

Bonaparte, Joseph (King of Spain), 21, 
38, 77, 128, 143, 150, 187, 191, 196 

199, 200, 201, 228, 237, 258, 265, 

266, 273, 296, 305 
Louis, 50, 53, 59, 77, 172, 173, 

214, 220, 228, 26l, 263, 268, 269, 
279, 300, 302, 308, 309, 314 

Jerome (King of Westphalia), 117 

118, 160, 161, 242, 261, 270, 301 
Lucien, 228, 229, 230, 247, 253, 
265, 266, 297, 314 

Caroline. (See Murat, Madame) 

Eliza. (See Lucca, Princess of) 

Bonaparte Family, The, 317. (Ap- 
pendix 2) 

Bonpland, Aime, 226 

Borghese, Prince, 99, 115 

Pauline, 99, 303 

Boubers, Countess de, 308 

Bouillet (lexicographer), 74, 248 

Bouillon, Duke of, 304 

Bourbon, Duchesse de, 302 

Bourlier, Bishop of Evreux, 311 

Bourrienne, L. de, 30, 31, 6l, 155, 
226, 228, 229, 230, 237, 239 

Boyer (French general, "Pierre le 
Cruel"), 196 

Brizzi, 89 

Brock, General, 187 

Brotonne, L. de, 190, 238, 260, 310 

Browning, Oscar, 47 

Bruix, Admiral, 232 

Brune, Marshal, 34, 41, 43, 49, 57, 
118, 221 

Brunswick, Duke of, 245 

Brutus, 294 

Bulow, General von, 192, 194, 196 

Burdett-Coutts, Mr., 218 

Burke, Edmund, 38 

Buxhowden, General, 72, 90 

Byron, Lord, 183, 314 

" B " (probably Bourrienne), 60, 



Cadoudal, Georges (Vendean chief and 

conspirator), 57 

Caesar, Julius, 232, 281, 286, 293 
Calder, Sir Robert, 63 
Cambaceres, Arch-Chancellor, 108, 114, 

150, 188, 192, 236, 269, 271, 281, 

3 2 4 


284, 291, 292, 293, 296, 300, 302, 
303, 310 

Campan, Madame, 191, 242 

Caracci, 209 

Carnot (member of the Directory and 
"organiser of victory"). 200, 204, 
205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 217, 223 

Castanos, General, Duke of Baylen, 

Cathcart, Lord, 188 

Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, I, 270, 


Cesarotti, 199 

Chabot, 219 

Chabran, 219 

Chambry, M., 58 

Champagny, De (Due de Cadore), 153, 

262, 270, 271, 292, 298, 302 
Chainpionnet, General, 42 
Charlemagne, 234, 296 
Charles, Archduke, 19, 25, 34, 38, 42, 

46, 66, 68, 143, 144. 145, 149, 242, 

279, 280, 282, 284, 304 
Charles, Prince. (See Charles, Arch- 
Charles XII., 185. (See Sweden, King 


Chauvet, 7, 199, 200 
Chimay, Prince de, 248 
Clarke, General, 196, 210, 221, 291, 

Clary, Desiree. (See Bernadotte, De- 


Coburg, Prince of, 270 
Cockburn, Admiral, 191 
Colburn, 229 
Colombier, Mile, du, 224 
Conches, Baron Feuillet de, 13 
Constant, 229, 230, 232, 233, 236, 254, 

265, 267, 268, 284, 292, 293, 294, 

Corbineau, Constant (one of three 

brothers, known as les trois Horaces), 

98, 99, 256 
Corneille, 241 
Cornelia, 312 
Comwallis, Lord, 41 
Correggio, 205, 209 
Corvisart, Baron, 52, 153, 233, 293, 

305, 315 
Courland, Duchess of, 270 

Crassus, 185 
Cretet, Count, 292 
Cromwell, Oliver, 298 
Czartoriski, Prince, 241 

DAHLMANN, General, 98, 256 
Dantzic, Duke of. (See Lefebvre, 

Darius, 185 

Darmagnac, General, 98 
Darmstadt, Prince of, 270 
Daru, Count, 256, 257 
David, King, 262 
Davidowich, Baron (Austrian General), 

27, 30 
Davoust, Marshal, 44, 57, 69, 80, 81, 

84, 89, 143, 187, 246, 247, 255, 282, 

292, 293 

Decazes, Duke, 269 
Decres, Vice-Admiral, Minister of 

Marine, 225, 254, 256 
Delille, Abbe, 190 
Desaix, General, 14, 41, 42, 44, 46, 


Despinois, General, 215 
Dessalines ("James I."), of Hayti, 60 
Didot, 172 

Dietrich, Mdme. de, 240 
Don Carlos, Infant, 126 
Ducrest, Madame, 311, 317, 318 
Duesberg (botanist), 225 
Dumas, Matthieu, Count (General and 

historian), 255, 257, 258 
Duphot, General, 38 
Dupont, General, 65, 69, 101, 128, 267 
Dupuis, 104, 260 
Dupuy, 219 
Durand, Madame, 301 
Duroc, Marshal, 191, 228, 230, 252, 

270, 275, 291 

EDWARD, the Black Prince, 222 
Elchingen, Duke of. (See Ney, Mar- 

"Eleanore," 252 
Enghien, Due d', 57, 236, 276 
England, King George II. of, 43 

King George III. of, 43, 46, 64, 

70, 218, 223, 238 

Esteve (General Treasurer of the 
Crown), 161 


3 2 5 

Eugene, Prince of Savoy, 286 
Eugenie, Empress, 256 

Hortense, Princess, 277 

Evreux, Count d', 302 

FAIPOULT, Citizen, 204 
Ferdinand, Archduke, 143, 147, 279 
Prince of Asturias (afterwards 

Ferdinand VII.), 118, 123, 125, 126, 

127, 128, 194, 195, 196, 266, 268, 


Fesch, Cardinal, 302 
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 41 
Fontanes, Marquis de, 302 
Fouche (de Nantes, Duke of Otranto), 

236, 259, 261, 262, 274, 275, 276, 

277, 279, 292, 294, 295, 297, 302, 


Fox, C. J., 77 
Foy, General, 191, 196 
Francis II., Emperor of Austria (and 

Germany), 71, 77, 128, 291, 310, 


Franck, Doctor, 289 
Frederick the Great, 67, 249, 283, 286 
Frederick I. (Duke, Elector, and King 

of Wurtemberg), 238 
Frederick William II., 38. (See Prussia, 

King of) 
Frederick William III., 38. (See 

Prussia, King of) 
Friand, General, 185 
Fulton, Robert, 235 

GAUDIN, Duke of Gaeta, 292 

Genlis, Mdme. de, 318 

George II. (See England, King of) 

George III. (See England, King of) 

Georges. (See Cadoudal) 

Germany, Emperor of. (See Austria, 
Emperor of) 

Gillray, James, 248 

Giraudin, Stanislaus, 261 

Godoy, Don Manuel, Prince of the 
Peace. 77, 123, 125 

Goethe, J. W. Von, 177, 270 

Gohier, Louis (member of the Direc- 
tory), 43 

Graham, Colonel, 35, 192, 214, 215 

Gros, Baron (artist), 220, 221 

Guesclin, Bertrand du, 235 

HAMILTON, Lady, 249 

Harpe, General La. (See Laharpe, 


Harville, M. d', 70 
Hatzfeld, Princess d', 83, 249 
Haugwitz, Count von, 71 
Hautpoult, General, 255 
Haydn, Joseph, 74, 90 
Heath, Baron, 60 
Hedouville, General, 42, 92 
Henri IV., 296 
Killer, General, 282, 284 
Hoche, General Lazare, 34, 38, 209, 


Hofer, Andreas, 146 
Hohenlohe, Prince, 81 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Prince of, 

Holland, King of. (See Bonaparte 

Queen of. (See Beauharnais, 

Homer, 199 
Hood, Robin, 39 
Humbert, General, 41 
Humboldt, Baron von, 226 
Hume, Martin, 267 
Hutchinson, General, 49 

JACQUIN, Von (Austrian botanist), 225 
Jahn, F. L. (German patriot), 278 
Jeanne of France (Queen of Navarre), 


Jellachich, General, 70, 145 
Joan of Arc, 294 
John, Archduke, 144, 147, 287, 290, 


King of France, 222 

Johnson, Dr., vi., 208 

Jomini, Baron (Swiss strategist), 192, 

194, 204, 206, 211, 213, 214, 218 
Joseph. (See Bonaparte, Joseph) 
Josephine Maximilienne Auguste, 106 
Joubert, General, 34, 35, 42, 43, 219, 

Jouberthon, Madame (wife of Lucien), 

Jourdan, Marshal, II, 20, 25,42, 57, 

191, 217 

Julian, Emperor, 185 
Julien, Mile., 153 



Jung, Thomas (or lung), 228, 230, 251 

Junot (Due d'Abrantes), 9, 10, 42, 118, 

128, 200, 212, 230, 231, 241, 261 

KALKREUTH, Count (Russian P'ield- 

Marshal), 79 
Kaunitz, Prince, 71 
Keith, Lord, 46 
Kellerman, Marshal (Duke ofValmy), 

19, 57, 205, 206, 207, 209, 210, 214, 


Kellermann, General, 46 
Kilmaine, General, 19, 27, 215, 220 
King. (See Bonaparte, Joseph), 136 
Kipling, R., 129 
Kleber, General, 19, 20, 42, 43, 46, 


Klein, General, 20 
Kleist, 192 

Kourakin, Alexander, 138, 274 
Kray, Baron von (Austrian General), 

42, 43, 44, 46 
Kutusoff, General ( Prince of Smolensk), 

i 88, 189 

LABEDOYERE, Madame, 231 

La Bruyere, 20 

Lacepede, Count de, 189, 296 

La Fontaine, 316 

Lagrange (mathematician), 190 

La Grassini, 223, 224, 228 

Laharpe, General, 10, 200, 210 

Lannes, Marshal (Duke of Montebello), 

9, 45, 46, 57, 68, 69, 78, 80, 90, 136, 

143, 145, 147, 219, 275, 289, 290, 


Lanusse, General Fra^ois, 219 
Larevelliere-Lepeaux (Member of the 

Directory), 38,43, 217 
Larochefoucauld, Mdme. de, 234, 250 
La Romana( Spanish General), 136, 138 
Las.ille, General, 149, 291 
Las Cases, Count de, 117, 207, 224, 

229, 232, 259 

Latouche-Treville, Admiral, 235 
Latour, Von, Count (Austrian General), 


Laudon (Austrian General), 65 
Lauriston, General, 147, 192, 193, 229, 

256, 270 

Lavalette, Count de, 220, 221, 276 

Madame, 226, 227, 231 

Lebrun (statesman, Duke of Placentia), 

71. 3 2 

(the poet), 243 

Leclerc, General, 50 
Lecombe, General, 43 
Lefebvre-Desnouettes, General, 139, 

Lefebvre, Marshal, 57, in, 112, 135, 

Lejeune, Baron, 240, 252, 254, 257, 

274, 275, 281, 282, 283, 303, 304 
Lemarois, General, 67, 239, 256 
" Leon," 252 
Lestocq, General, 255 
Letourneur (Member of the Directory), 

198, 201 
Leyen, Amelie de la, 305 

Princess de la, 171, 308 

Liverpool, Lord, 186 

Livia (wife of Augustus), 228 

Louis, Archduke, 143 

Louis XI., 52 

Louis XII., 296 

Louis XV., 267 

Louis XVI., 230 

Louis XVIII. (See Angouleme, Due d') 

Lucca, Eliza Bonaparte, Princess of, 


Lynedoch, Lord. (See Graham, Col.) 
L , Mdme. (See Larochefoucauld, 

Mdme. de) 

MACDONALD, Marshal, 41, 42, 145, 
147, 150, 192, 196, 287, 292 

Mack, General, 41, 64, 66, 239, 246 

Macpherson, James, 199 

Madison, President, 143, 190 

Maelzel, Leonard (German mechanic), 

Mahmoud IV., 128, 136 

Mahomet, 52 

Makau, Madame de, 175, 176, 307, 


Malet, General, 188, 189 
" Maman " (Madame Mere, mother of 

Napoleon), 45, 50, 224, 227 
Marbot, Baron, 187, 267, 274, 275, 283, 

284, 288, 290, 291 



Marchesi (artiste), 224 

Marescalchi, 303 

Marest, M. de, 213 

Maret (Due de Bassano), 57, 67, 187, 
189, 270, 271, 292, 302, 304 

Marie Antoinette, 230, 249 

Marie Louise, 157, 164, 165, 167, 172, 
174, 175, 176, 177, 197, 271,296, 298, 
301, 302, 304, 306, 310, 312, 314, 315 

Marie Therese, 284, 285, 320 

Marie Victoire, Infanta, 267 

Marmont, Marshal, 69, 150, 187, 196, 

197, 198, 207, 210, 211, 222, 248, 
292, 315 

Masaniello, 52 

Massena, Marshal (Duke of Rivoli), 
24, 28, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 44, 46, 57, 
66, 68, 69, 71, 77, 144, 174, 180, 200, 
205, 213, 215, 220, 221, 223, 238, 
282, 290, 292 

Masson, M. Frederic, 61, 224, 239, 242, 
247, 250, 252, 296, 297, 303, 305, 
307, 309, 3i 2 , 313. 317, 3i8 

Maximilian, Archduke, 285 

Meerfeldt or Meerveldt, Count von, 69, 


Melas, General, 43, 46, 224 
Melito, Count Miot de, 246 
Melville, Lord, 277 
Menage, Gilles (scholar), 213 
Menard, 219 
Meneval, Baron de, 229, 232, 237, 239, 

244, 246, 254, 255, 26.4, 283, 289, 

295, 296, 297 

Menou, General Baron de, 49 
Merlin (member of the Directory), 43 
Metternich, Prince, 153, 275 

Madame de, 300 

Michael Angelo, 205 

Michaud, L. G., 162, 231, 264, 277 

Michelet, Jules (historian), 212 

Michot (actor), 229 

Miollis, Adjutant-General, 24 

Modena, Duke of, 1 1 

Moltke, Von, 271 

Moncey, Marshal, 57 

Monclas, 26 

Monnier, General J. C., 43 

Montaigne, Michel de, 315 

Montebello, Duke of. (See Lannes, 


Montebello, Duchess of (La Marechale 

Lannes), 145, 147, 289 
Montesquiou, Madame de, 175 
Montgaillard, 1'Abbe de (historian), 

38, 42, 43, 52, 66, 90, 128, 137, 144, 

162, 185, 191, 193, 286 
Montholon, Count de, 255 
Moore, Sir John, 143, 273, 275, 277 
Morbach, Colonel, 318 
Moreau, General, 14, 19, 20, 25, 29, 

30, 38, 43. 44, 46, 57, '88, 192, 205, 

217, 223, 279 
Mortier, Marshal, 57, 69, 84, 153, 179, 

1 88, 196, 224 
Moscati, 36, 37 

Moulin, General (member of the Direc- 
tory), 43 

Mourad Bey, 41, 42 

Moustache, 44, 114, 115, 140 

Miiller (Swiss historian), 270 

Murat, King of Naples, 9, 16, 22, 23, 
45. 46, 57, 64, 66, 69, 79, 81, 83, 
86, 97, 99, 125, 127, 128, 148, 188, 

189, 190, 194, 195, 211, 212, 219, 
224, 235, 240, 254, 265, 269, 270, 

276, 287, 298, 302, 303 

Madame Caroline, Queen of 

Naples, 99, 158, 190, 235, 252, 254, 
261, 290, 298 

Mustapha IV., 112 

" M ," 45. (See " Maman ") 

NAPIER, Sir William, 123, 141, 275 

277, 278 

Naples, King of. (See Bonaparte, 

Napoleon Charles Bonaparte (eldest 
son of Hortense), 53, 79, 80, 81, 82, 
84, 89, 93, no, 137, 228, 247 

Napoleon Louis (second son of Hor- 
tense). (See Berg, Grand Duke of) 

Napoleons ("the two"), sons of Hor- 
tense and Louis, 68, 79, 80, 84, 86, 
90, '5i, 174 

Napoleon III. (Charles Louis Napo- 
leon, third son of Hortense), 127, 
238, 269, 303, 307 

Nassau, Prince of, 270 

Necker, M., 224 

Nelson, Lord, 41, 49 

Nero, Emperor, 236 


Ney, Marshal (Prince of the Moskowa), 
20, 52, 53, 57, 64, 65, 69, 83, 88, 
90, 173, 187, 188, 189, 192, 231, 
239, 255 

, Madame, 231, 304 

Nicolas, Sir Harris (historian), 74 

O'DONNELL (Spanish General), 181 

O'Meara, Dr., 272 

Oscar, Prince (son of Bernadotte), 106 

Ossian, 4, 199 

Oudet, General, 279 

Oudinot, Marshal, Duke of Reggio, 

143, 150, 187, 189, 192, 196, 270, 

Ouvrard (financier), 248 

PAER, Ferdinando (msuical composer), 

89, 91, 242 
Paget, Lord, 293 
Palafox y Melzi, Duke of Saragossa, 


Palatine, The Archduke (Joseph- 

Antoine of Hungary), 148 
Palmerston, Lord, 272 
Paoli, General de, 209 
Parma, Grand Duke of, II, 204 
Pasquier, E. D., Duke, 162, 253, 268, 

270, 276, 281 
Paterson, Miss (repudiated wife of 

Jerome Bonaparte), 301 
Paul, Princess, 70 
Paul I. (See Russia, Czar of) 
Pauline. (See Borghese, Princess) 
Pavon, 226 
Pelet, General and Baron,279, 280, 282, 

283, 284, 290 
Perceval, Spencer (British Premier), 


Perignon, Marshal, 57 
Perigord, Edmond de, 270 
Permon, Madame (mother of Madame 

D'Abrantes), 230 

Philip Augustus, King of France, 296 
Philippon, General, 185 
Pichegm, General, 57 
Pignatelli, Prince of Strongoli, and 

Minister of Ferdinand, King of 

Naples, 21 
Pijon, General, 219 
Pitt, William, 77 

Pius VI., Pope, 14, 37, 41, 43, 195, 

206, 210, 211, 2l8, 222 

Pius VII., Pope, 49, 52, 60, 148, 186, 

189, 190, 225, 237, 300, 301 
Pompadour, Madame de, 302, 320 
Poniatowski, Prince, and Marshal of 

France, 193 
Portugal, Prince Regent of, 125 

Queen of, 125 

Pradt, Abbe de, 277 

Primate, The Prince, 270 

Prince Regent, 226. (See George IV.) 

Princess, 121. (See Beauharnais, Au- 


Provera (Austrian General), 34, 35 
Prussia, Frederick William II., King 

of, 38 
Frederick William III., King of, 

38, 64, 67, 78, 79, 114, 116, 143, 

191. 197, 236, 240, 245, 249, 270, 

271, 315 
Louise, Queen of, 79, 116, 117, 

143, 245, 248, 249 

Prince Louis of, 78 

Prince William of, 270 

P , Madame de, 106 

QUESDONOWICH (Austrian General), 24 

RACINE, 241 

Rampon, Colonel, 9, 219 

Raphael, 209 

Rapp, Count, 194, 226, 227, 285, 294, 


Raynouard (author), 241 
Redcliffe, Stratford de, 186 
Regnauld, Count (State Secretary of 

the Imperial Court), 296 
Remusat, Madame de, 222, 237, 239, 

298, 301, 307, 308, 310, 311 
Renard, Madame Chateau, 6, 8, 10 
Renaudin, Madame de, 216 
Rewbell (member of the Directory), 38 
Reynier, General, 77, 193, 292 
Rheims, Mayoress of, 233 
Richard Cosur de Lion, 284 
Richmond, Madame, 99 
Rivoli, Due de, 35. (See Massena) 
Rochefoucauld. (Ste Larochefoucauld, 

Mdme. de) 


3 2 9 

Roger-Ducos (member of the Direc- 
tory), 43 

Rollo the Sea King, 304 

Rome, King of (Napoleon II.), 
"1'Aiglon," 179, 268, 311, 313 

Rosebery, Lord, 234, 276, 315 

Rose, J. H., 214, 215 

Rostopchin, Count and General, 188 

Ruiz, 226 

Russia, Alexander I., Emperor of, 67, 
71, 115, 116, 131, 132, 143, 179, 
185, 188, 190, 191, 197, 241, 243, 
249, 264, 269, 270, 271, 272, 303 

Catherine II., Czarina of, 30 

Paul I., Czar of, 49 

SACKEN, General, 195, 196 

Saint Amand, Imbert de, 4, 172, 199, 

212, 221, 223, 243, 245, 251, 256, 

257, 267, 269, 302, 304, 307, 308, 

Saint Cyr, Gouvion, Marquis and 

Marshal, 20, 43, 187, 188, 193 
Saint-Hilaire, General, 219 
Saliceti, C., 213 
Sardinia, King of, 205 
Sarrazin, General, 133 
Sauret, General, 24, 213, 215 
Savary (Due de Rovigo), 99, 108, 125, 

158, 165, 239, 241, 246, 251, 258, 

271, 272, 274, 276, 277, 292, 294, 


Saxe-Hildburghausen, Princess of, 238 
Saxony, Elector, then King of, 89, 117, 

Saxe- Weimar, Prince of, 270, 271 

Princess of, 270 

Scherer, General (French), 42, 198 
Schwartzenberg, Marshal, 192, 193, 

194, 300, 303, 308 
Scott, Sir Walter, 208, 222, 277 
Sebastiani, General, 272 
Segur, General Count, 241 
Selim III., 112 
Serbelloni, M., 216 
Serent, Madame de, 70 
Serrurier, Marshal, 25, 57, 215 
Sevigne, Madame de, 260 
Shakespeare, 249 
Sieyes, Abbe and Count (member of 

the Directory), 42 

Smith, Sir Sydney, 60 

Soult, Marshal, Duke of Dalmatia, 
57, 65, 79, 83, 113, 114, 136, 139, 
143, 145, 150, 151, 164, 179, 191, 
192, 193, 194, 196, 197, 229, 270, 
275, 278, 292 

Spain, Charles II. of, and his Queen, 267 

Charles IV., King of, 112, 118, 

123, 125, 126, 127, 228 

Queen of (mother of Ferdinand 

VII.), 118, 126, 127, 268 

Queen of (wife of Joseph), 313 

Stabs, 294 

Stadion, Count von (Austrian diplo- 
matist), 278 

Stael, Madame de, Holstein, 310 

Stein, Baron Von, 278 

Stephanie. (See Beauharnais) 

Stevenson, R. L., 298 

Stuart, Marie, 249 

Suchet, Marshal (Duke of Albufera), 
148, 170, 180, 181, 185, 186, 191, 
192, 193 

Sullivan, Sir A., 249 

Sussi, 6 

Suwarrow, Marshal, 42, 43 

Sweden, Charles XII., King of, 185 
Charles XIII., King of, 147 

Gustavus Adolphus IV., King of, 

143- 243 

52, 67, 68, 79, 81, 121, 197, 225, 233, 
236, 237, 238, 240, 242, 245, 246, 
260, 268, 270, 271, 272, 275, 276, 
277, 279,300,302,303 314 

Tallien, " Thermidorian," 7, 237, 247, 

Madame (Princesse de Chimay), 

6, 7, 8, 15, 82, 198, 247, 248 
Talma, 270 
Tamerlane, 272 
Tascher, Louis, 98, 114, 137, 171, 256, 


Henri, 305 

Tasso, 245 

Tennant, Charles, 13,45 

Thiard, M. de, 106, 243, 260 

Thibaut, M., 225 

Thiers, M. (statesman), 265, 273, 275, 

296, 302 




Tolly, Barclay de, 187, 188 

Tolstoi, Cqunt, 274 

Tone, Wolfe, 41 

Tour and Taxis, Princess of, 270, 278 

Toussaint-Louverture, 49, 50, 53 

Treilhard, Count (member of the Di- 
rectory), 43 

Tremoille, Princess de la, 309, 310 

Treves, Elector of, 65 

Tschitchagow, Admiral, 1 88 

Turenne, M. de, 116 

Marshal, 286 

Tuscany, Grand Duke of, 216 

T , Madame, 24. (Probably Madame 


T , Madame de la, 175. (See Tre- 

T , 60. (Probably Talleyrand) 

T , 96. (Probably Tallien) 

T , de, 106. (See Thiard, M. de) 

T , 237. (See Tallien) 

VALERIAN, Emperor, 185 

Vandamme, General, 86, 92, 192 

Van Dyck, 209 

Varin, Regnault, 317 

Vaubois, General, 16, 27, 30, 31, 46, 


Verhuell, Admiral, 269 
Veronese, Paul, 209 
Victoire, Marie, 267. (See Marie) 
Victor, Marshal, 35, 136, 143, 150, 


Villars, Marshal, 43 
Villeneuve, Admiral, 63 
Vincent, General, 270 
Virgil, 21, 212 

WALEWSKI, Marie, 250, 252, 253, 293 
Washington, George, 43, 223 
Wattier, General, 176 
Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 

128, 145, 150, 174, 176, 180, 185, 

186, 187, 188. 192, 193, 196, 197, 

278, 290, 291, 292 
Westphalia, King of. (See Bonaparte, 


Wieland, C. M., 270 
Wilhelmina, Princess, 236. (See Baden, 

Princess of) 
William I., Emperor of Germany, 245, 

Windham, \Villiam (British Secretary at 

War), 213 
Wittgenstein, General and Count, 187, 

188, 192 

Woodward (and Gates), 74 
Wrede, Marshal (Bavarian Marshal), 


Wurmser, Marshal, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 
32, 35, 38, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 

2l8, 219, 221, 222, 224 

Wurtemberg, Duke of, 64, 68, 77 

Electress of, 64, 70, 238 

King of, 242, 270, 295 

Prince Royal of, 196 

Wiirzburg, Grand Duke of, 78, 244 

Xerxes, 281 

YORK, Duke of, 43 

General von, 189, 195 

ZINGARELLI, N. (musician), 242 


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